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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 557-565, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153389

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease with a wide distribution in the Americas. Brazil is an endemic country and present cases in all states. This study aimed to describe the occurrence, the underlying clinical and epidemiological factors, and the correlation of climatic variables with the frequency of reported CL cases in the municipality of Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil. This is a retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study based on data extracted from the Brazilian Information System of Diseases Notification, from 2007 to 2017. Maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative air humidity data were provided by the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. A total of 201 reported autochthonous CL cases were analyzed. The predominance of cases was observed in males (70.1%). The age range between 31 and 60 years old was the most affected, with 96 cases (47.9%). Of the total number of registered cases, 38.8% of the affected individuals were engaged in agriculture-related activities. The georeferenced distribution revealed the heterogeneity of disease occurrence, with cases concentrated in the Western and Southern regions of the municipality. An association was detected between relative air humidity (monthly mean) and the number of CL cases per month (p = 0.04). CL continues to be a concerning public health issue in Caxias. In this context, there is a pressing need to strengthen measures of prevention and control of the disease through the network of health services of the municipality, considering local and regional particularities.


Resumo A leishmaniose cutânea (CL) é uma doença tropical negligenciada, com ampla distribuição nas Américas. O Brasil é um país endêmico e apresenta casos em todos os estados. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a ocorrência, os fatores clínicos e epidemiológicos subjacentes e a correlação de variáveis climáticas com a frequência de casos de CL notificados no município de Caxias, estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Este é um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo e descritivo, com base em dados extraídos da Notificação do Sistema Brasileiro de Informação de Doenças, de 2007 a 2017. Dados máximos e mínimos de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Foram analisados 201 casos de CL autóctones relatados. A predominância de casos foi observada no sexo masculino (70,1%). A faixa etária entre 31 e 60 anos foi a mais afetada, com 96 casos (47,9%). Do número total de casos registrados, 38,8% dos indivíduos afetados estavam envolvidos em atividades relacionadas à agricultura. A distribuição georreferenciada revelou a heterogeneidade da ocorrência da doença, com casos concentrados nas regiões oeste e sul do município. Foi detectada associação entre a umidade relativa do ar (média mensal) e o número de casos de CL por mês (p = 0,04). O CL continua sendo uma questão preocupante de saúde pública em Caxias. Nesse contexto, há uma necessidade premente de fortalecer medidas de prevenção e controle da doença por meio da rede de serviços de saúde do município, considerando as particularidades locais e regionais.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 665-673, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153396

ABSTRACT

Abstract Educational interventions may trigger actions that contribute to prevent parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease (CD). This study aimed at investigating the impact of an instructional video named "Documentary on Chagas Disease" on knowledge about CD and its vectors displayed by a population that lives in an endemic area in Brazil, so as to validate it as an educational tool. The video was shown to 226 subjects, divided into two groups. Group 1 was composed of users of Basic Health Units (BHU) in Pelotas and Pinheiro Machado, cities located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, Brazil, where CD is endemic. Group 2 consisted of students who attend three public schools located in the rural area in Pinheiro Machado, RS. Two questionnaires with questions about their knowledge about triatomines and CD were applied, before and after the documentary was shown. After the video was shown, there was significant increase in individuals' knowledge (in both groups) about "kissing bugs", their notification, the disease and its prevention. Besides, watchers considered that the quality of the material was satisfactory. Since the "Documentary on CD" can be easily accessed on the internet and was effective in teaching the population that lives in endemic areas, its use should be encouraged in places and meetings connected to health that aim at fighting against triatominae and at exposing an updated view of CD.


