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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 2): 158359, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055509

ABSTRACT

The impacts of alternating dry and wet conditions on water production and carbon uptake at different scales remain unclear, which limits the integrated management of water and carbon. We quantified the response of runoff efficiency (RE) and plant water-use efficiency (PWUE) to a typical shift from dry to wet episode of 2003-2014 in Australia's Murray-Darling basin using good and specific data products for local application, including Australian Water Availability Project, Penman-Monteith-Leuning Evapotranspiration V2 product, MODIS MCD12Q1 V6 Land Cover Type and MODIS MOD17A3 V055 GPP product. The results show that there are significant power function relationships between RE and precipitation for basin and all ecosystems, while the PWUE had a negative quadratic correlation with precipitation and satisfied the significance levels of 0.05 for basin and the ecosystems except the grassland and cropland. The shrubs can achieve the best water production and carbon uptake under dry conditions, while the evergreen broadleaf trees and evergreen needleleaf trees can obtain the best water production and carbon uptake in wet conditions, respectively. These findings help integrated basin management for balancing water resource production and climate change mitigation.

2.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114219, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057333

ABSTRACT

With the rapid emergence of various metabolic and multiple-drug-resistant infectious diseases, new pharmaceuticals are continuously being introduced in the market. The excess production and use of pharmaceuticals and their untreated/unmetabolized release in the environment cause the contamination of aquatic ecosystem, and thus, compromise the environment and human-health. The present review provides insights into the classification, sources, occurrence, harmful impacts, and existing technologies to curb these problems. A comprehensive detail of various biological and nanotechnological strategies for the removal of pharmaceutical residues from water is critically discussed focusing on their efficiencies, and current limitations to design improved-technologies for their lab-to-field applications. Furthermore, the review highlights and suggests the scope of integrated bionanotechnological methods for enhanced removal of pharmaceutical residues from water to fulfill the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) for providing clean potable water for all.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078266

ABSTRACT

The acceleration of urbanization and climate change has increasingly impacted the health level of urban dual water cycles. In order to accurately evaluate the health status of urban water cycles, the evaluation system covers four standard layers of water ecology, water abundance, water quality and water use, including 19 basic indicators such as water storage change and annual average precipitation. Three-scale AHP and EFAST algorithms are adopted to set the criterion and index layer weights. Water-cycle health assessment models are based on the improved TOPSIS model. The model evaluated Zhengzhou's water cycle health from 2011 to 2021. We compared the TOPSIS model and FCE method to ensure the scientific objectivity of the evaluation results. The evaluation results indicated that the water cycle in Zhengzhou City improved annually, and the relative progress in 2020 was 0.567 in a sub-health state. The eco-environmental water demand, green coverage rate of the built district, water resources amount, and industry's water consumption per unit of value added (CNY 10,000) were the major obstacles. These four factors have preponderantly influenced Zhengzhou City's water cycle health. Our research results provide scientific reference for Zhengzhou to achieve a healthy urban water cycle and regional sustainable development.


Subject(s)
Urbanization , Water Resources , China , Cities , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Sustainable Development , Water Quality
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078270

