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1.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2271942, 2024 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346353

ABSTRACT

AIM: The use of tobacco is responsible for many preventable diseases and deaths worldwide. Digital interventions have greatly improved patient health and clinical care and have proven to be effective for quitting smoking in the general population due to their flexibility and potential for personalization. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions for smoking cessation in Asian countries. METHODS: Three major databases - Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and PubMed - for relevant studies published between 1 January 2010 and 12 February 2023 were searched for studies evaluating the effectiveness of digital intervention for smoking cessation in Asian countries. RESULTS: A total of 25 studies of varying designs were eligible for this study collectively involving a total of n = 22,005 participants from 9 countries. Among different digital tools for smoking cessation, the highest abstinence rate (70%) was reported with cognitive behavioural theory (CBT)-based smoking cessation intervention via Facebook followed by smartphone app (60%), WhatsApp (59.9%), and Pharmacist counselling with Quit US smartphone app (58.4%). However, WhatsApp was preferred over Facebook intervention due to lower rates of relapse. WeChat was responsible for 15.6% and 41.8% 7-day point prevalence abstinence. For telephone/text messaging abstinence rate ranged from 8-44.3% and quit rates from 6.3% to 16.8%. Whereas, no significant impact of media/multimedia messages and web-based learning on smoking cessation was observed in this study. CONCLUSION: Based on the study findings the use of digital tools can be considered an alternative and cost-effective smoking cessation intervention as compared to traditional smoking cessation interventions.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Text Messaging , Humans , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Smoking/epidemiology , Counseling , Prevalence
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335937, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375336

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tobacco use is responsible for over 7 million deaths annually, making smoking the leading cause of preventable mortality globally. Over the last two decades in Italy, the prevalence of smoking among physicians has consistently decreased, while it remains higher and is gradually decreasing among non-physician healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, and knowledge on counteractive strategies among employees in the Primary Healthcare Facilities in the Province of Palermo, Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020 through a previously validated anonymous questionnaire structured in four sections including 34 items. Data were analyzed using Stata/MP 12.1 statistical software. Results: Overall, 2,645 participants answered the questionnaire. The prevalence of either current or former smokers was 18.6%. Based on the multivariable analysis conducted, a significantly higher frequency of current smokers was observed among male participants (AdjOR: 1.29; CI95%: 1.02-1.64) and those belonging to the Surgical Unit (AdjOR: 1.92; CI95%: 1.27-2.90). Conversely, the prevalence of current smokers was significantly lower among those with at least one child (AdjOR: 0.67; CI95%: 0.49-0.91), with an educational qualification equal to or greater than a graduation degree (AdjOR: 0.56; CI95%: 0.43-0.73), those who considered second-hand smoke harmful (AdjOR: 0.06; CI95%: 0.008-0.60), those who had observed smoking or detected the smell of smoke in their workplace (AdjOR: 0.64; CI95%: 0.45-0.91). Furthermore, the prevalence of current smokers was significantly lower among participants who believed that healthcare professionals could play a crucial role in influencing their patients' lifestyles (AdjOR: 0.67; CI95%: 0.50-0.90) and among those who recommend their patients to quit smoking (AdjOR: 0.35; CI95%: 0.24-0.51). Discussion: The results of the current research demonstrate that, despite the decline in smoking prevalence among physicians, the rate of smokers among healthcare facility employees remains unacceptably high. This underscores the need to re-evaluate current anti-tobacco strategies in the workplace.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Child , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Cessation/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Smoking/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1288170, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390198

