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1.
Int J Food Sci ; 2022: 4881494, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368803

ABSTRACT

According to the Moroccan Court of Auditors, the meats are prepared in slaughterhouses that do not meet the basic conditions required by Moroccan standards. This survey is being conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of handlers regarding the salubrity and hygiene of meat and to evaluate the bacteriological load of work surfaces in a slaughterhouse located in the Marrakech region. A total of 100 people working at the slaughterhouse participated in the study. The average values concerning the attitude and practice of the carcass handlers were, respectively, very satisfactory (65.7%) and acceptable (53.44%), while the average value of knowledge was generally low (39%). Bacterial load was assessed by the serial dilution method using the standard procedure. Seventy samples were taken from the hands of manipulators, knives, clothes, hooks, door handles, floor, and walls over an area of between 20 and 100 cm2. The total number of aerobic mesophiles (TAVCs), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp was determined for each sample. Escherichia coli was the predominant isolate (42%), while Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the least bacterial isolates with 16% and 14%, respectively. Walls and knives were the most contaminated by E. coli at 90%. This survey reveals the importance of developing formal training for all slaughterhouse handlers regarding meat hygiene and safety during carcass processing to develop their knowledge and practices. Bacteriological results indicate a need to improve the available slaughter facilities and develop an appropriate slaughter process strategy to minimize the risk of carcass contamination.

2.
J Food Prot ; 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048912

ABSTRACT

Foodborne infections in the U.S. affect racial-ethnic minority and low-income populations at higher rates than the general population. To identify the prevalence of food safety behaviors and demographic characteristics associated with food handling practices among a susceptible, high-risk population, a cross-sectional survey was administered to 106 parents with children enrolled at two elementary schools serving predominantly low-income families in Houston, Texas. Relationships between demographic characteristics and food safety behavioral outcomes were examined using cross-tabulations and Fisher's exact test. Most respondents were female (93.4%), Hispanic, Latino, or Mexican American (94.9%), and had no previous food handling employment (75.0%). The primary source of food safety information reported was the internet (32.7%), and nearly half of parents (42.7%) reported that they did not consider contamination of food with germs a serious food safety problem. Handwashing before food preparation was more common (98.0%) than before touching the refrigerator handle (66.3%), after electronic device use (55.6%), or after handling raw animal proteins (77.6%). The prevalence of fresh fruit (98.0%) and vegetable (97.9%) washing and appropriate contaminated cutting board handling (89.0%) was high among parents. Self-reported gaps in food handling behaviors identified included lack of food thermometer ownership (80.4%), use of reusable cleaning tools (71.0%), inappropriate defrosting methods (67.4%), and washing of raw poultry (86.3%), seafood (84.9%), and meat (74.7%). Handwashing after electronic device use and defrosting methods were observed to vary significantly according to demographic characteristics. Food safety education with messages targeted to specific demographic groups may be necessary to reduce the risk of foodborne disease among low-income parents and young children.

3.
Ital J Food Saf ; 11(3): 10051, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120525

ABSTRACT

Developing nations are striving to assure food safety that rely mainly upon handling procedures. The current study focused upon the understanding level and practices of food handlers working at various canteens of University of the Punjab, Quid-i-Azam campus, Lahore. Different canteens were selected where 300 different food handlers were judged for their approach towards food safety through a closed ended questionnaire. Samples of different food products were also taken randomly for their microbiological safety evaluation. The whole data was analyzed using chi-square to assess the proportion of correct and incorrect responses among various parameters. The non-significant variation was observed among the knowledge, attitude and practices scores of university and its hostels' canteens food handlers. Overall, 60% of the responses were correct from the university and hostel canteens food handlers. Similarly, 50-60% of the responses regarding attitude and practices were correct from the university and hostel canteen food handlers. With many technical flaws, these food handlers showed moderate level of knowledge. Not only apprentices but the supervisors too, lacked the basic knowledge of temperature as major factor creating potential food safety threats. Lack of knowledge about personal hygiene and workplace sanitation were few contributing factors towards heedless behavior. Incidence of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus contamination in food samples was found 29% and 57%, respectively, while 35% food samples were found contaminated with E. coli. It further exposed the negligence, emphasizing proper training of employees as part and parcel of food safety procedures. It was concluded that more training programs along with periodic validation of food manufacturing standards are required to ensure food safety. Furthermore, strict surveillance and implementation of GMPs by the administrative authorities are needed to safeguard the consumers' health.