ABSTRACT

At present, nearly half of the population of China live in water-deficient areas where water needs to be transferred from surrounding or remote water sources to meet local water demands. Although the water transfer project has alleviated the demands for water in the water-deficient areas, and brought water-supply income to water source regions, it has also posed some cross-regional negative impacts, including the changes in the original ecology within the water source, the impacts on the downstream water demands, and the risk of biological invasion in the distant water receiving areas. Therefore, it can be seen that the impact of water transfer is complicated and will be manifested in various aspects. The Middle Route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP-MR), as the world's largest cross-watershed water transfer project, exerts particularly important effects on regional sustainable development; however, it also produces complex interactions within the ecological environment itself, downstream and in the distant water receiving cities. Thus, this work attempts to apply a metacoupling analysis framework of water transfer to explore the ecological interaction of water transfer in SNWTP-MR on each system. The metacoupling framework can be divided into intracoupling, pericoupling and telecoupling. This study focuses on the analysis of the causes and effects of the intracoupling, pericoupling and telecoupling of SNWTP-MR from the perspective of ecological values and ecological risks. We found that the coupling of water transfer brings about 23 billion yuan of ecological service value to the water source annually, but also increases the internal ecological risk index by 9.31%, through the calculation of changes in land use; secondly, the power generation benefit significantly increases, and the flood control standards have shifted from once-in-20 years to once-in-a-century. However, the ecological risks are also significant, such as poor water quality, eutrophication of water resources, competition for water between industry and agriculture, deterioration of waterway shipping, and threats to biodiversity, etc. Considering only water supply, the population carrying capacity of the water resource in distant water receiving cities is increased by 16.42 million people, which enhances the value of water resources and creates a cross-regional green ecological landscape belt. Nevertheless, the biological invasion and water pollution have greatly affected the safety of water supply. It can be seen that the cross-regional water transfer does not always damage the interests of the sending system and the spillover system while benefiting the receiving system; its impacts are complex and variable. Through this paper, it is hoped to provide a reference for the analysis of the ecological compensation, resource development and allocation in SNWTP-MR by revealing the metacoupling relationship of SNWTP-MR. This paper will provide new ideas for researching the metacoupling relationship, thereby offering valuable reference for the study of the interaction generated by large-scale water transfer.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Water Supply , Agriculture , China , Humans , Water Quality
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078642

ABSTRACT

Rapid economic growth and social development in China have led to serious water pollution problems and water resource shortages, limiting the sustainable development that could support both the socio-economy and water resources carrying capacity (WRECC). However, the spatial heterogeneity and evolutionary characteristics of the coordination between the WRECC and economic development have not been adequately explored in China. In this study, we developed the support and pressure indicators of China's 30 provinces and then analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution and evolution characteristics of their WRECC by using the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model. The main findings are shown in the following: (i) From a temporal perspective, there has been an overall upward trend in the WRECC to support human activities; however, the WRECC level is not high. Approximately 63.7% of provinces remain in an overloaded state, indicating that the support indicator of most provinces is smaller than the pressure indicator imposed by human social activities. (ii) There are significant spatial differences in the WRECC indicators across provinces. Provinces with low-level WRECCs are concentrated in central China but decrease significantly from the country's borders to its center. Eastern regions have a medium-level of WRECC with the greatest degree of regional difference, while western regions have a high-level of WRECC with the smallest degree of regional difference. The variation of WRECC is attributed to within-group differences in the three geographical regions in China. (iii) The factors that significantly impact the WRECC include population density, gross domestic product (GDP), temperature, urbanization, the added value of tertiary industry within the GDP, and R&D expenditures. GDP and R&D expenditures positively impact the WRECC, while the other four factors have different influences on the WRECC. (iv) The spatial distributions of driving factors show significant aggregation characteristics, with decreasing trends from the eastern to western regions and from the southern to northern regions. These findings present a comprehensive understanding of the current WRECC in China's provinces which can be used as a reference for realizing environmentally sustainable water development strategies under high-quality economic development.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Economic Development , China , Humans , Urbanization , Water Resources
6.
Sustain Water Resour Manag ; 8(5): 146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033358

ABSTRACT

One-fourth of the global population is without basic drinking water and half of the global population lacks sanitation facilities. The attainment of water and sanitation targets is difficult due to administrative, operational, political, transborder, technical, and policy challenges. Conducted after 5 years from the adoption of sustainable development goals by the United Nations reviews the initiatives for improving access, quality, and affordability of water and sanitation. The bibliometric and thematic analyses are conducted to consolidate the outcomes of scientific papers on sustainable development goal 6 (SDG 6). Africa is struggling in relation with water and sanitation goals, having 17 countries with less than 40% basic drinking water facilities and 16 countries with less than 40% basic sanitation facilities. Globally, the attainment of water and sanitation goals will be depended on economic development, the development of revolutionary measures for wastewater treatment, and creating awareness related to water usage, water recycling, water harvesting, hygiene, and sanitation. Behavioral changes are also required for a new water culture and the attainment of water and sanitation goals by 2030.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157831, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931173