ABSTRACT

Objective: Low back pain (LBP) has been associated with education in previous observational studies, but the causality remains unclear. This study aims to assess the impact of education on LBP and to explore mediation by multiple lifestyle factors. Design: Univariable Mendelian randomization (MR) was performed to examine the overall effect of education on LBP. Subsequently, multivariable MR was conducted to assess both the direct effect of education on LBP and the influence of potential mediators. Indirect effects were estimated using either the coefficient product method or the difference method, and the proportion of mediation was calculated by dividing the indirect effect by the total effect. The observational study utilized data from the NHANES database collected between 1999 and 2004, and included 15,580 participants aged 20 years and above. Results: Increasing education by 4.2 years leads to a 48% reduction in the risk of LBP (OR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.59). Compared to individuals with less than a high school education, those with education beyond high school have a 28% lower risk of LBP (OR=0.72; 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.83). In the MR study, smoking accounts for 12.8% (95% CI: 1.04% to 20.8%) of the total effect, while BMI accounts for 5.9% (95% CI: 2.99% to 8.55%). The combined mediation effect of smoking and BMI is 27.6% (95% CI: 23.99% to 32.7%). In the NHANES study, only smoking exhibits a mediating effect, accounting for 34.3% (95% CI: 21.07% to 41.65%) of the effect, while BMI does not demonstrate a mediating role. Conclusions: Higher levels of education provide a protective effect against the risk of LBP. Additionally, implementing interventions to reduce smoking and promote weight loss among individuals with lower levels of education can also decrease this risk.

4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1330606, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362221