Resumo Intervenções educacionais podem desencadear ações que contribuam para a prevenção de doenças parasitárias, como a doença de Chagas (DC). Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto de um vídeo instrucional denominado "Documentário Doença de Chagas" no conhecimento sobre DC e seus vetores exibidos a uma população que vive em área endêmica no Brasil, para validá-lo como uma ferramenta educacional. O vídeo foi exibido para 226 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos. O grupo 1 foi composto por usuários das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) de Pelotas e Pinheiro Machado, cidades do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil, onde a DC é endêmica. O grupo 2 foi formado por estudantes que frequentam três escolas públicas localizadas na zona rural de Pinheiro Machado, RS. Dois questionários com perguntas sobre conhecimentos sobre triatomíneos e DC foram aplicados, antes e depois da exibição do documentário. Após a exibição do vídeo, houve um aumento significativo no conhecimento dos indivíduos (em ambos os grupos) sobre "triatomíneos", sua notificação, a doença e sua prevenção. Além disso, os observadores consideraram que a qualidade do material era satisfatória. Como o "Documentário DC" pode ser facilmente acessado na Internet e ser eficaz no ensino à população que vive em áreas endêmicas, seu uso deve ser incentivado em locais e reuniões relacionadas à saúde, que visam combater os triatomíneos e exibir uma informação atualizada sobre a DC.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 237-240, Jan.-May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dengue is a viral disease which is serious health concern from last few decades and the infection transmitted through mosquito bite into human. This study was conducted to carry out prevalence of dengue fever in District Swabi. A total of 196 blood sample were collected from patients with age ranges (0-80 years) having dengue fever on the basis of physical symptoms from Bacha Khan Medical Complex Swabi during August to October 2017. Serological test were performed for detection of IgM, IgG and NS1 (Non structural protein antigen of virus) against dengue. Out of total 196 confirmed dengue cases the most prone gender was male 123(62%) while 73(38%) were female. Among the age groups; 21-30 years group 62 (31.6%) was found the most predominated age group. The higly affected areas in district Swabi were Topi (40.8%) followed by Main Swabi (27%), Maneri (8.2%), Marghuz (6%), Shawa Ada (5.1%), Shah Mansoor (5.1%), Gohati (4.1%), and Chota Lahore (3.6%). Therefore, the health department should take actions by educating the public about basic cleanliness of the environment. The community should be encouraged to participate in the control of such vector based diseases/infections.


Resumo A dengue é uma doença viral que é um sério problema de saúde das últimas décadas e a infecção transmitida através da picada de mosquito em humanos. Este estudo foi realizado para realizar a prevalência da dengue no distrito de Swabi. Foram coletadas 196 amostras de sangue de pacientes com faixa etária (0 a 80 anos) com dengue com base nos sintomas físicos do Complexo Médico Bacha Khan de Swabi, no período de agosto a outubro de 2017. Foram realizados testes sorológicos para detecção de IgM, IgG e NS1 (antígeno proteico não estrutural do vírus) contra a dengue. Do total de 196 casos confirmados de dengue, o sexo mais propenso foi o masculino 123 (62%), enquanto 73 (38%) eram do sexo feminino. Entre as faixas etárias; A faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos 62 (31,6%) foi a faixa etária mais predominante. As áreas altamente afetadas no distrito de Swabi foram Topi (40,8%), seguidas por Main Swabi (27%), Maneri (8,2%), Marghuz (6%), Shawa Ada (5,1%), Shah Mansoor (5,1%), Gohati (4,1%) e Chota Lahore (3,6%). Portanto, o departamento de saúde deve tomar ações educando o público sobre a limpeza básica do meio ambiente. A comunidade deve ser incentivada a participar do controle de tais doenças / infecções baseadas em vetores.

5.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 16(1): 308-322,
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155077

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN A medida que la población envejece, aumenta la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas y discapacitantes. Cuba es uno de los países más envejecidos de América Latina; está previsto sea hacia el 2050 uno de los más envejecidos del mundo. El costo de las enfermedades y su impacto en el estado funcional son mayores en los pacientes de edad avanzada que en personas más jóvenes. La elevada prevalencia de múltiples enfermedades no transmisibles en adultos mayores es un importante desafío para los proveedores de servicios de salud. La actividad física de los adultos mayores como una forma de vida saludable tiene gran trascendencia en la sociedad, pues la práctica del ejercicio y el deporte promueve la prevención, el tratamiento y la rehabilitación de enfermedades no transmisibles. El objetivo de esta investigación es incrementar los conocimientos sobre la repercusión de los cambios del envejecimiento en la funcionabilidad del adulto mayor, que permita incidir en su bienestar desde la actividad física. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante búsquedas electrónicas y en bibliotecas de revistas médicas nacionales y extranjeras indexadas en SciELO, Imbiomed y Pubmed en un horizonte de diez años en idioma español e inglés. Se consultaron artículos científicos y libros de textos con información relacionada con envejecimiento poblacional y actividad física, actividad física y enfermedades no transmisibles. Se puede concluir que la actividad física terapéutica es un acto profesional sanitario, que permite al individuo alcanzar la mayor capacidad funcional posible, logrando su máxima autonomía, a los efectos de posibilitar su mayor integración a la sociedad.


