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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104823, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838716

ABSTRACT

Conventional and volatile pyrethroids are widely used to control the vectors of dengue arboviral diseases, Aedes albopictus in China. The development of resistance to conventional pyrethroids has become an increasing problem, potentially affecting the use of volatile pyrethroid. The Ae. albopictus dimefluthrin-resistant (R) strain by selecting the field population with dimefluthrin were investigated the multiple and cross-resistance levels between conventional and volatile pyrethroids and analyzed both target-site and metabolic resistant mechanisms to dimefluthrin compared with three volatile pyrethroids metofluthrin, meperfluthrin and esbiothrin and type II pyrethroid deltamethrin. The R strain displayed moderate to low resistance to selected pyrethroids (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, meperfluthrin, esbiothrin and deltamethrin) associated with metabolic enzymes, but less distinctly to selected pyrethroids (dimefluthrin and metofluthrin) associated with a high frequency of sodium channel gene mutation (F1534S). Profiles of the multiple and cross-resistance of the R strain to other three volatile pyrethroids and type II pyrethroid deltamethrin were detected. Both synergistic and enzyme activity studies indicated that multifunctional oxidase (MFO) played an important role in this resistance.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Pyrethrins , Aedes/genetics , Animals , China , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Vectors , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
2.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807442

ABSTRACT

Flaviviruses circulate worldwide and cause a number of medically relevant human diseases, such as dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of flavivirus infections, but can be impeded by antigenic cross-reactivities among flaviviruses. Therefore, serological diagnosis of a recent infection can be insufficiently specific, especially in areas where flaviviruses co-circulate and/or vaccination coverage against certain flaviviruses is high. In this study, we developed a new IgM assay format, which is well suited for the specific diagnosis of TBE, Zika and dengue virus infections. In the case of TBE and Zika, the IgM response proved to be highly specific for the infecting virus. In contrast, primary dengue virus infections induced substantial amounts of cross-reactive IgM antibodies, which is most likely explained by structural peculiarities of dengue virus particles. Despite the presence of cross-reactive IgM, the standardized nature and the quantitative read-out of the assay even allowed the serotype-specific diagnosis of recent dengue virus infections in most instances.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We lack the rationale on which to base the development of a yellow fever (YF) vaccination schedule for people living with HIV (PLHIV). OBJECTIVES: Report on the current evidence regarding the seroconversion rate and the duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine, as well as the impact of revaccination in PLWHIV. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Google Scholar, LILACS and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. METHODS: Population: We selected studies on PLWHIV of all ages (including perinatally HIV-infected patients) and all settings (YF endemic and non-endemic zones). INTERVENTION: Vaccination against YF, at least once after the HIV diagnosis. The research questions were the seroconversion rate, duration of humoral immunity after YF vaccine and impact of revaccination in PLWHIV. Selected studies were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: Ten, six and six studies were selected for the systematic review of each question, respectively. Only one study addressed the first question in perinatally HIV- infected children. The quality of the studies was assessed as Poor (n=16), Fair (n=2) or Good (n=4). A meta-analysis demonstrated that 97.6% (95%CI 91.6-100) of the included population seroconverted. Between 1 and 10 years after YF vaccine, reported persistence of neutralizing antibodies was 72% (95%IC 53.6-91), and 62% (95%IC 45.4-78.6) more than 10 years after YF vaccine. No conclusions could currently be drawn on impact of revaccination due to small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence regarding seroconversion rate, duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine and impact of revaccination in PLWHIV is limited by the low number and quality of studies. Based on the presently available data, it is difficult to rationally develop yellow fever vaccination guidelines for PLWHIV.

4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813766

ABSTRACT

The sanitary problem of Aedes aegypti mosquito acquires relevance around the world because it is the vector of dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The vector is adapting to southern regions faster and the propagation of these diseases in urban areas is a complex problem for society. We aimed to contribute to the risk prevention of disease transmission in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, through monitoring Aedes aegypti population-levels and developing education campaigns with government agencies and society participation. Monitoring activities aimed to diagnostic the presence of the vector and its ecology behavior, and to generate education and prevention politics to avoid its propagation. The results show that (1) the mosquito is in the territory and it is spreading, (2) prevention activities of the municipalities are insufficient to generate an effective sanitary response, and (3) it is necessary to improve the education programs to the population about the life cycle of the vector. The integration of university, government, and society improved the work of the team because it combined knowledge about vector ecology, diseases, and territory characteristics.