4.
Heliyon ; 8(8): e10427, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065214

ABSTRACT

Home-based online food businesses have expanded as a result of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The objectives of the current study were to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among female food handlers who are engaged in home-based online food businesses in Jordan and to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food safety measures amongst food providers. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A validated, reliable questionnaire was distributed among female food handlers who are engaged in home-based online food businesses via social media platforms. The researchers also reached out to the participants via cellphone calls. A total of 204 respondents completed the questionnaire. The results revealed that the respondents had low knowledge, negative attitudes, and improper practices toward food safety with a mean score of 22.6 out of 42 points (53.8%). In "personal hygiene" and "cleaning and sanitation" aspects, the respondents showed a high score of KAP (≥60.0%). Respondents had low KAP scores (<60.0%) in the areas of "cross-contamination prevention", "safe storage, thawing, cooking, holding, and reheating of foods", "health problems that would affect food safety", "symptoms of foodborne diseases" and "COVID-19 KAP". There was a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the overall food safety KAP score and both the age of the participant and the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on participants' concerns about food safety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore food safety KAP among female food handlers who are engaged in food businesses at homes in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study is expected to benefit regulatory authorities establish food safety standards and regulations for home-based food businesses.

5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 315-322, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073409

ABSTRACT

Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) for all is fundamental for sustenance. Goal 6 of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals urges that 'universal access to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene' is fundamental as a response in the current post-COVID scenario. Despite Government of India's efforts through programs like Swachh Bharat (Clean India) Mission, there is a long way to go to integrate equity and inclusion in the sanitation facilities of the public realm. This paper is an attempt to understand the aspect of inclusion in sanitation systems of urban public spaces of India, limiting the study to Delhi and Noida, which are in the National Capital Region (NCR). The aim is to explore the contextual challenges of universal design in public sanitation and develop an understanding of what makes a public toilet inclusive in the urban Indian context. A field-based, mixed methods approach is followed which begins with a literature review of government policies & schemes and theoretical understanding of inclusion as well as the role of universal design as an approach to achieve inclusion. This is followed by on-ground studies involving ethnographic surveys, analysis of imagery and field observations. The results show an analysis of the inclusive aspects of sanitation under the thematic domains of public perception, usage preferences and issues in the public toilet experience. The sanitation facilities in urban public spaces are used by a diverse population and the results showcase a collection of the qualitative experiences of a varied set of user groups. The subjective challenges of inclusive sanitation are highlighted through the various stages and components of the entire sanitation system - the design & infrastructure, operations & maintenance, and behavioural patterns. This paper tries to raise new grounded questions to further explore the highlighted marginal distinctions between inclusion and accessibility in the urban public sanitation experience of India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , Humans , India , Sustainable Development , Universal Design
6.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; : 1-12, 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981564

