Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 517
Filter
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008304, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To counter the increasing global risk of Yellow fever (YF), the World Health Organisation initiated the Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) strategy. Estimating YF burden, as well as vaccine impact, while accounting for the features of urban YF transmission such as indirect benefits of vaccination, is key to informing this strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed two model variants to estimate YF burden in sub-Saharan Africa, assuming all infections stem from either the sylvatic or the urban cycle of the disease. Both relied on an ecological niche model fitted to the local presence of any YF reported event in 34 African countries. We calibrated under-reporting using independent estimates of transmission intensity provided by 12 serological surveys performed in 11 countries. We calculated local numbers of YF infections, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost based on estimated transmission intensity while accounting for time-varying vaccination coverage. We estimated vaccine demand and impact of future preventive mass vaccination campaigns (PMVCs) according to various vaccination scenarios. Vaccination activities conducted in Africa between 2005 and 2017 were estimated to prevent from 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-7.7) to 6.1 (95% CI 2.4-13.2) millions of deaths over the lifetime of vaccinees, representing extreme scenarios of none or maximal herd effects, respectively. By prioritizing provinces based on the risk of urban YF transmission in future PMVCs, an average of 37.7 million annual doses for PMVCs over eight years would avert an estimated 9,900,000 (95% CI 7,000,000-13,400,000) infections and 480,000 (180,000-1,140,000) deaths over the lifetime of vaccinees, corresponding to 1.7 (0.7-4.1) deaths averted per 1,000 vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: By estimating YF burden and vaccine impact over a range of spatial and temporal scales, while accounting for the specificity of urban transmission, our model can be used to inform the current EYE strategy.

3.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224891

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, Flaviviruses such as yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) have expanded their transmission areas. These viruses originated in Africa, where they exhibit both sylvatic and interhuman transmission cycles. In Brazil, the risk of YFV urbanization has grown, with the sylvatic transmission approaching the most densely populated metropolis, while concern about ZIKV spillback to a sylvatic cycle has risen. To investigate these health threats, we carried out extensive collections and arbovirus screening of 144 free-living, non-human primates (NHPs) and 5219 mosquitoes before, during, and after ZIKV and YFV outbreaks (2015-2018) in southeast Brazil. ZIKV infection was not detected in any NHP collected at any time. In contrast, current and previous YFV infections were detected in NHPs sampled between 2017 and 2018, but not before the onset of the YFV outbreak. Mosquito pools screened by high-throughput PCR were positive for YFV when captured in the wild and during the YFV outbreak, but were negative for 94 other arboviruses, including ZIKV, regardless of the time of collection. In conclusion, there was no evidence of YFV transmission in coastal southeast Brazil before the current outbreak, nor the spread or establishment of an independent sylvatic cycle of ZIKV or urban Aedes aegypti transmission of YFV in the region. In view of the region's receptivity and vulnerability to arbovirus transmission, surveillance of NHPs and mosquitoes should be strengthened and continuous.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 260, 2020 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause a high burden of morbidity and mortality in countries with poor access to clean water and sanitation. Our study aimed to investigate the situation of HEV infections in the Central African Republic (CAR). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the blood samples and notification forms collected through the national yellow fever (YF) surveillance program, but for which a diagnosis of YF was discarded, was carried out using an anti-HEV IgM ELISA and a HEV-specific RT-PCR. RESULTS: Of 2883 YF-negative samples collected between January 2008 and December 2012, 745 (~ 26%) tested positive by at least either of the 2 tests used to confirm HEV cases. The results revealed that the CAR was hit by a large HEV outbreak in 2008 and 2009. The results also showed a clear seasonal pattern with correlation between HEV incidence and rainfall in Bangui. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the circulating strains belonged to genotypes 1e and 2b. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study provides further evidences that HEV can be a significant cause of acute febrile jaundice, particularly among adults during rainy season or flood, in a country from Sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Rain , Waterborne Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Central African Republic/epidemiology , Child , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Floods , Genotype , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E/complications , Hepatitis E/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Incidence , Jaundice/etiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Phylogeny , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Waterborne Diseases/virology , Young Adult
5.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325930

ABSTRACT

Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history. Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks of zoonotic origin including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Nipah virus. Nipah is considered one of the world's deadliest viruses with the heaviest mortality rates in some instances. It is known to cause encephalitis, with cases of acute respiratory distress turning fatal. Various factors contribute to the onset and spread of the virus. All through the infected zone, various strategies to tackle and enhance the surveillance and awareness with greater emphasis on personal hygiene has been formulated. This review discusses the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India, the routes of transmission, prevention and control measures employed along with possible reasons behind the outbreaks, and the precautionary measures to be ensured by private-public undertakings to contain and ensure a lower incidence in the future.