5.
J Med Primatol ; 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817795

ABSTRACT

Herein, we describe a unique case of concomitant angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus and yellow fever in a free-ranging howler monkey (Alouatta sp). Lung samples were negative for influenza viruses A and B.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794184

ABSTRACT

Argonaute (AGO) proteins bind small RNAs to silence complementary RNA transcripts, and they are central to RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is critical for regulation of gene expression and antiviral defense in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit Zika, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever viruses. In mosquitoes, AGO1 mediates miRNA interactions, while AGO2 mediates siRNA interactions. We applied AGO-crosslinking immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) for both AGO1 and AGO2, and we developed a universal software package for CLIP analysis (CLIPflexR), identifying 230 small RNAs and 5,447 small RNA targets that comprise a comprehensive RNAi network map in mosquitoes. RNAi network maps predicted expression levels of small RNA targets in specific tissues. Additionally, this resource identified unexpected, context-dependent AGO2 target preferences, including endogenous viral elements and 3'UTRs. Finally, contrary to current thinking, mosquito AGO2 repressed imperfect targets. These findings expand our understanding of small RNA networks and have broad implications for the study of antiviral RNAi.

7.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797563

ABSTRACT

Host-microbiome dynamics occurring in the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) contribute to host life history traits, and particular bacterial taxa are proposed to comprise a "core" microbiota that influences host physiology. Laboratory-based studies are frequently performed to investigate these processes; however, experimental results are often presumed to be generalizable across laboratories, and few efforts have been made to independently reproduce and replicate significant findings. A recent study by Muturi et al. (FEMS Microbiol Ecol 95 (1):213, 2019) demonstrated the food source imbibed by laboratory-reared adult female mosquitoes significantly impacted the host-associated microbiota-a foundational finding in the field of mosquito biology worthy of independent evaluation. Here, we coalesce these data with two additional mosquito-derived 16S rRNA gene sequence data sets using a unifying bioinformatics pipeline to reproduce the characterization of these microbiota, test for a significant food source effect when independent samples were added to the analyses, assess whether similarly fed mosquito microbiomes were comparable across laboratories, and identify conserved bacterial taxa. Our pipeline characterized similar microbiome composition and structure from the data published previously, and a significant food source effect was detected with the addition of independent samples, increasing the robustness of this previously discovered component of mosquito biology. However, distinct microbial communities were identified from similarly fed but independently reared mosquitoes, and surveys across all samples did not identify conserved bacterial taxa. These findings demonstrated that while the main effect of the food source was supported, laboratory-specific conditions may produce inherently differential microbiomes across independent laboratory environments.

8.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826478

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe four cases of ocular adverse events resembling intraocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions following yellow fever vaccination (YFV) during a recent yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Brazil.Methods: Charts of patients diagnosed with ocular adverse events after YFV between January 2017 and January 2019 at two tertiary referral centers in Brazil.Results: Four patients (two adults and two children) are reported. Case 1 presented with typical findings of central serous chorioretinopathy which resolved spontaneously; case 2 was diagnosed with acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease; cases 3 and 4 had bilateral diffuse retinal vasculitis. In the absence of infectious and noninfectious disorders, the temporal association between stand-alone YFV and onset of ocular symptoms within 15 days was interpreted as evidence of causation.Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the wide spectrum of possible ocular adverse reactions to stand-alone YFV.

9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 157, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the first recorded outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Uganda, in March 2016, earlier studies done until the 1970's indicated the presence of the RVF virus (RVFV) in the country, without any recorded outbreaks in either man or animals. While severe outbreaks of RVF occurred in the neighboring countries, none were reported in Uganda despite forecasts that placed some parts of Uganda at similar risk. The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) undertook studies to determine the RVF sero-prevalence in risk prone areas. Three datasets from cattle sheep and goats were obtained; one from retrospective samples collected in 2010-2011 from the northern region; the second from the western region in 2013 while the third was from a cross-sectional survey done in 2016 in the south-western region. Laboratory analysis involved the use of the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses, including non-parametric chi-square tests for comparisons between districts and species in the regions. RESULTS: During the Yellow Fever outbreak investigation of 2010-2011 in the northern region, a total sero-prevalence of 6.7% was obtained for anti RVFV reacting antibodies (IgG and IgM) among the domestic ruminant population. The 2013 sero-survey in the western region showed a prevalence of 18.6% in cattle and 2.3% in small ruminants. The 2016 sero-survey in the districts of Kabale, Kanungu, Kasese, Kisoro and Rubirizi, in the south-western region, had the respective district RVF sero-prevalence of 16.0, 2.1, 0.8, 15.1and 2.7% among the domestic ruminants combined for this region; bovines exhibited the highest cumulative sero-prevalence of 15.2%, compared to 5.3 and 4.0% respectively for sheep and goats per species for the region. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of apparent outbreaks in Uganda, despite neighboring enzootic areas, having minimal restrictions to the exchange of livestock and their products across borders, suggest an unexpected RVF activity in the study areas that needs to be unraveled. Therefore, more in-depth studies are planned to mitigate the risk of an overt RVF outbreak in humans and animals as has occurred in neighboring countries.