ABSTRACT

The term "Activities of Daily Living" (ADLs) refers to a set of fundamental tasks (i.e., toileting, bathing, personal care, eating, grooming, and getting dressed) considered necessary for living and being autonomous in everyday life. Although in the clinical setting ADLs efficiency is a marker to diagnose dementia, limited evidence on the mechanism implicating muscular function and cognitive alterations in ADLs skills in late adulthood exists. This study primarily intended to determine the extent to which executive functions mediate between muscular strength, as assessed through handgrip strength (HGS) measurement, and ADLs skills of older community-dwellers. A further goal was to explore the impact of gender and cognitive status on ADLs and HGS scores, using education as a covariate. Three hundred and thirty-four older participants, 199 females and 135 males (Mage = 77.5 years, SD = 5.6 years, age range = 63-93 years) completed a battery of tests assessing ADLs, HGS, and executive functions. The results showed that 34-56% of the variance in the ADLs condition was explained by HGS and executive functioning. Furthermore, cognitively healthy participants exhibited better ADLs skills, whereas cognitively impaired individuals, both males and females, exhibited poorer HGS efficiency. In conclusion, in clinical settings, the concurrent evaluation of ADLs skills, motor, and higher-order cognitive processes should be encouraged to detect individuals needing a person-tailored intervention to boost their quality of life.

7.
Water Res ; 222: 118908, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917670

ABSTRACT

Accurately predicting the water quality of treated water from a water treatment plant (WWTP) based on the obtained operating database is of great significance. However, it is difficult for common mechanistic models to work well. In this study, a back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) model with high accuracy was developed to predict the denitrification efficiency based on a 1-year operating database. Standardized principal component analysis (PCA) methods were used to address the data, and the PCA processed data exhibited the best accuracy. In three WWTPs adopting the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) process, the ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency of WWTPs was successfully predicted by using five variables: inlet flow rate, pH value, original ammonia nitrogen concentration, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, and total phosphorus concentration. Importantly, the obtained BPANN model can be effectively used for other widely used treatment processes, such as oxidation ditch (OD), sequencing batch reactor activated sludge process (SBR), membrane bioreactor (MBR), and cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST), by simply optimizing the training data ratios between 50/50 and 90/10. This is the first trial to set up a universal model for predicting the denitrification efficiency of WWTPs adopting common biological processes. The model could be used to choose the optimum treatment process in the new WWTP design or take action in advance to avoid the risk of excessive emissions when the already built WWTPs are subjected to sudden shocks.


Subject(s)
Biological Phenomena , Water Purification , Ammonia , Bioreactors , Denitrification , Neural Networks, Computer , Nitrogen , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water , Water Purification/methods
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955026

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the importance and performance level of knowledge about sanitary management among foodservice employees in childcare centers that were registered at Center for Children's Food Service Management in Chungju city according to their work duration, type of childcare center, and number of enrolled children. The self-administered questionnaire was conducted to examine food safety attributes of sanitary management at 150 childcare centers without qualified dietitians registered at Center for Children's Food Service Management of Chungju city. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions about perceived importance and performance regarding sanitation management (personal hygiene, ingredient control, temperature control of food, facility, equipment, and utensils sanitation) using IPA (importance-performance analysis). The results show that overall mean scores of the importance and performance of sanitary knowledge were 4.71 and 4.67 out of 5, respectively. 'Checking the center temperature at 75 °C for 1 min in the thickest part of meat (3 times or more check for each serving)' (p = 0.047) and 'Keeping preserved meals (at least 100 g of each menu) for 144 h. with -18 °C or less' (p < 0.001) show significantly lower scores of performance than those of importance. The results of importance and performance for sanitary management according to work duration of foodservice employees show that those who have worked more than 10 years had the highest scores of importance and performance for overall sanitary management among them. For the types of childcare centers, the overall performance scores of national/public employees for sanitary management were lower than those of private or home type (p < 0.001). Additionally, the result showed that the overall importance (p < 0.001) and performance scores (p < 0.001) of employees for sanitary management in centers with <50 children were higher than those in centers with ≥50 children. This result should provide more useful information to develop food safety programs for employees and sustainable foodservice management in childcare centers.