RESUMO À medida que a população envelhece, a prevalência de doenças crónicas e deficiências aumenta. Cuba é um dos países mais antigos da América Latina; em 2050 espera-se que seja um dos mais antigos do mundo. O custo das doenças e o seu impacto no estado funcional são mais elevados em pacientes mais velhos do que em pessoas mais jovens. A elevada prevalência de múltiplas doenças não transmissíveis em adultos mais velhos é um grande desafio para os prestadores de cuidados de saúde. A atividade física dos adultos mais velhos como um estilo de vida saudável é de grande importância na sociedade, uma vez que a prática de exercício e esporte promove a prevenção, tratamento e reabilitação de doenças não transmissíveis. O objetivo desta investigação é aumentar o conhecimento sobre a repercussão das mudanças do envelhecimento na funcionalidade dos adultos mais velhos, o que permite influenciar o seu bem-estar através da atividade física. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica através de pesquisas electrónicas e em bibliotecas de revistas médicas nacionais e estrangeiras indexadas em SciELO, Imbiomed e Pubmed num horizonte de dez anos em língua espanhola e inglesa. Foram consultados artigos científicos e livros escolares com informações relacionadas com o envelhecimento da população e a atividade física; atividade física e doenças não transmissíveis. Pode-se concluir que a atividade física terapêutica é um ato profissional de saúde, que permite ao indivíduo atingir a maior capacidade funcional possível, alcançando a máxima autonomia, a fim de tornar possível uma melhor integração na sociedade.


ABSTRACT As the population ages, the prevalence of chronic and disabling diseases increases. Cuba is one of the oldest countries in Latin America, is expected to be one of the oldest in the world by 2050. The cost of diseases and their impact on functional status are higher in elderly patients than in younger people. The high prevalence of multiple Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in older adults is a major challenge for health service providers. The physical activity of older adults as a healthy way of life has great significance in society, since the practice of exercise and sports promotes the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of noncommunicable diseases. The objective of our investigation is to increase knowledge about the impact of aging changes on the functionality of the elderly, which can influence their well-being from physical activity. A literature review was carried out through electronic searches and in libraries of national and foreign medical journals indexed in SciELO, Imbiomed and Pubmed in a 10-year horizon in Spanish and English. Thesis on completion of studies and textbooks with information related to population aging and physical activity, physical activity and noncommunicable diseases were consulted. As a conclusion, we can say that the Therapeutic physical activity is a professional health act, which allows the individual to achieve the greatest possible functional capacity, to achieve maximum autonomy, in order to enable their greater integration into society.

6.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(1): 72-80, ene.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152670

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Virus de la Hepatitis C (VHC) codifica la proteína Core. Que, además de ser la subunidad de la cápside, participa en diferentes mecanismos de patogénesis de la infección por VHC. Dado que el sistema de replicación in vitro del VHC presenta limitaciones, el uso de vectores virales podría ser una herramienta útil para estudiar las propiedades de la proteína Core. Con el fin de validar el vector con el Virus del Bosque de Semliki (SFV) para el estudio de Core en células HepG2, se evaluó la expresión de la proteína verde fluorescente (GFP) y la proteína Core utilizando este vector viral. Las expresiones de GFP y Core se detectaron en células HepG2 transducidas con rSFV de 24 a 96 horas postransducción. La expresión de la proteína Core fue inferior a la expresión de GFP en las células HepG2. Teniendo en cuenta que la proteína Core del VHC puede regular la actividad del gen p53, se evaluó el nivel transcripcional de este gen. Se observó una disminución en el nivel de mARN de p53 en las células luego de la transducción, comparado con las células control. Aunque las células transducidas con rSFV-Core presentaron el menor nivel de mARN de p53, la diferencia no fue significativa comparada con las células transducidas con rSFV-GFP. Los resultados confirman que rSFV permite la expresión transitoria de proteínas heterólogas en líneas celulares de hepatoma humano. Se necesitan estudios adicionales para determinar si la expresión disminuida de Core puede deberse a degradación de la proteína viral.


ABSTRACT The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) encodes the structural protein Core, which in addition to being the capsid subunit, participates in different mechanisms of HCV infection pathogenesis. Since HCV in vitro replication system has limitations, the use of viral vectors could be a useful tool to study the Core protein properties. To validate the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) strategy in transduced HepG2 cells to study the HCV Core protein, the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Core protein expressions were detected 24 to 96 hours post-transduction in HepG2 cells transduced with rSFV. Core protein expression was lower than GFP expression in HepG2 cells. Since HCV Core protein can regulate the activity of the p53 gene, the transcriptional level of this gene was evaluated. A decrease in the level of p53 mRNA was observed in the cells after transduction, compared to the control cells. Although the cells transduced with rSFV-Core had the lowest level of p53 mRNA, the difference was not significant compared to cells transduced with rSFV-GFP. The results confirm that rSFV allows the transient expression of heterologous proteins in human hepatoma cell lines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the decreased expression of Core may be due to the degradation of the viral protein.

7.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(1)ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150248

ABSTRACT

Frente a la creciente demanda de producción de la vacuna Antihepatitis B recombinante, constituye un reto para el Centro Nacional de Biopreparados aumentar la fabricación del producto, para lo cual el proceso de llenado aséptico requirió de una inversión. En el trabajo se presenta la selección de la nueva máquina llenadora y se calculan los indicadores económicos asociados a la inversión, la que se recupera en el cuarto año con una ganancia de $2.655.300. Luego de la inversión se evaluó el desempeño de la nueva máquina y se comparó con los resultados anteriores a la inversión. Se compararon los valores de volumen dispensado por vial, velocidad de llenado, rendimiento operacional, principales defectos detectados en los lotes de llenado, tiempo promedio de llenado de un lote, costo de producción y comportamiento del monto resarcido al cliente por rechazos de producto. El volumen dispensado por vial resulta más exacto, reduciendo las pérdidas de producto. La velocidad de llenado aumenta 1,7 veces respecto a la máquina anterior. El rendimiento operacional aumenta en un 13,63 percent. Disminuyen los rechazos de producto en 40.897 viales, representando un ahorro de $24.538 ingresados en 73 lotes producidos. Se ahorra en energía eléctrica un total de $14.718 en un mes. El costo unitario del proceso de llenado disminuye en 0,0648 $/vial(AU)


National Center for Biopreparations must increase the production of the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine because of its growing demand. In order to fulfill this challenge, the aseptic filling process required an investment. This work, presents the selection of the new filling machine and the economic indicators that support the investment. Inversion cost is recovered in the fourth year with a profit equivalent to $2,655,300. After the investment, the performance of the new machine was compared with the previous one. Volume dispensed per vial, filling speed, operational performance, major defects detected in filling batches, average filling time for a batch, production cost and payments to customers due to rejected products were compared. The control of the volume dispensed per vial is more accurate, reducing product losses. The filling speed increases 1.7 times compared to the previous machine. Operational performance increases by 13.63 percent. Product rejections are reduced by 40,897 vials, saving $24,538 for the 73 batches. Electricity consumption diminished, saving $14,718 monthly. The unit cost of the filling process decreases by $0.0648/vial(AU)


Subject(s)
Pichia , Recombinant Proteins , Hepatitis B virus , Vaccines
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e117-e120, abril 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151875