ABSTRACT

Proper waste disposal is a key towards sustainable development. Wastewater treatment is delineated by the application of efficient, economic and novel catalysts. Biochar is derived from the thermochemical conversion of biomass or any carbonaceous materials and is considered as one of the most eco-friendly substitute for activated carbon. Owing to its large surface area, porosity, crystallinity and active functional groups, the biochar-based catalysts has been extensively applied for the abatement of toxic pollutants from wastewater streams. While most of the reviews focus on the adsorptive properties of the biochar, this review critically analyses the recent development of biochar-based catalysts in the field of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton-like systems, photocatalytic and sonocatalytic systems). The presence of persistent free radicals and oxygen-containing functional groups renders biochar to act as catalyst. The mechanisms accompanying catalytic performance of biochar-based catalysts have also been reviewed. However, the research in this area is quite at an initial phase, and many advancements schemes are essential prior to scale-up and commercialization. Future researches should be devoted to more efficient and rigorous understanding of the structural properties of biochar to engineer the catalytic degradation of targeted pollutants in wastewater treatment.

8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955054

ABSTRACT

Water pollution seriously endangers people's lives and restricts the sustainable development of the economy. Water quality prediction is essential for early warning and prevention of water pollution. However, the nonlinear characteristics of water quality data make it challenging to accurately predicted by traditional methods. Recently, the methods based on deep learning can better deal with nonlinear characteristics, which improves the prediction performance. Still, they rarely consider the relationship between multiple prediction indicators of water quality. The relationship between multiple indicators is crucial for the prediction because they can provide more associated auxiliary information. To this end, we propose a prediction method based on exploring the correlation of water quality multi-indicator prediction tasks in this paper. We explore four sharing structures for the multi-indicator prediction to train the deep neural network models for constructing the highly complex nonlinear characteristics of water quality data. Experiments on the datasets of more than 120 water quality monitoring sites in China show that the proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art baselines.


Subject(s)
Neural Networks, Computer , Water Quality , China , Humans
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1606590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034616

ABSTRACT

In spite of Ethiopia's abundant water resources, such as rainwater, groundwater, river, and lake, there has been an increase in the demand for potable water during the past decade. Since 1990, Ethiopia has only achieved 57 percent of the Millennium Development Goal target for access to safe drinking water. Inadequate access to clean potable water and sewerage services and lack of good hygiene practices have a negative impact on health and nutrition, such as diarrheal disease which is one of the leading causes of mortality among children under the age of five in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study is to assess the water demand in Yergalem Tula Kebele, which will be used in the sustainable potable water supply design for the city. The water demand analysis is based on a geometric method of population forecasting with an annual growth rate of 3%. The total water demand (domestic and nondomestic water demands) projection has also been made and the per capita water demand of 25 liters for a distance of 0.5 km from the water distribution point for rural piped water supply system is adopted, as per GTP-II minimum service level. The mode and level of services considered for community water supplies include public fountains and institutions (i.e., schools and health centers/posts) with stand water points.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Child , Ethiopia , Humans , Hygiene , Rural Population , Water Supply
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9959933, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035818

ABSTRACT

By combining the relevant theoretical foundations such as fuzzy algorithm and water resources environmental management, and selecting the actual water resources integration data, this paper establishes an index system to investigate the carrying capacity of the water environment in this area. Through the study and application of the comprehensive multilevel fuzzy evaluation model, based on scenario analysis, the current situation of water resources environmental management and the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of water resources in the study area in recent years were evaluated. In order to observe the differences more accurately in the spatial structure of water use in the study area through information entropy, ArcGIS IS images were drawn according to the calculation results of the urban degree balance in the study area. In the development of circular economy, the information center plays an important role in the industrial ecosystem, which is the basis for the recycling of materials, energy, and water. By building a unique data platform, it can help companies understand the latest status of logistics, energy, and waste recycling in the park and can make adaptive adjustments to the above conditions, to achieve the sustainable development of the overall industrial chain.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Water Resources , Algorithms , China , Ecosystem , Water
11.
Water Res ; 221: 118842, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949075