6.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(1): e2018331, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to analyze characteristics, incidence and factors associated with serious adverse events (SAEs) following yellow fever vaccination during an outbreak of the disease in Brazil (2016-2017). METHODS: this was a case-control study using data from the National Immunization Program Information System (SI-PNI); SAE were considered to be cases, and non-serious adverse events (NSAE) were considered to be controls. RESULTS: we analyzed 135 SAE cases and 1,058 controls; of the 135 SAE, 79 (58.5%) were males and median age was 28 years [09-49]; incidence in January 2017 reached 1.3 case per 100,000 vaccine doses administered; there was statistical association with males (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.73 - 95%CI 1.20;2.48), primary vaccination (OR=1.65 - 95%CI 1.01;2.71), and being 60 years of age or older taking as reference those aged under 5 (OR=4.4; p-value <0.02). CONCLUSION: SAE owing to yellow fever vaccine showed a greater chance of occurring in men, the elderly and primary vaccination.

7.
J Med Entomol ; 57(4): 1239-1245, 2020 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112094

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a diurnal feeder that lives in close association with human populations. It is the principal vector of yellow fever, dengue fever and the Zika Virus. Issues of arboviral diseases have been on the ascendency in most countries including Ghana where Aedes mosquito is the main vector of yellow fever. A comparative study of the biting behavior of Ae. aegypti and the identification of subspecies were undertaken using molecular technique. Standard human landing technique was used to collect both indoor and outdoor biting mosquitoes at three zones located in the Upper East (Bolgatanga), Upper West (Nadowli), and Northern (Damongo) Regions of Ghana during the dry and rainy seasons between 0600 and 1800 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). All collected mosquitoes were identified morphologically using taxonomic keys. random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction was used to categorize Ae. aegypti into subspecies. Adult female Aedes mosquitoes identified formed 62% (n = 1,206) of all female mosquitoes collected. Aedes aegypti 98% and Aedes vittatus 2% were the only Aedes species identified. Bolgatanga recorded the largest number of Ae. aegypti 42%, whereas Nadowli 22% recorded the least. Aedes vittatus was observed in Nadowli. Aedes aegypti exhibited a bimodal biting behavior peaking at 0600-0800 GMT and 1500-1600 h GMT. Molecular findings revealed 69% Ae. aegypti aegypti and 31% Ae. aegypti formosus as the two subspecies (n = 110). This information is important for implementing effective vector control programs in the three regions of the northern Ghana.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3180, 2020 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081931

ABSTRACT

Fifty patients with unexplained fever and poor outcomes presented at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in Edo State, Nigeria, an area endemic for Lassa fever, between September 2018 - January 2019. After ruling out Lassa fever, plasma samples from these epidemiologically-linked cases were sent to the African Centre of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Diseases (ACEGID), Redeemer's University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria, where we carried out metagenomic sequencing which implicated yellow fever virus (YFV) as the etiology of this outbreak. Twenty-nine of the 50 samples were confirmed positive for YFV by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), 14 of which resulted in genome assembly. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that these YFV sequences formed a tightly clustered clade more closely related to sequences from Senegal than sequences from earlier Nigerian isolates, suggesting that the YFV clade responsible for this outbreak in Edo State does not descend directly from the Nigerian YFV outbreaks of the last century, but instead reflects a broader diversity and dynamics of YFV in West Africa. Here we demonstrate the power of metagenomic sequencing for identifying ongoing outbreaks and their etiologies and informing real-time public health responses, resulting in accurate and prompt disease management and control.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(5): eaaw7449, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064329

ABSTRACT

Disease epidemics and outbreaks often generate conspiracy theories and misperceptions that mislead people about the risks they face and how best to protect themselves. We investigate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at combating false and unsupported information about the Zika epidemic and subsequent yellow fever outbreak in Brazil. Results from a nationally representative survey show that conspiracy theories and other misperceptions about Zika are widely believed. Moreover, results from three preregistered survey experiments suggest that efforts to counter misperceptions about diseases during epidemics and outbreaks may not always be effective. We find that corrective information not only fails to reduce targeted Zika misperceptions but also reduces the accuracy of other beliefs about the disease. In addition, although corrective information about the better-known threat from yellow fever was more effective, none of these corrections affected support for vector control policies or intentions to engage in preventive behavior.

