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1.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(3): 825-827, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495848

ABSTRACT

Despite recent breakthroughs in the detection and treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, mucormycosis is a serious infection with a high death rate. It is a filamentous fungal infection from the zygomycetes class of order mucorales. It is a fatal fungal infection with a 50% or higher overall fatality rate. Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by mucor, which is a mold that can be found in soil, rotting fruits, and vegetables. It can primarily affect the brain, lungs, and sinuses. It is very much fatal in patients with diabetes or who are highly immunocompromised such as patients with cancer. In addition to more than 50% mortality rate, surgical intervention may require necrotic tissue removal, which leads to severely disfiguring surgery.

2.
Future Microbiol ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510477

ABSTRACT

During the past few months, mucormycosis has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to test nucleotide-based inhibitors against the RdRps of SARS-CoV-2 solved structure and Rhizopus oryzae RdRp model built in silico. The results reveal a comparable binding affinity of sofosbuvir, galidesivir, ribavirin and remdesivir compared with the physiological nucleotide triphosphates against R. oryzae RdRp as well as the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as reported before. Additionally, other compounds such as setrobuvir, YAK, IDX-184 and modified GTP compounds 2, 3 and 4 show potential calculated average binding affinities against R. oryzae RdRp. The present in silico study suggests the dual inhibition potential of the recommended drugs and compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and R. oryzae RdRps.

3.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 37: 101655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35494551

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a rare, potentially life-threatening disease that is growing during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study reports a case of an 11-year-old patient with fatal Covid-19-related pulmonary mucormicosis and diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis. The diagnosis was set post mortem. It was based on histochemical detection of the causative agent. Massive hemoptysis due to erosion of a large pulmonary vessel caused mechanical asphyxia and lethal outcome. Pulmonary mucormycosis may be highly suspected in patients with long-term Covid-19, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis, and corticosteroid therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment with Amphotericin B are potentially curative options for this invasive fungal infection and can led to better outcome.

4.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(4): 1532-1535, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516676

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by members of Mucorales and zygomycotic species. These are saprophytes known as Mucormycotina that grow from rotten matter or soils during the decomposition of soil. It has been seen affecting many COVID-19-affected patients recently in India. Mucormycosis can be diagnosed in six different sites depending on the immunological status and the site of the body affected. The six manifestations are rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system or disseminated forms. Here, we present a dental case of mucormycosis or black fungus disease that has affected an immune-compromised patient who had suffered from COVID-19 2 months ago. Surgical debridement was done and the histopathologic study revealed fungal hyphae. Systemic antifungal therapy was administered that helped the patient to recover in 7-week time.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(4): 1568-1572, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516677

ABSTRACT

When the world is still struggling to fight the Coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, an epidemic of mucormycosis following the COVID-19 infection is increasing in India. Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection with a high mortality rate. Is this increase due to the rampant usage of corticosteroids, some immune dysfunction in COVID-19, uncontrolled blood sugar, increased ferritin, use of industrial oxygen, use of unsterile mask, or use of unsterile water as a humidifier in oxygen delivery systems? This remains a question. In this case series, we present five cases of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis which followed after the COVID-19 infection in these patients. We have included patients' clinical, laboratory, and radiological data in this case series and reviewed the literature.

7.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538800

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of opportunistic secondary infections through invasive fungi has been observed to be 14.5% to 27% in the SARS CoV pandemic during the year 2003. But, the incidence of SARS CoV-2 is accompanied by the substantial rise in secondary opportunistic infections like mucormycosis (black fungus) mainly in the immunocompromised individuals, and diabetic patients taking steroids. Substantial rates of COVID-19 cases with mucormycosis were reported in India and other parts of the world. Previous research reports delineated the ability of Mucorales in invading the various tissues like lungs, brain, sinus through the GRP78 and subsequently this infection could invoke crusting, edema, and necrosis of brain parenchyma, ptosis, proptosis, and vision loss due to intraorbital & intracranial complications. Similarities of these pathophysiological complications with already existing diseases are causing clinicians to face several challenges in order to diagnose and treat this disease effectively at the early stage. This minireview depicts the mucormycosis-induced immune, and pathophysiological alterations in COVID-19 patients comorbid with diabetes, immunosuppression, and also reported the various clinical manifestations, and the therapeutic modalities and the failures of anti-fungal vaccines. Therefore, the emerging mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients need a rapid investigation and selective optimization of the effective therapeutic modalities including antifungal vaccines to minimize mortality rate.