ABSTRACT

Objective: Sepsis constitutes a significant global healthcare burden. Studies suggest a correlation between educational attainment and the likelihood of developing sepsis. Our goal was to utilize Mendelian randomization (MR) in order to examine the causal connection between educational achievement (EA) and sepsis, while measuring the mediating impacts of adjustable variables. Methods: We collected statistical data summarizing educational achievement (EA), mediators, and sepsis from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Employing a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we calculated the causal impact of education on sepsis. Following this, we performed multivariable MR analyses to assess the mediation proportions of various mediators, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, omega-3 fatty acids, and apolipoprotein A-I(ApoA-I). Results: Genetic prediction of 1-SD (4.2 years) increase in educational attainment (EA) was negatively correlated with sepsis risk (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.96). Among the four identified mediators, ranked proportionally, they including BMI (38.8%), smoking (36.5%), ApoA-I (6.3%) and omega-3 (3.7%). These findings remained robust across a variety of sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: The findings of this study provided evidence for the potential preventive impact of EA on sepsis, which may be influenced by factors including and metabolic traits and smoking. Enhancing interventions targeting these factors may contribute to reducing the burden of sepsis.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I , Sepsis , Humans , Apolipoprotein A-I/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Smoking , Educational Status
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 500, 2024 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking remains a key cause of preventable illness and death globally. In response, many countries provide extensive services to help people to stop smoking by offering a variety of effective behavioural and pharmacological therapies. However, many people who wish to stop smoking do not have access to or use stop smoking supports, and new modes of support, including the use of financial incentives, are needed to address this issue. A realist review of published international literature was undertaken to understand how, why, for whom, and in which circumstances financial incentives contribute to success in stopping smoking for general population groups and among pregnant women. METHODS: Systematic searches were undertaken from inception to February 2022 of five academic databases: MEDLINE (ovid), Embase.com, CIHAHL, Scopus and PsycINFO. Study selection was inclusive of all study designs. Twenty-two studies were included. Using Pawson and Tilley's iterative realist review approach, data collected were screened, selected, coded, analysed, and synthesised into a set of explanatory theoretical findings. RESULTS: Data were synthesised into six Context-Mechanism-Outcome Configurations and one overarching programme theory after iterative rounds of analysis, team discussion, and expert panel feedback. Our programme theory shows that financial incentives are particularly useful to help people stop smoking if they have a financial need, are pregnant or recently post-partum, have a high threshold for behaviour change, and/or respond well to external rewards. The incentives work through a number of mechanisms including the role their direct monetary value can play in a person's life and through a process of reinforcement where they can help build confidence and self-esteem. CONCLUSION: This is the first realist review to synthesise how, why, and for whom financial incentives work among those attempting to stop smoking, adding to the existing evidence demonstrating their efficacy. The findings will support the implementation of current knowledge into effective programmes which can enhance the impact of stop smoking care. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022298941.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Motivation , Smoking , Pregnant Women , Tobacco Smoking
6.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 53, 2024 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant policy change impacting the availability of nicotine for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in Australia took effect from October 1, 2021. This change meant that nicotine containing liquids for use with e-cigarettes would only be available by prescription from a medical practitioner as part of a smoking cessation plan. This study aimed to explore general practitioners (GPs) perceptions about the role of e-cigarettes, and understand factors informing their intentions to prescribe e-cigarettes as part of a smoking cessation plan. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen GPs. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to classify, describe and report themes in the data. QSR NVivo was used to aid coding, thematic analysis and retrieval of quotes. RESULTS: Participants had diverse views on recommending and prescribing e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids to patients. Some participants were willing to prescribe e-cigarettes to patients if other methods of smoking cessation had not worked but there were concerns, and uncertainty, about the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. There was poor understanding of the current policy and legislation about e-cigarettes in Australia. Mostly the participants in this sample did not feel confident or comfortable to prescribe, or have discussions about e-cigarettes with patients. CONCLUSION: The participants of this study held diverse attitudes on recommending and prescribing e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Clarity in guidelines and consumer product information are required to enable GPs to provide consistent and accurate advice to patients that wish to use e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , General Practitioners , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Nicotine , Intention , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Australia
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 26(Supplement_1): S27-S35, 2024 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social media platforms are promising to provide smoking cessation support. This study aimed to identify baseline factors associated with cigarette smoking abstinence among young adult smokers enrolled in a real-world social media-based smoking cessation program. AIMS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from young adult smokers (aged 18-30 years) participating in a publicly available Facebook-based smoking cessation program serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The analytic sample consisted of 248 participants who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys at 3 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined baseline factors significantly associated with self-reported 7-day cigarette smoking abstinence at 3 months. RESULTS: Participants were race/ethnically diverse, well-educated, and 47.6% reported LGB + sexual identity. Those who reported dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the past 30 days (vs. cigarette use only), current alcohol users (vs. non-users), and those aged 25-30 years (vs. 18-24 years) were significantly less likely to report 7-day abstinence at 3 months. Non-daily smokers (vs. daily smokers) and those with high desire to quit smoking (vs. low to moderate desire) were more likely to report abstinence. Results also showed reduction in the percentage of e-cigarette and other tobacco product use among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Social media interventions may be more effective for young adult non-daily smokers and those with high desire to quit smoking. Smoking cessation programs may help reduce use of other tobacco products among treatment-seeking smokers. Smoking cessation interventions for young adults need to explicitly address dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes and use of alcohol. IMPLICATIONS: Findings of this study highlight the need for future interventions to address dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes and use of alcohol to improve cigarette smoking abstinence outcomes. The reduction in the use of other tobacco products among program participants indicates that social media smoking cessation programs may exert a broader positive influence on overall tobacco consumption. The large number of LGB+ smokers participating in the program suggests social media is a promising cessation channel for this hard-to-reach group, warranting further study.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Social Media , Humans , Young Adult , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smokers
9.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 19(1): 13, 2024 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance abuse, particularly tobacco smoking, is a significant global public health concern. Efforts have been made to reduce smoking prevalence and promote cessation, but challenges, such as nicotine addiction, marketing tactics by tobacco industry, and cultural acceptability hinder progress. Technology has emerged as a potential tool to address these challenges by providing innovative scalable interventions. The objective of the study was to analyze and map scientific literature on technology-based intervention for tobacco prevention and treatment. METHODS: A bibliometric methodology was conducted. Scopus database was used to retrieve relevant research articles published between 2003 and 2022. The analysis included publication trends, key contributors, research hotspots, research themes, the most impactful articles, and emerging research topics. RESULTS: A total of 639 articles were found, with a slow and fluctuating growth pattern observed after 2011. The Journal of Medical Internet Research was the most prominent journal in the field. The United States was the leading country in the field, followed up by the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Research hotspots included smoking cessation, randomized controlled trials, and technology-based methods such as internet, mHealth, smartphone apps, text messages, and social media. Four primary research themes were identified: development of smartphone applications, efficacy of text messaging interventions, acceptance and effectiveness of smartphone applications, and interventions targeting young adults and students using mobile phone and social media platforms. The top 10 cited articles demonstrated effectiveness of digital interventions in promoting smoking cessation rates and reducing relapse rates. Emerging research topics included the use of virtual reality interventions, interventions for specific populations through personalized tools, and technology-based interventions in non-Western countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study highlight the potential of technology to address the challenges associated with tobacco smoking. Further future research in this area is warranted to continue advancing the field and developing effective and evidence-based interventions to combat tobacco smoking.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Smoking Cessation , Text Messaging , Humans , Smoking , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Prevention , Bibliometrics , Social Media
10.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948241227305, 2024 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking and poor mental health in youth represent important public health priorities. This study aimed to (i) compare tobacco-related behaviors and mental health in two educational settings with high smoking rates: vocational education and training (VET) schools and preparatory basic education (PBE) schools, and (ii) examine associations between smoking at school start and mental health 5 months later. METHODS: Data were obtained from baseline (N = 1843) and follow-up (N = 1039) assessments conducted as part of a school-based trial in two rounds (baseline in August 2018 and August 2019). Students' characteristics were presented by adjusted prevalences. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations between smoking and measures of mental health: school-related well-being, overall loneliness, and stress. RESULTS: More PBE students than VET students reported daily smoking (40% vs. 27%), nicotine dependence, perceived benefits of smoking (e.g., stress reduction: 41% vs. 33%), low smoking-related self-efficacy (e.g., ability to resist smoking if offered by a friend: 20% vs. 32%), school-related loneliness, and low school connectedness (25% vs. 11%). Daily smokers at VET and PBE schools had lower odds of school-related loneliness (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.74) and higher odds of stress (AOR = 2.75, 95% CI: 2.00-3.80). Smoking was associated with better classmate relations in VET schools but not in PBE schools. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that students in PBE schools constitute a more vulnerable group in terms of smoking and mental health compared with students in VET schools. Smoking seemed to prevent loneliness in school but was associated with heightened stress levels.