10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 90, 2020 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF) is a severe, infectious, but non-communicable arboviral hemorrhagic disease. In the last decades, yellow fever virus (YFV) infections have been prevalent in endemic areas in Brazil, affecting human and non-human primate (NHP) populations. Monitoring of NHP infection started in 1999, and reports of epizootic diseases are considered important indicators of viral transmission, particularly in relation to the sylvatic cycle. This study presents the monitoring of YFV by real-time RT-PCR and the epidemiological findings related to the deaths of NHPs in the south-eastern states and in the north-eastern state of Bahia, during the outbreak of YF in Brazil during 2017 and 2018. METHODS: A total of 4198 samples from 2099 NHPs from south-eastern and north-eastern Brazilian states were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). RESULTS: A total of 4198 samples from 2099 NHPs from south-eastern and north-eastern Brazilian states were collected between 2017 and 2018. The samples were subjected to molecular diagnostics for YFV detection using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) techniques. Epizootics were coincident with human YF cases. Furthermore, our results showed that the YF frequency was higher among marmosets (Callithrix sp.) than in previous reports. Viremia in species of the genus Alouatta and Callithrix differed greatly. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate a need for further investigation of the role of Callithrix spp. in the transmission cycles of YFV in Brazil. In particular, YFV transmission was observed in a region where viral circulation has not been recorded for decades and thus vaccination has not been previously recommended. CONCLUSIONS: This highlights the need to straighten epizootic surveillance and evaluate the extent of vaccination programmes in Brazil in previously considered "YFV-free" areas of the country.

11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(4): 869-875, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043443

ABSTRACT

A dengue outbreak occurred on Hawaii Island between September 2015 and March 2016. Entomological investigations were undertaken between December 2015 and February 2016 to determine which Aedes mosquito species were responsible for the outbreak. A total of 3,259 mosquitoes were collected using a combination of CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps, Biogents BG-Sentinel traps, and hand-nets; immature mosquitoes were collected during environmental surveys. The composition of species was Aedes albopictus (58%), Aedes aegypti (25%), Wyeomyia mitchelli (7%), Aedes vexans (5%), Culex quinquefasciatus (4%), and Aedes japonicus (1%). Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA. Of the 185 pools of female mosquitoes tested, 15 containing Ae. albopictus were positive for the presence of DENV type 1 RNA. No virus was detected in pools of the remaining species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the virus strain belonged to genotype I and was closely related to strains that were circulating in the Pacific between 2008 and 2014. This is the first report of detection of DENV in Ae. albopictus from Hawaii.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Animals , Dengue/genetics , Female , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92: 189-196, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935537

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the YF virus (arbovirus) which continues to cause severe morbidity and mortality in Africa. A case of YF was confirmed in Nigeria on the 12th of September 2017, 21 years after the last confirmed case. The patient belongs to a nomadic population with a history of low YF vaccination uptake, in the Ifelodun Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. An active case search in Ifelodun and its five contiguous LGAs led to the listing of 55 additional suspect cases of YF within the period of the outbreak investigation between September 18 to October 6, 2017. The median age of cases was 15 years, and 54.4% were males. Of these, blood samples were collected from 30 cases; nine tested positive in laboratories in Nigeria and six were confirmed positive for YF by the WHO reference laboratory in the region; Institut Pasteur, Dakar. A rapid YF vaccination coverage assessment was carried out, resulting in a coverage of 46% in the LGAs, with 25% of cases able to produce their vaccination cards. All stages of the yellow fever vector, Aedes mosquito were identified in the area, with high larval indices (House and Breteau) observed. In response to the outbreak, YF surveillance was intensified across all States in Nigeria, as well as reactive vaccination and social mobilisation campaigns carried out in the affected LGAs in Kwara State. A state-wide YF preventive campaign was also initiated.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aedes/virology , Africa , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Vectors , Nigeria/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Yellow Fever/physiopathology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage , Yellow fever virus/immunology
13.
J Infect Dis ; 221(Supplement_3): S308-S318, 2020 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711190