ABSTRACT

La infección crónica con el virus B de la hepatitis es una de las enfermedades de mayor prevalencia mundial. Puede evolucionar a la cirrosis y carcinoma hepatocelular. La detección temprana, evitar la utilización de drogas intravenosas, la educación sexual y la vacunación son fundamentales para la prevención. La infección neonatal y durante el primer año de vida evoluciona hacia la cronicidad en más del 90 % de los niños. La transmisión vertical, de una madre con virus B de la hepatitis al recién nacido, es, actualmente, la forma más frecuente de infección. Su detección y la administración de inmunoglobulinas y vacuna disminuyen esta vía de infección. El tratamiento antiviral puede acelerar en dos o tres años el pasaje de la fase activa a la inactiva de la infección, sin influir en el proceso hacia la recuperación. El tratamiento oportuno de algunos casos elegidos puede evitar la progresión de la enfermedad


Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. It may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An early detection, not using intravenous drugs, sex education, and immunization are critical for prevention. An infection in the neonatal period and in the first year of life becomes chronic in more than 90 % of children. Vertical transmission from a mother with hepatitis B virus to the newborn infant is currently the most common mode of transmission. Detection, immunoglobulin administration, and immunization help to reduce it. Antiviral therapy may accelerate the transition from the active to the inactive phase of infection by two or three years, without affecting the recovery process. A timely treatment of some selected cases may prevent hepatitis B progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Hepatitis B, Chronic/therapy , Pediatrics , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Disease Progression , Hepatitis B, Chronic
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819177

ABSTRACT

Haiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk factors for P. falciparum infection using HRP2-based RDTs (n = 1,107). Post hoc multiplex Plasmodium antigenemia and antibody (IgG) detection by multiplex bead assay revealed one blood sample positive for pan-Plasmodium aldolase, negative for P. falciparum HRP2, and positive for IgG antibodies to P. malariae. Based on this finding, we selected 52 samples with possible P. malariae infection using IgG and antigenemia data and confirmed infection status by species-specific PCR. We confirmed one P. malariae infection in a 6-month-old infant without travel history. Congenital P. malariae could not be excluded. However, our finding-in combination with historical reports of P. malariae-warrants further investigation into the presence and possible extent of non-falciparum malaria in Haiti. Furthermore, we showed the use of multiplex Plasmodium antigen and IgG detection in selecting samples of interest for subsequent PCR analysis, thereby reducing costs as opposed to testing all available samples by PCR. This is of specific use in low-transmission or eliminating settings where infections are rare.

10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799369

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the experiences of special care dentistry providers worldwide. An online survey was administered from 10 to 31 July 2020. Age, sex, years of professional activity, COVID-19 status, geographical area of origin and length of lockdown period were recorded for all participating dentists. The relationships between these variables and the changes in clinical activity, the treated patients' COVID-19 status and the implementation of protective measures in the dental clinic were analyzed. A total of 436 (70.6% women) dentists from 59 countries responded to the survey. Clinical activity was reduced or stopped for 79.1% of respondents. The most common change was to limit treatment to urgent care only (53.7%). Treatment under general anesthesia or deep sedation was discontinued (51.0%) or reduced (35.8%) for the majority of respondents. Male dentists were more likely to maintain their clinical activity than female dentists (p < 0.001), and respondents from North America were more likely to do so than participants from other geographical regions (p < 0.001). Dentists from Latin America and the Caribbean were more likely to report treatment of confirmed cases of COVID-19 than those from Europe (p < 0.001). The implementation of protective measures in the dental office was determined by the survey participant's sex, intensity of clinical activity and geographical area of origin. To conclude, the provision of special care dentistry was considerably reduced in response to the pandemic. Service maintenance was mainly related to the geographical area in which the surveyed dentists worked, further exacerbating pre-existing inequalities.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Caribbean Region , Communicable Disease Control , Dentistry , Dentists , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , North America , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800008