ABSTRACT

The Multi-Sectoral Water Circularity Assessment (MSWCA) is a methodological framework developed for circularity assessment of the Water-Energy-Food-Ecosystems nexus. It involves five methodological steps and includes an indicators list for the selection of case-specific indicators. This study expands the MSWCA to provide a systematic approach for selecting indicators, considering system's circular actions and multi-functionality, the capture of implemented changes, the three CE principles and the sustainable development goals. Furthermore, this study differentiates between benchmark and dynamic circularity assessment and applies the expanded MSWCA in a water system of the HYDROUSA H2020 project. The benchmark assessment indicates that the HYDROUSA system achieves a 75% increase of water circularity, 76-80% increase of nutrients circularity and 14% reduction of operational `carbon footprint compared to the baseline scenario. The dynamic assessment highlights that additional measures can improve the system's circularity performance (e.g. water circularity can reach 94%) and mitigate risks occurring from uncontrollable changes.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Water , Food
12.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115601, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949098

ABSTRACT

The management of agricultural water pollution is crucial to alleviate the water crisis and promote regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of the agricultural grey water footprint (GWF) and accurately identify its main influencing factors, aiming at formulating differentiated regional management strategies. Based on this, the agricultural GWFs of 31 provincial regions in China from 2011 to 2019 were firstly calculated, and then the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of agricultural GWF were analyzed using the ArcGIS software and Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) method. Finally, the Generalized Divisia Index Method (GDIM) was creatively introduced to decompose the factors of agricultural GWF change and their respective contributions at the national and provincial levels. The main results are as follow: (1) Agricultural GWF in China decreased on the whole and showed significant provincial differences. Among them, the agricultural GWF of Henan Province was the largest while that of Shanghai City was the smallest. Compared with 2011, most provinces saw a decrease in agricultural GWF in 2019 while Yunnan, Tibet, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang Provinces achieved growth. (2) Areas with higher agricultural GDP generally had higher agricultural GWF. The spatial distribution of agricultural GWF and breeding GWF generally tended to be consistent, with the lower value in northwest and southeast of China and higher value in the northeast and southwest of China. Meanwhile, the mean center of SDE of agricultural GWF was located in Henan Province from 2011 to 2018, and shifted to Shaanxi Province in 2019, showing a slight northwest shift. (3) Agricultural GWF intensity and agricultural GDP had the largest restraining effect and driving effect on agricultural GWF growth, respectively. Additionally, China has achieved decoupling between agricultural GWF and agricultural GDP, reflecting that the patterns of agricultural production and consumption have become more sustainable. The findings of this study can provide important decision-making insights for agricultural water pollution management and industry adjustment.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Water , China , Cities , Water Pollution
13.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115622, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949099

ABSTRACT

Resilience is a significant attribute used to measure the sustainable development of the environment, and research on optimal measurement models is very important. This study took 15 farms in the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Province in China as the research object and constructed a resilience evaluation indicator system containing 31 indicators for the regional agricultural soil-water resource composite system (ASWRS). The combined weight (BFCM-CRITIC) and entropy weight (EW) combined with the variable fuzzy assessment (VFA) model and the improved technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) model were used to calculate the resilience exponent and to analyse the characteristics of space-time variation. The stability and reliability of the two models under different weights were verified by the Spearman correlation coefficient and discrimination theory to determine the optimal resilience exponent diagnosis method. The results show that according to the BFCM-CRITIC-VFA model, the levels of resilience were the highest at the Nongjiang, Hongwei and Erdaohe farms, and the resilience levels were strong and scattered. The resilience of the Jiansanjiang Administration has been increasing over time, and the spatial distribution has generally decreased from north to south and from the Heilong River and Wusuli River basins inland. A comparison of the reliability and stability of the two models for different weights indicates that the VFA model optimized based on combined weights was superior to the other methods in terms of stability and reliability, which verifies that the BFCM-CRITIC-VFA model is the most suitable for measuring the resilience exponent.


Subject(s)
Soil , Water Resources , Agriculture , China , Reproducibility of Results , Rivers
14.
Popul Environ ; : 1-31, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974746

ABSTRACT

Universal access to safe drinking water is essential to population health and well-being, as recognized in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). To develop targeted policies which improve urban access to improved water and ensure equity, there is the need to understand the spatial heterogeneity in drinking water sources and the factors underlying these patterns. Using the Shannon Entropy Index and the Index of Concentration at the Extremes at the enumeration area level, we analyzed census data to examine the spatial heterogeneity in drinking water sources and neighborhood income in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA), the largest urban agglomeration in Ghana. GAMA has been a laboratory for studying urban growth, economic security, and other concomitant socio-environmental and demographic issues in the recent past. The current study adds to this literature by telling a different story about the spatial heterogeneity of GAMA's water landscape at the enumeration area level. The findings of the study reveal considerable geographical heterogeneity and inequality in drinking water sources not evidenced in previous studies. We conclude that heterogeneity is neither good nor bad in GAMA judging by the dominance of both piped water sources and sachet water (machine-sealed 500-ml plastic bag of drinking water). The lessons from this study can be used to inform the planning of appropriate localized solutions targeted at providing piped water sources in neighborhoods lacking these services and to monitor progress in achieving universal access to improved drinking water as recognized in the SDG 6 and improving population health and well-being.