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing technologies, exponential increases in the availability of virus genomic data, and ongoing advances in phylogenomic methods have made genomic epidemiology an increasingly powerful tool for public health response to a range of mosquito-borne virus outbreaks. In this review, we offer a brief primer on the scope and methods of phylogenomic analyses that can answer key epidemiological questions during mosquito-borne virus public health emergencies. We then focus on case examples of outbreaks, including those caused by dengue, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, and chikungunya viruses, to demonstrate the utility of genomic epidemiology to support the prevention and control of mosquito-borne virus threats. We extend these case studies with operational perspectives on how to best incorporate genomic epidemiology into structured surveillance and response programs for mosquito-borne virus control. Many tools for genomic epidemiology already exist, but so do technical and nontechnical challenges to advancing their use. Frameworks to support the rapid sharing of multidimensional data and increased cross-sector partnerships, networks, and collaborations can support advancement on all scales, from research and development to implementation by public health agencies.

14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(4): 900-903, 2020 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634051

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever has been recently described in nonurban areas of Brazil despite 80 years of commercial vaccine use. Although the disease does not spread fear in the general population as it did in the past, yellow fever virus continues to cause many cases of severe disease. Persistence of the virus in the host is a new mechanism to be considered in the pathology of the disease. Immunization with a fractional dose of vaccine during emergency situations needs to be evaluated for antibody duration, and new and improved vaccines should be considered.

15.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 445-450, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834526

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection occurred in southwest Bangkok during the 2018 rainy season. The envelope glycoprotein E1 gene sequence of the infecting strain belonged to an East/Central/South African lineage with alanine at residue 226. Mutations in the predicted E1 (K211E) and E2 (V264A) proteins of CHIKV were identified in CHIKV-infected patients and in an Aedes aegypti mosquito. Analysis of the complete genome sequences showed marked differences from the strains causing previous outbreaks in Thailand in 2008-2009 and 2013 but showed similarities to strains from more recent CHIKV outbreaks in South and Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Thailand , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
16.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(1): e2018331, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1090258

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: analisar características, incidência e fatores associados aos eventos adversos graves (EAGs) pós-vacinação contra febre amarela durante surto da doença no Brasil (2016-2017). Métodos: estudo de caso-controle, com dados do Sistema de Informações do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (SI-PNI); foram considerados casos os EAGs, e controles os eventos adversos não graves (EANGs). Resultados: foram analisados 135 casos de EAG e 1.058 controles; dos 135 EAGs, 79 (58,5%) eram homens, e a mediana de idade dos casos, 28 anos (intervalo interquartílico: 9-49); a incidência de EAG em janeiro de 2017 chegou a 1,3 caso por 100 mil doses aplicadas; houve associação estatística com o sexo masculino (odds ratio [OR]=1,73; IC95% 1,20;2,48), ser primovacinado (OR=1,65; IC95% 1,01;2,71), e ter idade ≥60 anos, tomando-se por referência os menores de 5 anos (OR=4,4; p-valor <0,02). Conclusão: EAG pela vacina da febre amarela apresentou maior chance de ocorrer em homens, idosos e primovacinados.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar características, incidencia y factores asociados a eventos adversos graves (EAG) posvacunación contra la fiebre amarilla durante brote de la enfermedad en Brasil (2016-2017). Métodos: estudio de caso-control, con datos del Sistema de Informaciones del Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciones (SI-PNI); se consideraron casos los EAG, y controles los eventos adversos no graves (EANG). Resultados: se analizaron 135 casos de EAG y 1.058 controles; de los 135 EAG, 79 (58,5%) eran hombres, con edad promedio de 28 años [rango intercuartílico: 9-49]; la incidência en enero de 2017 llegó a 1,3 caso por 100 mil dosis aplicadas; ocurrió asociación estadística con el sexo masculino (odds ratio [OR]=1,73 - IC95% 1,20;2,48), ser primovacunado (OR=1,65 - IC95% 1,01;2,71), y tener ≥60 años de edad tomando como referencia a los menores de 5 años (OR=4,4; p-valor <0,02). Conclusión: EAG por la vacuna de la fiebre amarilla presentó mayor probabilidad de ocurrir en hombres, ancianos y primovacunados.