10.
Question and answer in Portuguese | SOF - Formative Second Opinion | ID: sof-43779

ABSTRACT

Orienta-se a notificação do caso, solicitação de exames para controle, observação domiciliar e avaliação médica diária com registro em prontuário por, no mínimo, 21 dias(1).

Os exames que devem ser solicitados são hemograma, TAP, TTPA, bilirrubinas totais e frações, creatinina, TGO e TGP(1).


Subject(s)
Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage , Medication Errors , Child Health
11.
Malar J ; 20(1): 165, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761967

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a principal cause of illness and death in countries where the disease is endemic. Personal protection against mosquitoes using repellents could be a useful method that can reduce and/or prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. The available repellent products, such as creams, roll-ons, and sprays for personal protection against mosquitoes, lack adequate long-term efficacy. In most cases, they need to be re-applied or replaced frequently. The encapsulation and release of the repellents from several matrices has risen as an alternative process for the development of invention of repellent based systems. The present work reviews various studies about the development and use of repellent controlled-release formulations such as polymer microcapsules, polymer microporous formulations, polymer micelles, nanoemulsions, solid-lipid nanoparticles, liposomes and cyclodextrins as new tools for mosquito-borne malaria control in the outdoor environment. Furthermore, investigation on the mathematical modelling used for the release rate of repellents is discussed in depth by exploring the Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull models, as well as the recently developed Mapossa model. Therefore, the studies searched suggest that the final repellents based-product should not only be effective against mosquito vectors of malaria parasites, but also reduce the biting frequency of other mosquitoes transmitting diseases, such as dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika virus. In this way, they will contribute to the improvement in overall public health and social well-being.

12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761167

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever is a vaccine-preventable acute viral disease that can rapidly spread and cause serious public health impact. Delay in seeking health care from health facilities is a potential risk of prolonged disease spread. Therefore, this study assessed the delay in health-seeking behaviour and implications for yellow fever outcomes in the 2019 outbreak in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study examined the factors associated with delayed yellow fever vaccine uptake. A retrospective study was conducted from January to December 2019 using 137 cases recorded in the WHO database. The data were analysed using descriptive (frequency and percentages) and the Chi-square test. The results were significant at p < 0.05. Results showed a low uptake of yellow fever vaccine (24.1%) among patients and a median total health-seeking delay of 7 [IQR 7, 9] days. The delay was more among the older age ≥40 years (12 [IQR 12, 29]), females (8 [IQR 8, 11], and rural inhabitants 7 [IQR7, 9], particularly in Izzi LGA (9 [IQR 9, 16] than the other subgroups. Patients' location or place of residence was significantly associated with the yellow fever vaccine uptake (p < 0.000*), and delay (p = 0.003*). Conclusively, the low vaccine uptake was due to the delay in health-seeking behaviour. Thus, the healthcare system in Nigeria needs to intensify mass participation in immunisation programmes. Interventions that promote behavioural change towards immunisation are required. Also, health promotion campaigns to educate rural people on desirable health-seeking behaviour are needed.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
14.
J Neuroimmunol ; 355: 577548, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780799

ABSTRACT

Meningoencephalitis following yellow fever vaccination is considered a viral neuroinvasive disease. We describe three patients with typical autoimmune encephalitis syndromes that developed 1-27 days following yellow fever vaccination. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-r antibodies were identified in the CSF and serum of two patients and the other case was associated with anti-neurexin-3 antibodies. One case was confirmed as vaccine-associated neurotropic disease due to reactive CSF yellow fever IgM, which suggested an infectious-autoimmune overlap mechanism. Two aditional cases of Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-r encephalitis were identified in the literature review. Antibody-positive autoimmune encephalitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurologic adverse events following yellow fever vaccination.