8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1522-1532, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502017

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To perform a comprehensive analysis of COVID-19 publications published in the Indian Journal of Ophthalmology (IJO) during the two years of the pandemic and to study their impact on ophthalmic literature. Methods: : A retrospective analysis was performed of all expedited COVID-19 articles published in IJO from April 2020 to March 2022. The data was obtained from the official website of IJO, editor IJO monthly emails, and PubMed database. The data was then extracted as XML into Microsoft Access for scientometric analysis. The expedited articles were segregated into different categories: original, review, case report/series, letter to the editor, commentary, current ophthalmology, consensus criteria, perspective, innovations, ophthalmic images, photoessays, research methodology, and surgical techniques. The monthly data was analyzed and COVID-19 articles were assessed for subspecialty-wise distribution, number of citations, monthly growth rate, and their impact on ophthalmic literature. Results: A total of 431 COVID-19 related articles were published during the study period. The majority of the articles were letters to the editor (158, 36.65%) followed by original articles (97, 22.50%), and commentaries (53, 12.29%). The least were perspectives and ophthalmic images (2, 0.46%) each followed by consensus criteria (1, 0.23%). The maximum publications came in July 2020 (44, 10.20%) followed by December 2021 (37, 8.58%) and October 2021 (36, 8.35%), and the least were in April 2020 (1, 0.23%). Considering subspecialty, a majority of the articles were related to general ophthalmology (156, 36.19%), and the least was in oncology (2, 0.46%). The maximum number of citations were attracted by original articles (97, 1146 (11.81)), which were approximately 1.5 times higher than the letters to the editor (158, 743 (4.70)) and 3 times higher than review articles (9, 387 (43)). Among specialties, the maximum number of citations were gathered by general ophthalmology (156, 1320 (8.46)) followed by oculoplasty (36, 592 (16.44)) due to the concurrent mucormycosis epidemic. Conclusion: : IJO opened a window of opportunity for authors by publishing quality expedited articles. Evidence-based orbital mucormycosis and general ophthalmology publications gathered most of the attention due to their heterogeneous presentation. The peak of the first wave (June-July 2020) and the October and December 2021 issues had maximum number of COVID-19 articles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Ophthalmology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1773-1779, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502071

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) was a serious public health problem during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. We planned to analyze public perceptions by sentiment analysis of Twitter data regarding CAM. Methods: In this observational study, the application programming interface (API) provided by the Twitter platform was used for extracting real-time conversations by using keywords related to mucormycosis (colloquially known as "black fungus"), from May 3 to August 29, 2021. Lexicon-based sentiment analysis of the tweets was done using the Vader sentiment analysis tool. To identify the overall sentiment of a user on any given topic, an algorithm to label a user "k" based on their sentiments was used. Results: A total of 4,01,037 tweets were collected between May 3 and August 29, 2021, and the peak frequency of 1,60,000 tweets was observed from May 17 to May 23, 2021. Positive sentiment tweets constituted a larger share as compared to negative sentiment tweets, with weekly variations. A temporal analysis of the demand for utilities showed that the demand was high in the initial period but decreased with time, which was associated with the availability of resources. Conclusion: Sentiment analysis using Twitter data revealed that social media platforms are gaining popularity to express one's emotions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In our study, time-based assessment of tweets showed a reduction over time in the frequency of negative sentiment tweets. The polarization in the retweet network of users, based on sentiment polarity, showed that the users were well connected, highlighting the fact that such issues bond our society rather than segregating it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1822-1824, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502084

ABSTRACT

The storm of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has not yet settled, and it has proven itself a disfiguring and potentially life-threatening disease, complicating the course of COVID-19 infection. Mucormycosis is a rare but devastating fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi of the family Mucoraceae. We report a rare case of a 37-year-old diabetic male with bilateral rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) where it leads to bilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) as manifestation of the disease. Bilateral CRAO secondary to ROCM is extremely rare. A strong suspicion of CAM in uncontrolled diabetics can result in early diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Adult , Blindness/diagnosis , Blindness/etiology , Eye Diseases/complications , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/complications
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(4): 1244-1249, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516689

ABSTRACT

Background: There is sharp rise in cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis worldwide and specially during second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. This systemic review was conducted to characterize pulmonary mucormycosis associated with COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic database of PubMed and Google Scholar from 1st January 2020 to June 5, 2021 using keywords. Details of all the cases that reported pulmonary mucormycosis in people with COVID-19 so far, were retrieved and analyzed. Result: Total 9 articles of pulmonary mucormycosis with COVID-19 infection were reported in the database of PubMed and Google Scholar. Only one case till date was reported from India, others are from USA (n-3), Italy (n-2), France (n-1), UK (n-1), and Arizona (n-1). Pooled data from this study showed mucormycosis was predominantly seen in males (8 male, 1 female). The most common comorbidities associated were diabetes (n-3), hematological malignancy, (n-2) and end-stage renal disease (n-2), while 2 cases did not show any associated comorbidity. All the cases were having severe COVID-19 infection and 7 out of 9 patients were in ICU and on mechanical ventilation at the time of diagnosis. None of the cases associated with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) except 1 patient with sinus involvement. Mortality was found in 7 out of 9 patients. Conclusion: There is a need to keep a high index of suspicion in patients with severe COVID-19 infections, diabetic, and received treatment in ICU with ventilator support for early diagnosis and treatment. Although Mucor is less common than Aspergillus infection, it is associated with higher mortality.

12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(4): 1539-1541, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35516697

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis represents a group of life-threatening infections caused by fungi of the order mucorales of subphylum mucormycotina. Due to high vascularity, the maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection, which mainly infects immune-compromised patients. Due to the inhalation of fungal spores, the infection may begin in the nose and paranasal sinuses. Necrosis of hard and soft tissues is due to thrombosis of arteries, which is caused by the inhalation of fungal spores. We report a case of maxillary necrosis by mucormycosis in a COVID-19-recovered patient to emphasize the early diagnosis of this potentially fatal fungal infection. We reviewed the current concepts in the management of mucormycosis and different diseases that can lead to maxillary necrosis. The mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection can be successfully reduced by early diagnosis and quick treatment by the general primary care provider, family physicians, and dentists.

13.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(3): 395-398, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519907

ABSTRACT

Secondary infections in coronavirus disease (COVID) are becoming common. We report a case of a female known case of diabetes, sarcoidosis on steroids and methotrexate admitted with COVID pneumonia. She was treated with steroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulants and was discharged. She revisited the hospital after 2 months with complaints of severe right-sided headache, eye pain, and vomiting. Magentic resonance image of brain and paranasal sinus revealed possibility of invasive rhinosinus mucormycosis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) was done and culture showed growth of mucor and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) following which she was started on amphotericin B and antibiotics. She also developed methotrexate and amphotericin B-induced pancytopenia for which injection folinic acid, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and erythropoietin were given and was switched over to liposomal amphotericin B. After 5 days of ventilatory support, she was discharged in a stable condition. Extensive steroids in an immunocompromised patient might have led to this event hence physicians should always keep this possibility of secondary fungal infection in COVID patients for understanding the impact of disease. How to cite this article: Mahajan A, Tandon VS. Rhinosinus Mucormycosis with Drug-induced Pancytopenia in an Immunocompromised Severe COVID-19 Patient: A Success. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(3):395-398.

14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A surge in COVID-19 associated mucormycosis cases has been observed during the second COVID-19 wave, in summer 2021. The majority of cases were reported from India. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most common variant circulating at that time. Mucormycosis is an angio-invasive fungal opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present 10 cases of COVID-19 associated Rhino-orbital and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis managed in a secondary hospital in Oman. The median time for developing mucormycosis was two weeks from the COVID-19 diagnosis. All patients were known or newly diagnosed with to have poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Five patients received corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19. Three patients had severe COVID-19 infection and died due to severe ARDS and septic shock. Another three patients died with advanced mucormycosis and cerebral involvement. Despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention, the mortality rate was 60% (6/10). CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is an aggressive opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality that requires prompt recognition and urgent intervention. Uncontrolled blood sugar, the use of corticosteroids and immune dysfunction due to COVID-19 patients and uncontrolled blood sugar, all are important risk factors for development of mucormycosis. Worse outcomes are associated with poor glycemic control despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions.

15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal disease and was known to affect only immunocompromised hosts, but in the COVID 19 pandemic, a surge in the cases of Rhino- Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis have been reported, and the cause still unknown. As the disease was a rare entity there was no classification considering the sprerad and proper management at various stages of spread. METHOD: Extensive literature search with the terms " Mucormycosis", "Invasive Fungal Sinusitis" and "COVID 19 associated Mucormycosis", "Mucormycosis in COVID" was made on Pubmed, Scopus and Embase database, taking into consideration case histories revealing the site of involvement and treatment according to the extension of the disease. RESULTS: Relevant articles were analysed and it was found that there is no specific classification of the disease entity and proper surgical and medical management guidelines to date and the disease spread followed a pattern related to the first site of involvement and few reports also suggested skip lesions. CONCLUSION: This review is an attempt through which, we elaborate the pathophysiology of Mucormycosis and its spread and propose a classification which will be helpful in determining policies for control and prevent complications, morbidity, and mortality.

16.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82(2): 304-307, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417397

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus disease presents variable severity. Recently, an increasing report of cases of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) has been observed, mainly in patients with diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis or under steroids treatment. The highest number of cases have been reported in India, with a prevalence of 0.27 % in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during year 2020, which implies a 2.1-fold increase in the prevalence of mucormycosis compared to year 2019. Although corticosteroids treatment reduces mortality in patients with severe COVID-19, its prolonged use, in combination with other clinical and immunological factors, could increase the risk of invasive fungal infection. We report a case of CAM in Argentina. This report represents a warning for considering the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection in patients with severe COVID-19.


La enfermedad COVID-19 provocada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 presenta una gravedad variable. Recientemente se ha observado un aumento en el número de casos informados de mucormicosis asociada a COVID-19 (CAM), principalmente en personas con diabetes mellitus, cetoacidosis diabética o en tratamiento con esteroides. El mayor número de casos ha sido notificado en India, en donde la prevalencia de CAM en pacientes hospitalizados en el año 2020 fue de 0.27%, lo que implica un aumento en la prevalencia de mucormicosis de 2.1 veces respecto del año 2019. Si bien el tratamiento con corticoides reduce la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 grave, su uso prolongado, en combinación con otros factores clínicos e inmunológicos, puede aumentar el riesgo de infección fúngica invasiva. Comunicamos un caso de CAM en Argentina. El presente informe representa una alerta para fundar sospecha de infección fúngica invasiva en pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mucormycosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(2): 11-12, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436818