Abstract Objective: to analyze characteristics, incidence and factors associated with serious adverse events (SAEs) following yellow fever vaccination during an outbreak of the disease in Brazil (2016-2017). Methods: this was a case-control study using data from the National Immunization Program Information System (SI-PNI); SAE were considered to be cases, and non-serious adverse events (NSAE) were considered to be controls. Results: we analyzed 135 SAE cases and 1,058 controls; of the 135 SAE, 79 (58.5%) were males and median age was 28 years [09-49]; incidence in January 2017 reached 1.3 case per 100,000 vaccine doses administered; there was statistical association with males (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.73 - 95%CI 1.20;2.48), primary vaccination (OR=1.65 - 95%CI 1.01;2.71), and being 60 years of age or older taking as reference those aged under 5 (OR=4.4; p-value <0.02). Conclusion: SAE owing to yellow fever vaccine showed a greater chance of occurring in men, the elderly and primary vaccination.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 149-151, 2020 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077278

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever has never previously been reported in transplant recipients. The first reported case of yellow fever in a kidney transplant recipient in Brazil and the re-emergence of arboviruses in many areas of the world dictate the need of studies aimed to answer multiple unanswered questions.

18.
Sci. rep ; 9(1): 20418, Dec. 2019. ilus
Article in English | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1047632

ABSTRACT

The largest outbreak of yellow fever of the 21st century in the Americas began in 2016, with intense circulation in the southeastern states of Brazil, particularly in sylvatic environments near densely populated areas including the metropolitan region of São Paulo city (MRSP) during 2017­2018. Herein, we describe the origin and molecular epidemiology of yellow fever virus (YFV) during this outbreak inferred from 36 full genome sequences taken from individuals who died following infection with zoonotic YFV. Our analysis revealed that these deaths were due to three genetic variants of sylvatic YFV that belong the South American I genotype and that were related to viruses previously isolated in 2017 from other locations in Brazil (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro states). Each variant represented an independent virus introduction into the MRSP. Phylogeographic and geopositioning analyses suggested that the virus moved around the peri-urban area without detectable human-to-human transmission, and towards the Atlantic rain forest causing human spill-over in nearby cities, yet in the absence of sustained viral transmission in the urban environment.


Subject(s)
Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology
19.
Health Secur ; 17(6): 485-494, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859573

ABSTRACT

Recurring outbreaks of infectious diseases have characterized the West African region in the past 4 decades. There is a moderate to high risk of yellow fever in countries in the region, and the disease has reemerged in Nigeria after 21 years. A full-scale simulation exercise of the outbreak of yellow fever was conducted to assess preparedness and response in the event of a full-scale outbreak. The exercise was a multi-agency exercise conducted in Lagos, and it involved health facilities, points of entry, state and national public health emergency operation centers, and laboratories. An evaluation of the exercise assessed the capability of the system to identify, respond to, and recover from the emergency using adapted WHO tools. The majority of participants, observers, and evaluators agreed that the exercise was well-structured and organized. Participants also strongly agreed that the exercise helped them to identify strengths and gaps in their understanding of the emergency response systems and plans. Overall, the exercise identified existing gaps in the current capabilities of several thematic areas involved in a yellow fever response. The evaluation presented an opportunity to assess the response capabilities of multisectoral collaborations in the national public health system. It also demonstrated the usefulness of the exercise in understanding public health officials' roles and responsibilities; enabling knowledge transfer among these individuals and organizations; and identifying specific public health systems-level strengths, weaknesses, and challenges.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Nigeria , Program Evaluation , Public Health
20.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8339, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721902

ABSTRACT

A progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. The main objective of this article was to identify the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. A total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation with larvae and pupae of Aedes mosquitoes was 283/1462 (19.4%) in March 2015 and 55/1440 (3.8%) in June 2015. In March 2015, 907 larvae/pupae were collected (583 or 64.3% of Ae. aegypti and 324 or 35.7% of Ae. albopictus) while in June 2015 there was a reduction in the number of immature forms found: 197 larvae/pupae (121 or 61.4% of Ae. aegypti and 76 or 38.6% of Ae. albopictus). This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in suspected human ZIKV cases from March to June 2015. The RT-qPCR performed in 18 pools identified that three (two of Ae. aegypti and one of Ae. albopictus) were positive for ZIKV, and none were positive for DENV or CHIKV. Our findings demonstrated that ZIKV was present in immature stages of insect vectors in the study region at least five months prior to the peak of ZIKV associated cases. Xenomonitoring of immature phases of the vectors may prove useful for predicting outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/classification , Animals , Humans , Mosquito Vectors/classification , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seasons , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL