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1.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605094

ABSTRACT

Alphaviruses are globally distributed and predominately transmitted by mosquitoes. Aedes species are common vectors for the clinically important alphaviruses-Chikungunya, Sindbis, and Ross River (RRV) viruses-with Aedes aegypti also being a vector for the flaviviruses dengue, Yellow Fever, and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti was putatively implicated in the large 1979-1980 South Pacific Islands outbreak of RRV-the leading cause of arboviral disease in Australia today. The RNA interference (RNAi) defense response in mosquitoes involves a number of small RNAs, with their kinetics induced by alphaviruses being poorly understood, particularly at the tissue level. We compared the small RNA profiles between RRV-infected and noninfected Ae. aegypti midgut and fat body tissues at 2, 6, and 12 days post-inoculation (dpi). RRV induced an incremental RNAi response, yielding short interfering and P-element-induced-wimpy-testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs. Fourteen host microRNAs were differentially expressed due to RRV with the majority in the fat body at 2 dpi. The largely congruent pattern of microRNA regulation with previous reports for alphaviruses and divergence from those for flaviviruses suggests a degree of conservation, whereas patterns of microRNA expression unique to this study provide novel insights into the tissuespecific hostvirus attributes of Ae. aegypti responses to this previously unexplored oldworld alphavirus.

2.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 43-50, 2020 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645549

ABSTRACT

The CD8 T cell response to the HLA-A2-restricted epitope LLWNGPMAV (LLW) of the non-structural protein 4b of Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) is remarkably immunodominant, highly prevalent and powerful in YFV-vaccinated humans. Here we used a combinatorial peptide library screening in the context of an A2/LLW-specific CD8 T cell clone to identify a superagonist that features a methionine to isoleucine substitution at position 7. Based on in silico modeling, the functional enhancement of this LLW-7I mutation was associated with alterations in the structural dynamics of the peptide in the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) binding with the T cell receptor (TCR). While the TCR off-rate of LLW-7I pMHC is comparable to the wild type peptide, the rigidity of the 7I peptide seems to confer less entropy loss upon TCR binding. This LLW-7I superagonist is an example of improved functionality in human CD8 T cells associated with optimized ligand rigidity for TCR binding and not with changes in TCR:pMHC off-rate kinetics.

3.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes remain one of the most significant threats to the health of humans throughout the world. This study was designed to evaluate the biting deterrent effects of a series of ester analogs of undecanoic (C:11:0) and dodecanoic acids (C:12:0) against Aedes aegypti (L), (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever mosquito, using K&D and A&K bioassay systems. RESULTS: In the K&D bioassays, C:11:0 esters methyl undecanoate, propyl undecanoate, butyl undecanoate, and pentyl undecanoate, and the C:12:0 esters methyl dodecanoate, ethyl dodecanoate, propyl dodecanoate, octyl dodecanoate, and dodecyl dodecanoate were most active. All of these esters were as effective as DEET and as effective as the parent acids undecanoic acid and dodecanoic acid with biting deterrence index (BDI) values ranging from 0.80 to 0.99. In the in-vitro A&K bioassay undecanoic acid with a minimum effective dose (MED) of 3.125 µg/cm2 was the most active compound and showed higher activity than DEET (MED of 25 µg/cm2 ). The most active synthetic analog was butyl undecanoate with an MED of 12.5 µg/cm2 . The next most active analogs are the methyl ester analogs methyl undecanoate and methyl dodecanoate both with MED values of 25 µg/cm2 . CONCLUSION: Fatty acid synthetic esters and structural analogs are a promising source of new mosquito repelling compounds and should be investigated further. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (38): 61-74, Jan.-Jun. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1090087

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo discutir as percepções dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e Agentes de Combate a Endemias sobre o processo de orientação da população quanto à prevenção e controle do Aedes Aegypti. Tratase de estudo descritivo-exploratório de natureza qualitativa, realizado com 07 Agentes de Combate a Endemias e 12 Agentes Comunitários de Saúde em uma cidade no interior da Bahia, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, gravada com auxílio de gravador e analisado através da técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo, que permitiu a construção de discursos coletivos. Os resultados mostram que na percepção de tais profissionais, a população não contribui para a prevenção e controle do Aedes Aegypti de modo eficaz, deixando apenas que os profissionais em questão atuem de forma ativa, sendo que este trabalho deve ser em conjunto com a população e os Agentes. Concluímos que com base nos resultados obtidos a população é orientada quanto aos cuidados para a prevenção do AA, no entanto, grande parte das pessoas não colocam em prática o que é pasado para eles, sendo assim, existe a necessidade de implementação de atividades para sensibilização deles.