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease associated mucormycosis (CAM), perturbed a lot by reaching to epidemic proportions particularly during the second wave of the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19-associated mucomycosis admitted in April-May 2021 at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Demographic profile, clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded Multidisciplinary treatment including antifungals and surgical interventions were noted. RESULTS: This study included 98patients of mucormycosis, diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiological findings and later were confirmed by microbiological investigations. Out of 98 patients, 72 had rhino orbital, 24 had rhino-orbitalcerebral and 2 had pulmonary mucormycosis. Twelve had coinfection of covid 19 while 86 had developed mucormycosis within 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: CAM has posed as a continuum of challenges faced during the pandemic of covid 19. This rare and life threatening complication requires high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. Multidisciplinary involvement and timely interventions including antifungal pharmacotherapy, stringent glycemic control and surgical debridement can reduce the mortality. Mucormycosis is uniformly associated with low iron levels but role of zinc needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Iron , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361668

ABSTRACT

We aim to highlight the role of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B (TRAMB) in cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis. With the COVID-19 pandemic a rapid surge in the number of cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis has been noted. The gold standard treatment for the progressive orbital disease is exenteration; however, organ salvage should be attempted, when possible. Here comes the role of TRAMB injection. We present a case of a man in his 70s, a known diabetic, who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia but developed left-sided axial proptosis with orbital apex syndrome and ophthalmic artery occlusion secondary to rhino-orbital mucormycosis. The patient underwent debridement of paranasal sinuses and received intravenous liposomal amphotericin-B and three TRAMB injections. After three TRAMB injections significant improvement in extraocular movements, proptosis and ptosis was noted. An early intervention in orbital disease can avert a more radical procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pandemics
20.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443380

ABSTRACT

To find the association between CAM and diabetes and correlate the severity of glycemic status,and clinical features and morbidity associated with them. MATERIAL: This descriptive study was conducted at a COVID Ward in govt kilpauk med college from Apr 10, 2021 to Aug 1 0, 2021. All laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases by RTPCR (Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerse Chain Reaction) nasopharyngeal & throat swab were admitted at this centre. Severe COVID-19 infection was defined bySp02<90%orRespiratory rate >30/min at admi during hospital stay. Post COVID 19 cases were defined who had either clinical recovery from respiratory symptoms or had passed 28 days since the onset of symptoms of COVID 19. Lymphocytopenia was defined by absolute lymphocyte count<1000/mm3.Data compiled in Ms-excel sheet and studied. OBSERVATION: In Patients with CAM30/32(93.8%) hadheadache,20/32(62.5%) had nasal symptoms in form of rhinorrhoea & nasal stuffiness and 19/32(59.4%) had eyes symptoms in form of red nessoreye pain. O n admission, 18/32 (56.2%) patients had history or presented with Severe COVID-19 pneumonia. At the time of diagnosis of CAM, 22/ 32 (68.8%) had hypoxemia and required supplemental oxygen. The mean duration from onset of COVID-19 to diagnosis of CAM was 17.28 (±11.76) days. In patients with CAM, none of them were fully vaccinated against COVID-19. Two patients had received a single dose of (Covishield) COVID-19 vaccine. Both the patients are still admitted at our centre and are on antifungal therapy. Among 822 hospitalized patients with COVID 19 infection, 36 patients had CAM with an incidence of 3.9%. In patients with CAM, 84.5% had Diabetes Mellitus as the most common co-morbidity. The majority of the patients had poor glycemic control with a mean HbA1c of 8.06%. Out of the total population, 88% had prior exposure to high dose corticosteroids.surgical debridement done for 65%of patients and others treated withantifungals. During the study period, 36% patients of CAM did not survive. CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is a formidable angioinvasive opportunistic infection in an immunocompromised host. The spectrum of mucormycosis involves rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, disseminated, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated form of disease. The major risk factors for the disease are diabetes, neutropenia, iron overload, malignancy and organ transplant. Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder and is an independent risk factor for Severe COVID-19 and Mucormycosis. In patients with diabetes affected with COVID-19 superinfection with Mucormycosis will lead to adverse clinical outcome and prolonged hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
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