15.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783842

ABSTRACT

Poor systematic surveillance for Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is primarily due to lack of affordable diagnostic facilities in resource-constrained countries. This study aimed at providing evidence-based information on immunity against Yellow Fever with a view to assessing the possibility of the recent epidemics persisting in Nigeria. Six hundred patients with febrile illness seeking malaria test in selected hospitals were tested for YFV antibody using three serological assays: ELISA IgM, microneutralization test (MNT) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The three assays commonly detected YFV antibody (Ab) in 1.7% patients, MNT: IgM in 8.3%, IgM: PRNT in 7.1%, and MNT: PRNT in 3.2%. Immunity against YF was significantly higher in Bauchi and Borno than Adamawa and children aged 0-9 years compared to 20-29 years. YFV neutralizing antibody (nAb) strongly correlated with the vaccination status of the patients. More unvaccinated patients had nAb compared with the vaccinated. Immunity against YF among treated patients with antibiotic and/or antimalaria before sample collection inversely correlated with the untreated. YVnAb among unvaccinated indicates natural infections. Acute YFV infections were mistaken for malaria and natural infections are ongoing. Individuals aged more than or equal to 20 years should be targeted during mass vaccination campaigns. With low population immunity, repetitive YF epidemics in Nigeria is not yet over. The current policy on Yellow Fever vaccination in Nigeria still leaves a large unimmunized population at the risk of epidemics. Sufficient mass vaccination in combination with National Programme on Immunization remains key to averting YF epidemics.

16.
Curr Opin Virol ; 47: 106-112, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721656

ABSTRACT

The Flaviviridae family comprises important human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, West Nile, Yellow Fever and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. The viral genome, a positive-sense single-stranded RNA, is packaged by a single protein, the capsid protein, which is a small and highly basic protein that form intertwined homodimers in solution. Atomic-resolution structures of four flaviviruses capsid proteins were solved either in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or after protein crystallization by X-ray diffraction. Analyses of these structures revealed very particular properties, namely (i) the predominance of quaternary contacts maintaining the structure; (ii) a highly electropositive surface throughout the protein; and (iii) a flexible helix (α1). The goal of this review is to discuss the role of these features in protein structure-function relationship.

17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e05762020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656151

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS: Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Ocotea , Animals , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Mosquito Vectors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787746

ABSTRACT

Mormodica charantia (Curcubitaceae) is a plant with great medicinal potential, also used as an alternative of mosquitoes control as demonstrated by previous studies. We evaluated the larvicidal activity of crude extracts of ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane from flowers and fruits of M. charantia against Aedes aegypti (Culicidae). Flowers and fruits were macerated in methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Bioassays were performed with application of the extracts at final concentrations of 1 - 200 µg/mL in the middle of the third instar larvae of A. aegypti (L3). The results showed high toxicity to ethyl acetate extracts from flowers and fruits at concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL, with 97% and 87% of larvae mortality (L3), respectively. Hexane extract demonstrated low toxicity, while methanol extract exhibited 78% larval mortality. The data suggested that the ethyl acetate extracts of flowers and fruits of M. charantia can effectively contribute to larvicidal activity. In addition, purification of M. charantia extracts may lead to a promising larvicidal activity to control the A. aegypti population.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Momordica charantia , Animals , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
19.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780011

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of several serious disease-causing viruses including Dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. Effective and efficient trapping methods are essential for meaningful mosquito population and disease-presence surveillance and ultimately, vector control. The Fay-Prince trap (FPT) was developed in the late 1960s as a daytime visual trap for male Ae. aegypti. Since then, its use has been expanded into the trapping of female Ae. aegypti, Aedes albopictus Skuse, other Ae. spp., and Culex spp. The efficiency of the FPT alone and with CO2 was tested under semi-field conditions and the behaviour of responding female Ae. aegypti was characterized. The mean capture efficiency of the FPT with CO2 per 30 min in the greenhouse was 3.07% and the capture rate from the total number of mosquitoes in our semi-field setup was slightly higher at 4.45%. Understanding the behaviours that mosquitoes exhibit during their encounter with particularly a visual trap may recommend trap improvements and contributes to our understanding of host-seeking behaviour and how it might be exploited.

20.
Elife ; 102021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722340

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF) is a viral, vector-borne, haemorrhagic fever endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine for YF is considered safe and effective, but intervention strategies need to be optimised; one of the tools for this is mathematical modelling. We refine and expand an existing modelling framework for Africa to account for transmission in South America. We fit to YF occurrence and serology data. We then estimate the subnational forces of infection for the entire endemic region. Finally, using demographic and vaccination data, we examine the impact of vaccination activities. We estimate that there were 109,000 (95% credible interval [CrI] [67,000-173,000]) severe infections and 51,000 (95% CrI [31,000-82,000]) deaths due to YF in Africa and South America in 2018. We find that mass vaccination activities in Africa reduced deaths by 47% (95% CrI [10%-77%]). This methodology allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination and illustrates the need for continued vigilance and surveillance of YF.

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