Abstract This study aimed to discuss the perceptions of Community Health Agents and Endemic Control Agents on the process of guiding the population regarding the prevention and control of Aedes Aegypti. This is a descriptive and exploratory study of qualitative nature, conducted with 07 Endemic Disease Agents and 12 Community Health Agents in a city in the interior of Bahia, whose data were collected through semi-structured interviews, recorded with the aid of tape recorder and analyzed through the technique of collective subject discourse, which allowed the construction of collective discourses. The results show that in the perception of such professionals, the population does not contribute to the prevention and control of Aedes Aegypti effectively, leaving only the professionals in question to act actively, and this work should be together with the population and the agents. We conclude that based on the results obtained the population is oriented towards care for the prevention of AA, however, most people do not put into practice what is passed on to them, so there is a need to implement activities to raise awareness of them.


Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo discutir las percepciones de los Agentes de Salud Comunitaria y los Agentes de Control Endémico sobre el proceso de orientación de la población con respecto a la prevención y el control del Aedes Aegypti. Este es un estudio descriptivo y exploratorio de naturaleza cualitativa, realizado con 07 Agentes de Enfermedades Endémicas y 12 Agentes de Salud Comunitaria en una ciudad del interior de Bahía, cuyos datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, registradas con la ayuda de una grabadora y analizados a través de la técnica del discurso del sujeto colectivo, que permitió la construcción de discursos colectivos. Los resultados muestran que, en la percepción de tales profesionales, la población no contribuye a la prevención y al control del Aedes Aegypti de manera efectiva, dejando solamente a los profesionales en cuestión para que actúen activamente, y este trabajo debe ser realizado juntamente con la población y con los agentes. Concluimos que, en base a los resultados obtenidos, la población está orientada hacia la atención para la prevención de AA, sin embargo, la mayoría de las personas no ponen en práctica lo que se les transmite, por lo que es necesario implementar actividades para crear conciencia sobre ellos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Prevention/education , Brazil , Public Health , Community Health Workers , Community Health Services , Endemic Diseases , Aedes , Public Health Surveillance
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234242, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520941

ABSTRACT

Many vector-borne diseases circulate in the Republic of Cabo Verde. These include malaria during the colonization of the archipelago by the Portuguese explorers and several arboviruses such as yellow fever (now eradicated), dengue and zika. To control these vector-borne diseases, an integrated vector control program was implemented. The main targeted mosquito vectors are Aedes aegypti and Anopheles arabiensis, and in a lesser extent the potential arbovirus vector Culex pipiens s.l. The main control strategy is focused on mosquito aquatic stages using diesel oil and Temephos. This latter has been applied in Cabo Verde since 1979. Its continuous use was followed by the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations. We investigated the current susceptibility to Temephos of the three potential mosquito vectors of Cabo Verde through bioassays tests. Our results showed various degrees of susceptibility with 24h post-exposure mortality rates ranging from 43.1% to 90.9% using WHO diagnostic doses. A full susceptibility was however observed with Bacillus thurigiensis var israelensis with mortality rates from 99.6% to 100%.

7.
J Virol ; 2020 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554698

ABSTRACT

The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of several flaviviruses, including West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, is capable of inducing variable degrees of protection against flavivirus infection in animal models. However, the immunogenicity of NS1 protein of Zika virus (ZIKV) is less understood. Here, we determined the efficacy of ZIKV NS1-based vaccine candidates using two delivery platforms, methyltransferase-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV) and a DNA vaccine. We first show that expression of ZIKV NS1 could be significantly enhanced by optimizing the signal peptide. A single dose of mtdVSV-NS1-based vaccine or two doses of DNA vaccine induced high levels of NS1-specfic antibody and T cell immune responses but provided only partial protection against ZIKV viremia in BALB/c mice. In Ifnar1-/- mice, neither NS1-based vaccine provided protection against a lethal high dose (105 PFU) ZIKV challenge, but mtdVSV-NS1-based vaccine prevented deaths from a low dose (103 PFU) challenge, though they experienced viremia and body weight loss. We conclude that ZIKV NS1 alone conferred substantial, but not complete, protection against ZIKV infection. Nevertheless, these results highlight the value of ZIKV NS1 for vaccine development.Importance Most Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine research has focused on the E or prM-E proteins and the induction of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. However, these ZIKV neutralizing antibodies cross react with other flaviviruses, which may aggravate the disease via an Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE) mechanism. ZIKV NS1 protein may be an alternative antigen for vaccine development, as antibodies to NS1 do not bind to the virion, thereby eliminating the risk of ADE. Here we show that recombinant VSV and DNA vaccines expressing NS1, alone, confer partial protection against ZIKV infection in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice, highlighting the value of NS1 as a potential vaccine candidate.

8.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(3): e2019402, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555932

ABSTRACT

Objective to describe the completeness of data on yellow fever notification forms in the municipalities of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in 2017. Methods this is a descriptive ecological study with data from the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System (SINAN); form completeness was categorized as poor (<70.0%), regular (70-89.9%) or excellent (≥90.0%); thematic maps were prepared. Results 53.1% of the municipalities had poor or regular classification for many notification form variables, especially case Final Classification (57.1%), Confirmation/Dismissal Criterion (63.2%) and Closure Date (26.5%), which are required fields. Conclusion completeness was poor or regular for several variables, pointing to the need for a systematic assessment of information on yellow fever held on SINAN.

9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491144

ABSTRACT

Eleven lactating women were inadvertently vaccinated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine in a small city of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Their infants were being exclusively breast-fed and the breastfeeding was interrupted for 10 days. Serum and breastmilk were collected from the vaccinated mothers and tested for the presence of genomic RNA of the vaccine strain 8, 10 and 15 days after vaccination. Viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum and human milk samples tested and the infants remained asymptomatic. Our result strengthens the effectineness of stopping breastfeeding for 10 days after the inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of lactating women.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Milk, Human/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , Brazil , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , RNA, Viral/blood , Yellow Fever/transmission , Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage
10.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484514

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are one of the most important disease vector species in the world. Many species have a high degree of anthropophilia and are often found in human habitations. In the present study, we have inventoried the nocturnal mosquito assemblage in intra-, peri-, and extradomicile environments in four municipalities in Pará, Brazil. At each municipality, a residence was selected and the mosquitoes were sampled using the protected human attraction capture and Shannon trap methods in April (rainy season) and August 2018 (dry season). We have collected a total of 696 mosquito specimens belonging to 8 genera and 17 species. The most abundant species were Mansonia (Mansonoides) titillans (Walker) (366/696, 52.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga (97/696, 13.9%), and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say (93/696, 13.4%). Mosquito richness, abundance, and composition did not differ between intra-, peri-, and extradomicile environments suggesting limited habitat segregation among the different species. However, mosquito species richness and mosquito species abundance were significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season, suggesting increased mosquito activity during the rainy season. We detected several important vector species of human diseases including Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) venezuelensis (Theobald), and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus which are the main transmitters of dengue, malaria, yellow fever, mayaro, and oropouche fever, respectively. As inventories of disease-carrying mosquitoes in the region are very scarce, mainly in residential environments, our results suggest high potential for mosquito-borne disease transmission in Pará State.

11.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484559

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. Insecticides used in mosquito control can help prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases. However, it is essential to determine insecticide resistance (IR) status before control measures are undertaken. Only the most effective insecticides should be used to avoid ineffective control and/or promotion of IR. Pyrethroids and organophosphates are the most commonly used insecticides for mosquito control. Here, the efficacy of two active ingredients (AIs; permethrin [pyrethroid], chlorpyrifos [organophosphate]), two formulated products (FPs; Biomist [AI: permethrin]) and (Mosquitomist [AI: chlorpyrifos]), and three synergists (piperonyl butoxide, diethyl maleate, S-S-S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) was evaluated in two Ae. aegypti colonies (pyrethroid resistant and susceptible). Mosquitomist was most effective against the pyrethroid-resistant colony (100% mortality at diagnostic time). Pre-exposure to synergists did not increase the efficacy of AIs against the pyrethroid-resistant colony. Further research is needed to discover how synergists may affect the efficacy of insecticides when used on pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008367, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530921