Subject(s)
Child Care , Food Services , Child , Child Day Care Centers , Food Safety , Humans , Republic of Korea
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-08-02. (OPS/HSS/SF/22-0020).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56202

ABSTRACT

Este informe anual del Fondo Estratégico de la OPS describe los progresos realizados durante el 2021 en favor del acceso a los medicamentos esenciales y suministros de salud pública —al tiempo que se respondía a la pandemia de COVID-19—, con vistas a fortalecer los sistemas de salud que tienden un puente entre la seguridad sanitaria y la salud universal. El informe cubre varios aspectos del Fondo Estratégico, incluidos los beneficios ofrecidos, las partes interesadas participantes, las ofertas de productos y las iniciativas clave. También proporciona datos útiles, información, estadísticas y ejemplos de las formas en que el Fondo Estratégico facilitó la cooperación técnica en toda la Región de las Américas. La finalidad del informe es resumir el trabajo esencial del Fondo Estratégico durante el año pasado y ofrecer una visión de sus principios de funcionamiento y objetivos para reforzar y apoyar los sistemas de salud en la Región a largo plazo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Universal Health Coverage , Strategic Fund , Americas
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916494

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine how the transfer efficiency of MS-2 coliphage from the toilet seat to hands and fingertip to lip differs according to the suspension of the inoculum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hands were sampled after lifting a toilet seat which was inoculated with MS-2 on the underneath side. MS-2 was suspended in a spectrum of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous solutions. Transfer efficiencies were greatest with the ASTM tripartite soil load (3.02% ± 4.03) and lowest with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (1.10% ± 0.81) for hand-to-toilet seat contacts. Finger-to-lip transfer rates were significantly different (p < 0.05) depending on suspension matrix, with PBS yielding the highest transfer (52.53% ± 4.48%) and tryptose soy broth (TSB) the lowest (23.15% ± 24.27%). Quantitative microbial risk assessment was used to estimate the probability of infection from adenovirus and norovirus from finger contact with a toilet seat. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest transfer as well as the largest variation of transfer were measured for finger-to-lip contacts as opposed to toilet seat-to-finger contacts. These factors influence the estimation of the probability of infection from micro-activity, that is, toilet seat adjustment. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT: Viruses may be transferred from various human excreta with differing transfer efficiencies, depending on the protein content.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; 362: 127847, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031119

ABSTRACT

Anaerobic digestion of food waste receives more and more attention for waste-to-energy conversion, while easy acidification and limited efficiency hinder its wide application. To improve anaerobic digestion of food waste, its anaerobic co-digestion with mature leachate was performed using an expanded granular sludge blanket reactor. With the chemical oxidation demand (COD) removal of around 80%, the methane production and organic loading rate of the reactor reached 5.87 ± 0.45 L/L/d and 23.6 g COD/L/d, respectively. The rate of COD converted to methane was ranging from 74% to 87%. The addition of mature leachate provided ammonium to avoid acidification and trace metals for microbial growth, and the efficiencies of four stages of anaerobic digestion were all enhanced. The predominant methanogenic genera were shifted to adapt the changing condition, thus stabilizing the system. These findings support high-efficiency bioenergy recovery from food waste and leachate in practice.


Subject(s)
Refuse Disposal , Sewage , Anaerobiosis , Bioreactors , Digestion , Food , Methane , Waste Disposal, Fluid
12.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 2): 113854, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841970

ABSTRACT

Population inflation has led to the unprecedented increase in urbanization, thus causing negative impacts on environmental sustainability. Recently, there is an upsurge in the number of restaurants due to the changing lifestyles of the people round the globe. For instance, there were 167,490 food and beverage establishments in 2015, representing an annual growth rate of 5.1% since 2010 in Malaysia. The rapid growth of restaurants has implicated a negative impact due to the generation of highly polluted restaurant wastewater (RWW). RWW is mainly generated during the cooking, washing, and cleaning operations. RWW typically contain fat, oil, and grease (FOG) resulting from residues of meat, deep-fried food, baked items and butter, and has caused serious blockages of sewer due to clogging and eventually sewage backup. This has increased the required frequency of cleaning and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Results from the previous studies have shown that FOG can be treated using physical, chemical, and biological processes. Different technologies have been applied for the treatment of FOG and other pollutants (COD, BOD, SS and NH4-N) present in RWW. Therefore, this review aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of RWW, chemical and physical characteristics of FOG with the mechanism of its formation and utilization for biocomposites, biogas and biodiesel productions for circular bioeconomy. Besides, this review has discussed the potential treatment technologies comprehensively for RWW which is currently remain understudied. Integrated sustainable management of FOG with technoeconomic analysis of bioproducts, sustainable management with international initiatives and previous studies are also summarized. Hence, this review aims towards providing better alternatives in managing RWW at sources, including its treatment and potential of its biorefinery, therefore eventually contributing towards environmental sustainability.