11.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52102, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344627

ABSTRACT

In an era marked by increasing awareness of the detrimental effects of smoking on our health, the efficacy of smoking cessation strategies is of great significance. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness and success rates of various pharmacological and behavioral interventions, and different strategies have been proposed to optimize successful implementation. As we battle the global tobacco epidemic, it is important to better understand how to support individuals looking toward a smoke-free life. This review commences by highlighting the burden of smoking as a public health concern, exploring various smoking cessation interventions, and assessing their effectiveness and success rates. Our attention then shifts toward strategies for putting these interventions into action while highlighting challenges in implementation, ranging from individual to socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, this review sheds light on the need to tailor interventions to suit diverse populations, taking varying individual characteristics into account. We conclude this review by discussing future directions and emerging trends, considering the roles modern technology and policies can play in aiding smoking cessation.

12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated smoking differences across nativity and race/ethnicity among women diagnosed with breast cancer. METHODS: In our Northern Californian pooled population of 5,653 [670 Asian, 690 Hispanic, and 4,300 Non-Hispanic White (White)] women diagnosed with breast cancer, we evaluated smoking differences across nativity, race/ethnicity, and acculturation and effect modification of nativity by race/ethnicity and education. RESULTS: Foreign-born women currently smoked less than US-born women [odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, 95% confidence limit (CL): 0.29, 0.72]. Hispanic (OR = 0.50, 95% CL: 0.32, 0.78) women currently smoked less than White women. Among those who ever smoked (n = 2,557), foreign-born women smoked 5.23 fewer pack-years (PY) than US-born women (95% CL: -2.75, -7.70). Furthermore, Asian (-4.60, 95% CL: -0.81, -8.39) and Hispanic (-6.79, 95% CL: -4.14, -9.43) women smoked fewer PY than White women. Associations were generally suggestive of greater smoking with greater acculturation (immigration age, US years, survey language). Finally, associations for nativity differed by education but not race/ethnicity, with a higher likelihood of smoking in US-born women only among those with less than a bachelor's degree (OR = 2.84, 95% CL: 2.15, 3.77) (current smoking: p = 0.01, PY: p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Asian and Hispanic (vs. White) and foreign-born (vs. US-born) breast cancer survivors reported fewer smoking behaviors. Smoking differences across nativity and education were driven by higher rates of smoking in US-born women with lower educational attainment. IMPACT: Smoking behavioral patterns were similar among breast cancer survivors and the general population, informing potential smoking interventions.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 85, 2024 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336930