ABSTRACT

As Aedes aegypti continues to expand its global distribution, the diseases it vectors (dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever) are of increasing concern. Modern efforts to control this species include "rear and release" strategies where lab-reared mosquitoes are distributed throughout the landscape to replace or suppress invasive populations. These programs require intensive surveillance efforts to monitor their success, and the Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap is one of the most effective tools for sampling adult Ae. aegypti. BGS trap catches can be highly variable throughout landscapes, so we investigated the potential impacts of environmental factors on adult Ae. aegypti capture rates during a "rear and release" program in California to better understand the relative contributions of true variability in population density across a landscape and trap context. We recorded male and female Ae. aegypti catches from BGS traps, with and without CO2, throughout control sites where no mosquitoes were released and in treatment sites where males infected with Wolbachia were released. BGS trap catches were positively influenced by higher proportions of shade or bushes in the front yard of the premises as well as the presence of potential larval habitats such as subterranean vaults. In contrast, an increase in residential habitat within a 100 m radius of trap locations negatively influenced BGS trap catches. For male Ae. aegypti, increased visual complexity of the trap location positively influenced capture rates, and the presence of yard drains negatively affected catch rates in control sites. Lastly, for BGS traps using CO2, higher catch rates were noted from traps placed greater than one meter from walls or fences for both male and female mosquitoes. These results have important implications for surveillance programs of Ae. aegypti throughout the Californian urban environment including adult monitoring during "rear and release" programs.

13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200152, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578715

ABSTRACT

During the yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Brazil, many cases of fulminant hepatitis were seen, although mild to moderate hepatitis was mostly observed with complete recovery. This report presents a case of late-onset hepatitis due to YF relapse. The patient sought medical attention after jaundice recurrence 40 days after the first YF hepatitis episode. This case highlights the importance of patient follow-up after the complete resolution of YF symptoms and discharge.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis/complications , Yellow Fever/complications , Adult , Hepatitis/immunology , Humans , Male , Recurrence
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 181, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIKV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses circulate in sylvatic transmission cycles in southeastern Senegal, where they share common hosts and vectors. All three viruses undergo periodic amplifications, during which they are detected in mosquitoes and sometimes in hosts. However, little is known about their spatio-temporal patterns in years in which they undergo concurrent amplification. The aim of this study was to describe the co-amplification of ZIKV, CHIKV, and YFV, and the daily dynamics of these arboviruses and theirs vectors within villages in southeastern Senegal. RESULTS: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from July to December 2015. Each evening, from 6 to 9 PM, landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in 70 sites situated in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, barren, and village (indoor and outdoor) land covers. Collections within villages were continued until 6 AM. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. Seventy-five mosquito pools comprising 10 mosquito species contained at least one virus. Ae. furcifer and Ae. luteocephalus were infected by all three viruses, Ae. taylori by YFV and ZIKV, and remaining seven species by only, only YFV or only ZIKV. No single mosquito pool contained more than one virus. CHIKV was the only virus detected in all land cover classes and was found in the greatest number of sampling sites (32.9%, n = 70). The proportion of sites in which more than one virus was detected was less than 6%. Ae. aegypti formosus, Ae. furcifer, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. minutus, Ae. vittatus, and An. gambiae were found within villages. These vectors were mainly active around dusk but Ae. furcifer was collected until dawn. All viruses save ZIKV were detected indoors and outdoors, mainly around dusk. Virus positive pools were detected over 2, 3 and 4 months for YFV, CHIKV and ZIKV, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the distribution of different vector species and different arboviruses vary substantially between sites, suggesting that CHIKV, YFV, and ZIKV may have different transmission cycles in Southeastern Senegal.

15.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580374

ABSTRACT

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the genus Flavivirus are distributed globally and cause significant human disease and mortality annually. Flavivirus infections present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to severe manifestations, including hemorrhage, encephalitis and death. Herein, we describe 3 case reports of cerebrovascular involvement in patients infected by dengue and Zika viruses in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, a hyperendemic area for arbovirus circulation, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses. Our findings highlight the potential threat that unusual clinical manifestations may pose to arbovirus disease management and recovery.