15.
Adv Mater ; : e2204277, 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980944

ABSTRACT

Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change is expected to require large-scale deployment of carbon dioxide removal strategies. Prominent among these strategies is direct air capture with sequestration (DACS), which encompasses the removal and long-term storage of atmospheric CO2  by purely engineered means. Because it does not require arable land or copious amounts of freshwater, DACS is already attractive in the context of sustainable development, but opportunities to improve its sustainability still exist. Leveraging differences in the chemistry of CO2  and water adsorption within porous solids, here, the prospect of simultaneously removing water alongside CO2  in direct air capture operations is investigated. In many cases, the co-adsorbed water can be desorbed separately from chemisorbed CO2  molecules, enabling efficient harvesting of water from air. Depending upon the material employed and process conditions, the desorbed water can be of sufficiently high purity for industrial, agricultural, or potable use and can thus improve regional water security. Additionally, the recovered water can offset a portion of the costs associated with DACS. In this Perspective, molecular- and process-level insights are combined to identify routes toward realizing this nascent yet enticing concept.

16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962167

ABSTRACT

Water resources in the Mekong subregion in Cambodia (MSC) have experienced dramatic changes in past decades, threatening regional ecosystem quality and sustainable development. Thus, it is important to explore the spatiotemporal impacts of climate change and human activities on water resources and ecological sensitivity. This study proposed an effective framework including spatiotemporal analysis of land use/cover change (LUCC) and ecological sensitivity assessment by combining remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system/science (GIS). An optimized feature space and a machine learning classification algorithm were constructed to extract four typical land cover types in the MSC from 1990 to 2020. An ecological sensitivity evaluation system, including four sub-sensitivities calculated by twelve indicators, was then constructed. The results suggest that severe shrinkage of water resources occurred before 2006, decreasing by 21.68%. The correlation between water resources and climate conditions displays a high to low level as human activity becomes involved. A significant spatiotemporal evolutionary pattern of ecological sensitivity was observed under the impact of external interference. Generally, the largest proportion of MSC belongs to the lightly sensitive level, which is mainly concentrated in the lower reaches, with an average of 33.93%. The highly sensitive area with a significant value in ecological protection has a slightly downward trend from 23.72 in 1990 to 22.55% in 2020.

17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 675, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972599

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals affect the suitability of aquatic environment for all purposes; hence, this study evaluated heavy metal contamination in Agodi Reservoir Oyo State, Nigeria. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used to determine heavy metal concentrations. Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Water Quality Index (WQI), Pollution Index (PI), Comprehensive Pollution Index (CPI), Contamination Index (CI), Single-Factor Pollution Index (SFPI), Heavy metal Evaluation Index (HEI), and Human Health Risk Assessments (HRA) were used to determine the extent of heavy metal pollution and their impact on the aquatic environment. The order of heavy metal concentrations in both wet and dry seasons was Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co and Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu > Co > Ni > Cd > Cr > Pb, respectively. WQI for both wet (3182.6) and dry (3649.5) seasons classified the reservoir as "unsuitable for aquatic life." Also, the CPI rated the reservoir to be "severely polluted" in both dry (311.2) and wet (268.7) seasons. Similarly, HEI (951.3 and 2059.7) and Cd (942.3 and 2050.7) rated the reservoir as "highly polluted" in wet and dry seasons, respectively. The Hazard Quotient (HQ ingestion) was in the order of Mn > Cu > Cd > Zn > Fe > Co > Ni > Cr > Pb in the dry season while the order was Cu > Mn > Cd > Fe > Zn > Ni > Pb > Co > Cr in the wet season. The HQ ingestion revealed that Cr (0.00), Ni (0.33; 022), and Pb (0.00; 0.06) were the only metals with HQ values lesser than 1 (HQ < 1) while the values of HQ (dermal) were less 1 (HQ < 1) indicating that there was no health risk in association with the domestic use of the water. The pollution level of the reservoir means that urgent attention is needed from different agencies for the conservation, management, and sustainable development of the reservoir.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Cadmium , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Lead , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nigeria , Risk Assessment , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality
18.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115880, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940014

ABSTRACT

In view of accelerated climate change and urban demographics, balancing human and ecosystem needs for water resources is a critical environmental challenge of global significance. Since water, agriculture, health, and energy are inextricably linked, sustainable development goals (SDGs) actions in one policy area commonly have impacts on the others, as well as on the ecosystems that natural resources and human activities ultimately depend upon. Managing urban water supply systems therefore requires a nexus approach that integrates goals across sectors, reduces the risk that SDG actions will undermine one another, and ensures sustainable resource use. We developed a transdisciplinary methodological framework based on a Pareto frontier analysis to define the sustainable solutions of a multi-objective optimization among four competing criteria, water provision, water quality, energy cost, and biodiversity conservation. The study was applied to three mountainous headwater basins in the Ecuadorian Andes, which provide around 30% of Quito's total water supply. We found that an optimized management of water intake structures would meet current consumption needs while reducing the probability of emergence of water pathogens and limiting the impact on aquatic biodiversity by 30% and 9% respectively, without any increase in energy costs for pumping water from other sources. Nonetheless, under future scenarios of climate change and water demand, higher energy consumption, and therefore an increase in operating costs, would be needed to meet urban demand and preserve environmental conditions. Overall, the range of Pareto optimal water supply strategies across the water-health-energy-biodiversity nexus provides valuable information for decision makers and offers support for achieving sustainable management of water resources.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Sustainable Development , Cities , Climate Change , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecuador , Humans , Water Supply
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4525, 2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941133

ABSTRACT

Water security requires not only sufficient availability of and access to safe and acceptable quality for domestic uses, but also fair distribution within and across populations. However, a key research gap remains in understanding water security inequality and its dynamics, which in turn creates an impediment to tracking progress towards sustainable development. Therefore, we analyse the inequality of water security using data from 7603 households across 28 sites in 22 low- and middle-income countries, measured using the Household Water Insecurity Experiences Scale. Here we show an inverted-U shaped relationship between site water security and inequality of household water security. This Kuznets-like curve suggests a process that as water security grows, the inequality of water security first increases then decreases. This research extends the Kuznets curve applications and introduces the Development Kuznets Curve concept. Its practical implications support building water security and achieving more fair, inclusive, and sustainable development.


Subject(s)
Food Supply , Water , Income , Water Supply
20.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115781, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944319

ABSTRACT

Sustainable production of potable water is one of the United Nations sustainable development goals set for 2030. Among available renewable energy resources, solar energy is abundantly available in most of the fresh water scarce rural and remote locations. Moreover, solar distillation units and solar photovoltaic (PV) modules have been acknowledged as suitable candidates for addressing rising fresh water and electricity demands in these regions. In recent years, researchers have proposed a number of novel hybrid solar distillation units where the solar PV modules are integrated with solar thermal distillation units in different ways to harvest both electric power and potable water. In this work, a detailed review highlighting the classification, working principle, performance and features of these novel hybrid units have been carried out. In most of these hybrid units, integration is highly beneficial for solar thermal distillation units rather than for PV modules. Direct utilization of PV module as absorber, condenser and reflector in solar stills has few drawbacks. However, indirect utilization like utilizing electric power and waste heat energy recovered from PV module in distillation units has posed significant distillate yield enhancement up to 300.0%. In some cases, the integrated PV module has even generated sufficient power for carrying out essential domestic activities. Integrated PV module's performance has also improved significantly in few studies but the magnitude of improvement has not been disclosed clearly in most of the studies as more focus has been given to distillation units rather than PV modules. However, these novel hybrid configurations have not been fully explored & optimized and their techno-enviro-economic aspects have not yet been disclosed in these available precious literatures and they are still available as a potential research gap.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Solar Energy , Distillation , Electricity , Sunlight
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