ABSTRACT

The significant heterogeneity in smoking behavior among smokers, coupled with the inconsistent efficacy of approved smoking cessation therapies, supports the presence of individual variations in the mechanisms underlying smoking. This emphasizes the need to shift from standardized to personalized smoking cessation therapies. However, informed precision medicine demands precision fundamental research. Tobacco smoking is influenced and sustained by diverse psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and environmental stimuli. In the classical experimental rodent model for studying tobacco dependence, namely intravenous self-administration of nicotine, seeking behavior is reinforced by the combined delivery of nicotine and a discrete cue (nicotine+cue). Whether self-administration behavior is driven by the same psychopharmacological mechanisms across individual rats remains unknown and unexplored. To address this, we employed behavioral pharmacology and unbiased cluster analysis to investigate individual differences in the mechanisms supporting classical intravenous nicotine self-administration (0.04 mg/kg/infusion) in male outbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Our analysis identified two clusters: one subset of rats sought nicotine primarily for its reinforcing effects, while the second subset sought nicotine to enhance the reinforcing effects of the discrete cue. Varenicline (1 mg/kg i.p.) reduced seeking behavior in the former group, whereas it tended to increase in the latter group. Crucially, despite this fundamental qualitative difference revealed by behavioral manipulation, the two clusters exhibited quantitatively identical nicotine+cue self-administration behavior. The traditional application of rodent models to study the reinforcing and addictive effects of nicotine may mask individual variability in the underlying motivational mechanisms. Accounting for this variability could significantly enhance the predictive validity of translational research.


Subject(s)
Psychopharmacology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Rats , Male , Animals , Nicotine/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Motivation , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Self Administration , Cues
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338915

ABSTRACT

To maximize the advantages offered by Caenorhabditis elegans as a high-throughput (HTP) model for nicotine dependence studies, utilizing its well-defined neuroconnectome as a robust platform, and to unravel the genetic basis of nicotine-motivated behaviors, we established the nicotine conditioned cue preference (CCP) paradigm. Nicotine CCP enables the assessment of nicotine preference and seeking, revealing a parallel to fundamental aspects of nicotine-dependent behaviors observed in mammals. We demonstrated that nicotine-elicited cue preference in worms is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and requires dopamine for CCP development. Subsequently, we pinpointed nAChR subunits associated with nicotine preference and validated human GWAS candidates linked to nicotine dependence involved in nAChRs. Functional validation involves assessing the loss-of-function strain of the CACNA2D3 ortholog and the knock-out (KO) strain of the CACNA2D2 ortholog, closely related to CACNA2D3 and sharing human smoking phenotypes. Our orthogonal approach substantiates the functional conservation of the α2δ subunit of the calcium channel in nicotine-motivated behavior. Nicotine CCP in C. elegans serves as a potent affirmation of the cross-species functional relevance of GWAS candidate genes involved in nicotine seeking associated with tobacco abuse, providing a streamlined yet comprehensive system for investigating intricate behavioral paradigms within a simplified and reliable framework.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Nicotinic , Tobacco Use Disorder , Animals , Humans , Nicotine/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics , Tobacco Use Disorder/genetics , Receptors, Nicotinic/genetics , Motivation , Mammals
15.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 33, 2024 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to a recently published study, approximately half of those who currently smoke in Norway have little or no desire to quit despite a hostile regulatory and socio-cultural climate for smoking. On this background, we discuss some challenges that regulators will face in a further tightening of structural measures to curb smoking. MAIN BODY: Central to our discussion is the research literature concerned with the concept of state-paternalism in tobacco control-the line between an ethically justified interference with the freedom of those who smoke and an exaggerated infringement disproportionate to the same people's right to live as they choose. In countries with an already advanced infrastructure for tobacco control, this dilemma might become quite intrusive for regulators. We ask that if people, who smoke are aware of and have accepted the risks, are willing to pay the price, smoke exclusively in designated areas, and make decisions uninfluenced by persuasive messages from manufacturers-is a further tightening of anti-smoking measures still legitimate? Strengthening of the infrastructure for tobacco control can be seen as a "help" to people who-due to some sort of "decision failure"-continue to smoke against their own will. However, for those who want to continue smoking for reasons that for them appear rational, such measures may appear unwanted, punitive, and coercive. Is it within the rights of regulators to ignore peoples' self-determination for the sake of their own good? We problematize the "help" argument and discuss the authorities' right to elevate the zero-vision of smoking as universally applicable while at the same time setting up barriers to switching to alternative nicotine products with reduced risk. CONCLUSION: We recommend that a further intensification of smoking control in countries that already have a well-developed policy in this area requires that regulators start to exploit the opportunity that lies in the ongoing diversification of the recreational nicotine market.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Nicotine , Smoking Prevention , Norway
16.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 43(2): 371-380, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258463

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To address gaps in existing research, the current study used a mixed-methods approach to describe, contextualise and understand harm perceptions of vaping nicotine relative to cigarette smoking and associations with nicotine and tobacco (NT) use among young adults who identify their genders and sexualities in ways that classify them as sexual and gender minorities (SGM). METHODS: Results are based on cross-sectional surveys and online qualitative interviews with 98 SGM young adults (18-25 years old) in California's San Francisco Bay Area who currently or formerly used combustible tobacco. We generated a measure assessing participants' relative harm perceptions of e-cigarette use versus cigarette smoking and identified those who perceived cigarette smoking as more harmful than e-cigarette use compared to those who perceived it to be equally or less harmful. RESULTS: We found that relative harm perceptions of cigarette smoking versus e-cigarette use are likely related to much uncertainty and confusion about the harms of e-cigarette use. Moreover, findings illustrate that public health messages regarding the risks of e-cigarette use may have unintended consequences of increasing cigarette use to replace e-cigarette use for some SGM young adults, a practice that is incongruent with scientific evidence demonstrating that cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products are riskier than e-cigarettes and other forms of NT use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the need for evidence-based, clear, and direct messaging about the relative harms of cigarettes versus e-cigarettes to reduce NT-related inequities in SGM populations.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adolescent , Adult , Nicotine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
17.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 1, 2024 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although more than half of the habitual smokers recognize that they want to quit smoking cigarettes, approximately half have failed to quit and experienced distress relapse; therefore, there is an urgent need to focus on these populations. When chronic behavior occurs, it is necessary to view the behavior in the context of the entire life of the person involved, considering the history of the person. In this study, we aimed to describe experiences with smoking from the onset to the present and the need for smoking cessation among habitual smokers in Japan and to explore efforts to address them. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews that lasted for 55-90 min were conducted with the cooperation of 16 habitual smokers who smoked cigarettes daily. The content of the interviews included demographic characteristics, experiences with smoking from the onset to the present, whether they have attempted to quit and related experiences, and their thoughts on smoking. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. The Medical Research Ethics Review Committee of Jikei University approved this study (approval number: 33-384(11008)). RESULTS: The participants were aged 26-59 years (mean ± SD: 40.8 ± 8.9 years) and included 10 men and 6 women. The participants started smoking between age 13 and 24 years. The highest number of cigarettes smoked in the participants' lives ranged from 10 to 80 daily, and 12 participants had attempted to quit smoking so far without success. Regarding experiences with smoking from the onset to the present, four themes of "expand one's world," "unconscious attachment," "attempts and failures," and "losing oneself" were extracted. Regarding the need for smoking cessation, four themes of "empowerment from experts," "peer interaction," "social commitment," and "recovery of confidence" were extracted. CONCLUSION: To support smoking cessation from the perspective of habitual smokers, in addition to improvements through the existing approaches, it is important to recover their confidence using ongoing activities in peer groups according to the target background and support from experts incorporating visual assessments of lung function, along with multiple short-term goals. It is also necessary to raise awareness in communities through activities.