16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; : e24086, 2020 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2007-2009, a major yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in Northern Argentina decimated the local howler monkey (Alouatta) population. AIMS: To evaluate whether the surviving howler monkeys possess advantageous genetic variants inherited from monkeys alive prior to the YFV outbreak, we explored the relationship between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 gene variation and YFV susceptibility. METHODS: We used samples from Alouatta individuals in Misiones, Argentina alive before the YFV outbreak, individuals that died during the outbreak, and individuals that survived the outbreak and are alive today. We measured genetic divergence between Alouatta YFV exposure groups and evaluated Alouatta-specific substitutions for functional consequences. RESULTS: We did not find different allele frequencies in the post-YFV exposure Alouatta group compared to the pre-exposure group. We identified three nonsynonymous variants in TLR7 in Alouatta guariba clamitans. Two of these substitutions are under positive selection in functionally important regions of the gene. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not indicate that surviving howler monkey spossess advantageous genetic variants at greater frequency than those alive before the YFV outbreak. However, the positively selected unique coding differences in A. guariba clamitans are in the region important in pathogen detection which may affect YFV resistance. Morework is necessary to fully explore this hypothesis.

18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding pest incursion pathways is critical for preventing new invasions and for stopping the transfer of alleles that reduce the efficacy of local control methods. The mosquitoes Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are both highly invasive disease vectors, and through a series of ongoing international incursions are continuing to colonise new regions and spread insecticide resistance alleles among established populations. This study uses high-resolution molecular markers and a set of 241 reference genotypes to trace incursion pathways of Ae. albopictus into mainland Australia, where no successful invasions have yet been observed. We contrast these results with incursion pathways of Ae. aegypti, investigated previously. RESULTS: Assignments successful identified China, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan as source locations. Incursion pathways of Ae. albopictus were entirely different to those of Ae. aegypti, despite broad sympatry of these species throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Incursions of Ae. albopictus appeared to have come predominantly along marine routes from key trading locations, while Ae. aegypti was mostly linked to aerial routes from tourism hotspots. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate how genomics can help decipher otherwise cryptic incursion pathways. The inclusion of reference genotypes from the Americas may help resolve some unsuccessful assignments. While many congeneric taxa will share common incursion pathways, this study highlights that this is not always the case, and incursion pathways of important taxa should be specifically investigated. Species differences in aerial and marine incursion rates may reflect the efficacy of ongoing control programs such as aircraft disinsection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560073

ABSTRACT

With the growing success of controlling malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of fever due to malaria is in decline, whereas the proportion of patients with non-malaria febrile illness (NMFI) is increasing. Clinical diagnosis of NMFI is hampered by unspecific symptoms, but early diagnosis is a key factor for both better patient care and disease control. The aim of this study was to determine the arboviral aetiologies of NMFI in low resource settings, using a mobile laboratory based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays. The panel of tests for this study was expanded to five arboviruses: dengue virus (DENV), zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and rift valley fever virus (RVFV). One hundred and four children aged between one month and 115 months were enrolled and screened. Three of the 104 blood samples of children <10 years presented at an outpatient clinic tested positive for DENV. The results were confirmed by RT-PCR, partial sequencing, and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen capture by ELISA (Biorad, France). Phylogenetic analysis of the derived DENV-1 sequences clustered them with sequences of DENV-1 isolated from Guangzhou, China, in 2014. In conclusion, this mobile setup proved reliable for the rapid identification of the causative agent of NMFI, with results consistent with those obtained in the reference laboratory's settings.

20.
Transplant Proc ; 52(5): 1291-1293, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505502

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF) is a vaccine-preventable disease, but live attenuated YF vaccine (YFV) is contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients due to the risk of life-threatening YFV-associated side effects. This study aimed to evaluate 1. the knowledge of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) about the contraindication and risks of YFV; 2. the prevalence of inadvertent vaccination of RTRs against YF; and 3. the outcome of these patients. A cross-sectional telephone contact study was conducted with 200 RTRs selected from the outpatient clinic of our transplantation unit. There were 116 successful telephone contacts (58%). A total of 11 vaccinated patients were identified: 5 received YFV in the pretransplant period and 6 in the post-transplant period. All patients received the full dose of the vaccine. Among those vaccinated after transplant, only 1 reported a mild adverse event (nausea) after receiving the vaccine. All vaccinated patients who were post-transplant did not know about vaccine contraindications as a result of their clinical condition. Among the unvaccinated patients, this rate was 12.4%. YFV is the main tool for disease prevention and control as there is no specific antiviral treatment for YF. Our results confirm the evidence that transplant recipients tolerate YFV well. However, data are not strong enough to recommend this vaccine in transplant recipients. Counseling RTRs on the contraindications of YFV is important to prevent inadvertent use of this vaccine in this population.

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