Subject(s)
Restaurants , Waste Water , Environment , Fats/analysis , Fats/chemistry , Humans , Hydrocarbons/analysis , Sewage/chemistry , Waste Water/analysis
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113972, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907359

ABSTRACT

We studied the macrobenthic invertebrate biomass (B), production (P), productivity (P/B̅-ratio), and transfer efficiency (TE) influenced by sewage effluents discharge in a diffusion zone. Our results indicated a clear distribution pattern of macrofauna communities along the sewage discharge gradient where biological factors (B, P, P/B̅, and TE) were driven by changes observed in community structure, composition, and the influence of environmental variables. The lowest B, P, and P/B̅ were observed at the stations sampled close to the pipelines. Abundance, biomass, production, and productivity increased with increasing distance from the pipelines toward stations placed at 100 m distance and then decreased toward the stations placed at >200 m, where there was a negative relationship between TE and B of macrofauna at sampling stations. Overall, there was a clear influence of the sewage discharge on macrofauna communities, but surrounding environment was influenced moderately by organic impact and discharges had no negative impacts.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Sewage , Animals , Biomass , Ecosystem , Invertebrates
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 438: 129451, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777144

ABSTRACT

To realize the efficient resource utilization of sewage sludge, this work explored the competitive relationship and reaction mechanisms between syngas quality optimization and heavy metals (HMs) immobilization. The results showed that continuous microwave pyrolysis (CMP) technology with an instantaneous temperature increase could shorten the pyrolysis time, and the biogas yield and syngas concentration reached 51.68 wt% and 83.6 vol%, respectively. Although a higher pyrolysis (750 °C) temperature could optimize the syngas quality, the HMs immobilization efficiency was reduced due to the deep pyrolysis of the biochar. The moderate pyrolysis temperature (650 °C) facilitated the rapid formation of biochar with abundant surface functional groups and pore structure, thus enhancing HMs immobilization. Furthermore, the HMs could also form more stable crystalline compounds with inorganic components (SiO2, Al2O3, inorganic sulfur). By optimizing the process parameters, the risk factor of HMs in the sludge decreased from 117.36 to 62.5 while obtaining high-quality syngas. The energy utilization efficiency of microwave pyrolysis also increased significantly from 11.20% to 82.01%. This work provided new insight into the efficient resource utilization and environmentally friendly treatment of sludge, and demonstrated that CMP technology has significant potential for future industrial applications as an alternative to traditional pyrolysis.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Pyrolysis , Charcoal/chemistry , Conservation of Energy Resources , Cytidine Monophosphate , Metals, Heavy/chemistry , Microwaves , Sewage/chemistry , Silicon Dioxide
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 438: 129437, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810514

ABSTRACT

Conversion of sewage sludge to biochar for contaminants removal from water achieves the dual purpose of solid waste reuse and pollution elimination, in line with the concept of circular economy and carbon neutrality. However, the current understanding of sludge-derived biochar (SDB) for wastewater treatment is still limited, with a lack of summary regarding the effect of modification on the mechanism of SDB adsorption/catalytic removal aqueous contaminants. To advance knowledge in this aspect, this paper systematically reviews the recent studies on the use of (modified) SDB as adsorbents and in persulfate-based advanced oxidation processes (PS-AOPs) as catalysts for the contaminants removal from water over the past five years. Unmodified SDB not only exhibits stronger cation exchange and surface precipitation for heavy metals due to its nitrogen/mineral-rich properties, but also can provide abundant catalytic active sites for PS. An emphatic summary of how certain adsorption removal mechanisms of SDB or its catalytic performance in PS-AOPs can be enhanced by targeted regulation/modification such as increasing the specific surface area, functional groups, graphitization degree, N-doping or transition metal loading is presented. The interference of inorganic ions/natural organic matter is one of the unavoidable challenges that SDB is used for adsorption/catalytic removal of contaminants in real wastewater. Finally, this paper presents the future perspectives of SDB in the field of wastewater treatment. This review can contribute forefront knowledge and new ideas for advancing sludge treatment toward sustainable green circular economy.


Subject(s)
Sewage , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Charcoal/chemistry , Sewage/chemistry , Waste Water , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805701

ABSTRACT

Background: Food safety incorporates the handling, preparation, and storage of food materials in ways that prevent foodborne illness. We aimed to investigate the typical food safety practices in a Bangladeshi slum context and to explore if stunting among school-age children was associated with various components of food safety. Method: We analysed the MAL-ED birth cohort data from the Bangladesh site. A total of 265 healthy children were enrolled in the study; we could follow up and collect food safety-related data from 187 participants. Results: The average age of the children was 6.5 years (standard deviation or SD 0.04) and 49% of them were female. About 26% of the children were stunted. In our bivariate analysis, caregivers' handwashing practice after using the toilet, treatment of drinking water, presence of insects/pests in the cooking area, and child's eating ready-made/street food more than three times per day were significantly associated with stunting. After adjusting for pertinent factors, treatment of drinking water (adjusted odds ratio or AOR = 2.50, 95% confidence interval or CI: 1.03, 6.05), and child's eating ready-made/street food more than three times/day (AOR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.06, 5.15) remained significantly associated with stunting. Conclusions: Diverse aspects of food safety practices have a substantial association with stunting among school-age children living in an unhygienic slum environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Poverty Areas , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Female , Food Safety , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Male
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 360: 127542, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777641

ABSTRACT

The seasonal and annual energy efficiency of mainstream anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was first assessed in an onsite pilot plant (15 m3/d) and then estimated in a scaled-up plant (10,000 m3/d) in temperate climates (15-25 °C). It was found that the annual net electricity demand was 0.100 and 0.090 kWh/m3, and the annual net energy (electricity + heat) demand was -0.158 and -0.309 kWh/m3 under the dissolved methane recovery condition and the non-recovery condition, respectively, demonstrated that the application of mainstream AnMBR in temperate climates is electricity saving and energy positive. The energy efficiency of the AnMBR decreased with temperature drop due to the reduction of methane production, and the increase in biogas sparging to mitigate membrane fouling. Since approximately 26.7%-39.7% of input COD remained in sludge, attention should be paid to recovering this potential energy to improve the overall energy performance of the mainstream AnMBR plants in future.


Subject(s)
Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water , Anaerobiosis , Bioreactors , Conservation of Energy Resources , Membranes, Artificial , Methane , Seasons , Sewage , Waste Water/analysis
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 846: 157510, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870600

ABSTRACT

In this work, the environmental distribution of steroid compounds and the level of sewage-derived contamination were assessed using sterol ratios in the confluence area of two major rivers in the Serbian capital, where raw sewage is discharged without any treatment. Special attention was paid to steroids partitioning between the dissolved and suspended phases of river and wastewater samples, since steroids tend to easily bind to particulate matter. The efficiency of sterol removal in two wastewater treatment plants in Serbia was also evaluated. Human/animal sterols coprostanol and cholesterol, and phytosterol ß-sitosterol were the dominant compounds in all water samples. The sterol abundance pattern in river water was different from that in raw sewage, indicating a more pronounced biogenic input, as well as greater impact of wastewater discharges on the composition of the suspended phase. Severe contamination of the investigated area was determined, with the Danube being more contaminated than the Sava River due to different hydrodynamic conditions leading to significantly higher sterol levels in the suspended particulate matter. It was also shown that the greater part of human/animal sterols and phytosterols present in river water samples (83.0 ±â€¯11.9 % and 87.1 ±â€¯15.2 %) and wastewater samples (92.1 ±â€¯6.8 % and 95.0 ±â€¯5.7 %) was bound to suspended material compared to the dissolved phase, emphasizing the need to consider and analyze both water phases in the tracing of steroid-based environmental pollution in order to obtain a realistic picture of steroid contamination and their fate in the aquatic environment. A high removal rate (>98 %) of coprostanol and cholesterol during wastewater treatment was determined and only the coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol) ratio was found to be sensitive enough to be affected by an improvement in the quality of treated wastewater.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Animals , Cholestanol/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter , Rivers , Sewage/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Waste Water , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
19.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 30: 340-347, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study elucidated the distribution and fate of vancomycin (VCM)-resistant heterotrophic bacteria (HTB) and resistance genes, vanA and vanB, during each treatment unit process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). METHODS: Several bacterial counts as well as copy numbers of vanA and vanB genes were determined in each wastewater and sludge sample. In addition, HTB strains isolated from wastewater and sludge were analyzed for VCM susceptibility. Then, the fate and reduction ratios of each bacterial count, copy number of vanA and vanB genes, and the existence ratio of VCM-resistant HTB strains in the wastewater treatment unit process were evaluated. RESULTS: VCM-resistant HTB were detected in all wastewater and sludge samples, and their existence ratio decreased along the treatment process (92.9% in influent wastewater to 39.4% in chlorinated water). Notably, most of the HTB isolated from the influent wastewater were resistant to 8.0 µg/mL of VCM, strongly suggesting that a significant number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are flowing into the WWTP from urban areas through the sewage system. The vanA and vanB genes were also detected in all wastewater and sludge, with high copy numbers (102-104 copies/mL) even in chlorinated water samples. CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed that residual VCM-resistant HTB, and resistance genes, which could not be completely removed, were ubiquitously released into the aquatic environment. Furthermore, a high existence ratio of VCM-resistant HTB and high copy numbers of resistance genes were also detected in the sludge, indicating that they are constantly circulating in the WWTP via the returned sludge.


Subject(s)
Vancomycin , Water Purification , Bacteria/genetics , Sewage/microbiology , Waste Water/microbiology , Water
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270847, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857721

ABSTRACT

Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services confers significant health and economic benefits, especially for children, but only if those services can be delivered on a consistent basis. The challenge of sustainable, school-based WASH service delivery has been widely documented, particularly in resource-constrained contexts. We conducted a systematic review of published research that identifies drivers of, or tests solutions to, this challenge within low- and middle-income countries (PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020199163). Authors in the first group employ cross-sectional research designs and interrogate previously implemented school WASH interventions. Most conclude that dysfunctional accountability and information sharing mechanisms drive school WASH service delivery failures. By contrast, most of the interventions developed and tested experimentally by authors in the second group focus on increasing the financial and material resources available to schools for WASH service delivery. Overall, these authors find negligible impact of such infusions of cash, infrastructure, and supplies across a variety of sustainability outcome metrics. Taken together, the evidence suggests that sustainable service delivery depends on three simultaneously necessary components: resources, information, and accountability. Drawing upon theory and evidence from social psychology, public management, and political science, we identify priority knowledge gaps that can meaningfully improve the design of effective interventions. We also highlight the importance of both interdisciplinary collaboration and local expertise in designing WASH programming that aligns with sociocultural and institutional norms, and is thus more likely to generate sustainable impact.


Subject(s)
Sanitation , Water Supply , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hygiene , Water
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