Subject(s)
Smokers , Smoking Cessation , Male , Humans , Female , Japan/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Health Behavior
18.
Addict Behav Rep ; 19: 100529, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38283066

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Exposure to smokers has been identified as a predictor of adolescent tobacco use. Conversely, adolescents who tend to be advocates against smoking may become less likely to initiate smoking themselves. Several digital tobacco prevention programs have been developed to include social strategies. This study aimed to identify (1) whether programs can motivate adolescents to become advocates against smoking, and (2) if being an advocate against smoking and exposure to friends who smoke can predict smoking while controlling for a program's effect. Methods: We conducted a non-prespecified secondary analysis using data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 18-month follow-up. High schools were randomized to either receive ASPIRE or a tobacco education booklet. We conducted a cross-lagged linear path model to allow for reciprocal associations, estimating a two-time-points, three-variable panel model with logistic regression. Results: Receiving ASPIRE was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking, but it did not predict becoming an advocate against smoking or changing adolescents' proportion of friends who smoke. After controlling for the effect of ASPIRE, the study shows that adolescents who were advocates against smoking had a decreased risk of smoking by follow-up, and smoking at baseline significantly predicted having a higher proportion of friends who smoke at follow-up. Discussion: Being an advocate against smoking can be a key predictor of lower odds of smoking, even when controlling for an individual-based intervention. Future research can study the mechanisms and long-term effects of advocacy and incorporate social strategies that can leverage social networks for tobacco prevention.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 45, 2024 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is an effective model for facilitating behavioral change. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of TPB-based educational interventions on oral cancer-related knowledge and tobacco smoking behavior in an Iranian adult population in 2022. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 400 healthy individuals were enrolled. The study was implemented in 20 urban health centers in the south of Tehran, Iran. The health centers were randomly allocated into two intervention groups. In group PowerPoint (PP), the participants received education through a 20-minute PowerPoint presentation complemented by a pamphlet. Group WhatsApp (WA) was educated via WhatsApp messages and images. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire at baseline, and at one- and three-month follow-ups. The outcomes were evaluated in terms of knowledge, tobacco smoking behavior, and the related model constructs i.e. intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression models were applied to assess the effect of interventions on repeated measurements of the outcomes. All analyses were conducted using STATA Software Version 17. RESULTS: Out of all the participants, 249 (62%) were women. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of age were 39.67 and 13.80 years. Overall, group PP had a significantly higher score of knowledge compared to group WA (ß = 0.43, p = 0.005). No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to tobacco smoking and the related TPB constructs, except for attitude with a higher score in group PP compared to group WA (ß = 0.50, p = 0.004). At the three-month follow-up, both interventions had significant effects on increasing knowledge (ß = 4.41), decreasing tobacco smoking (OR = 0.54), and increasing intention (ß = 1.11), attitude (ß = 1.22), subjective norm (ß = 1.37), and perceived behavioral control (ß = 1.08) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both interventions were effective in improving knowledge, tobacco smoking, and the TPB constructs after three months. Therefore, the application of both methods could be considered in the design and implementation of oral cancer prevention programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial protocol was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) on 04/03/2022 (registration number: IRCT20220221054086N1).


Subject(s)
Mouth Neoplasms , Theory of Planned Behavior , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Iran/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Tobacco Smoking , Behavior Control
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 65, 2024 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tobacco use has posed a tremendous public health problem for China. The Chinese government has taken great efforts to curb the tobacco epidemic. However, the existing smoking cessation services available in China are underused and have some limitations. Our research team intends to develop a smartphone smoking cessation application (SSC APP) and integrate it with the existing smoking cessation services. This study aims to assess the efficacy of the SSC APP developed by our research team through a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: Current smokers who are motivated to quit within 1 month (n = 1000) will be recruited both online and offline, and all potential participants will register and complete the prescreening assessment online. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the intervention group (receiving the SSC APP and a self-help smoking cessation manual) or the control group (receiving a self-help smoking cessation manual only) using a block randomization method. This study will be a two-arm, single-blind, parallel-group RCT. Participants will be followed up after enrollment through online questionnaires or by phone call. The primary outcome is self-reported 6-month continuous abstinence. The main secondary outcomes include self-reported 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at each follow-up; self-reported 3-month continuous abstinence; reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day; and the number of recent quit attempts. DISCUSSION: If this SSC APP proves to be effective, it could be integrated with the existing smoking cessation services and further facilitate smoking cessation at the population level in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2200062097, Registered July 22, 2022.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smokers , Health Behavior , Behavior Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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