ABSTRACT

Despite the global impact of COVID-19, studies comparing the effects of COVID-19 on population mental health across countries are sparse. This study aimed to compare anxiety and depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown among adults from 11 countries and to examine their associations with country-level COVID-19 factors and personal COVID-19 exposure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (≥18 years) in 11 countries (Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Ireland, North Macedonia, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United States). Mental health (anxiety, depression, resilient coping, hope) and other study data were collected between June-August 2020. Of the 13,263 participants, 62.8% were female and 51.7% were 18-34 years old. Participants living in Brazil had the highest anxiety and depression symptoms while participants living in Singapore had the lowest. Greater personal COVID-19 exposure was associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms, but country-level COVID-19 factors were not. Higher levels of hope were associated with reduced anxiety and depression; higher levels of resilient coping were associated with reduced anxiety but not depression. Substantial variations exist in anxiety and depression symptoms across countries during the COVID-19 lockdown, with personal COVID-19 exposure being a significant risk factor. Strategies that mitigate COVID-19 exposure and enhance hope and resilience may reduce anxiety and depression during global emergencies.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Bulgaria , China , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Ireland , Malaysia , Male , Mental Health , Republic of North Macedonia , Singapore , Spain , Turkey , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the extent to which Brazilian and Portuguese Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) had casual sex partners outside their homes during the period of sheltering in place for the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in Brazil and Portugal in April, during the period of social isolation for COVID-19, with a sample of 2361 MSMs. Recruitment was done through meeting apps and Facebook. RESULTS: Most of the sample (53.0%) had casual sex partners during sheltering. Factors that increased the odds of engaging in casual sex in Brazil were having group sex (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), living in an urban area (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), feeling that sheltering had a high impact on daily life (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.3), having casual instead of steady partners (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8-3.5), and not decreasing the number of partners (aOR 6.5, 95% CI 4.2-10.0). In Portugal, the odds of engaging in casual sex increased with using Facebook to find partners (aOR 4.6, 95% CI 3.0-7.2), not decreasing the number of partners (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 2.9-5.9), usually finding partners in physical venues (pre-COVID-19) (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 3.2-8.9), feeling that the isolation had a high impact on daily life (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-6.7), and HIV-positive serostatus (aOR 11.7, 95% CI 4.7-29.2). Taking PrEP/Truvada to prevent COVID-19 was reported by 12.7% of MSM. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has not stopped most of our MSM sample from finding sexual partners, with high-risk sexual behaviors continuing.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Portugal , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-53586

ABSTRACT

Pathways to Health is a bulletin prepared by the office of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) in Cuba. Its main aim is to share the most important aspects of the Representation's technical cooperation with the country's Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP) and other institutions. At the one-year anniversary of the pandemic in Cuba, this issue is dedicated to systematically review key aspects of the national response over the last months. In particular, it includes an interview with the Minister of Public Health, Dr. José Angel Portal Miranda, who reflects on the range of work and milestones achieved in confronting the novel coronavirus in the island nation. It also carries articles related to the epidemiological situation, treatment protocol, Cuban vaccine development, work carried out under the National Maternal–Child Health Program, and contributions by the country's PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centers, among others. As an exception, we publish this special issue in English. The bulletin is usually published in Spanish.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Hand Hygiene , Health Communication , Health Promotion , International Cooperation , Leadership , Pandemics , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009290, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861753

ABSTRACT

Since introduction into Brazil in 2014, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has presented sustained transmission, although much is unknown about its circulation in the midwestern states. Here, we analyze 24 novel partial and near complete CHIKV genomes from Cuiaba, an urban metropolis located in the Brazilian midwestern state of Mato Grosso (MT). Nanopore technology was used for sequencing CHIKV complete genomes. Phylogenetic and epidemiological approaches were used to explore the recent spatio-temporal evolution and spread of the CHIKV-ECSA genotype in Midwest Brazil as well as in the Americas. Epidemiological data revealed a reduction in the number of reported cases over 2018-2020, likely as a consequence of a gradual accumulation of herd-immunity. Phylogeographic reconstructions revealed that at least two independent introductions of the ECSA lineage occurred in MT from a dispersion event originating in the northeastern region and suggest that the midwestern Brazilian region appears to have acted as a source of virus transmission towards Paraguay, a bordering South American country. Our results show a complex dynamic of transmission between epidemic seasons and suggest a possible role of Brazil as a source for international dispersion of the CHIKV-ECSA genotype to other countries in the Americas.

15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 345, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major global health problem and one of the greatest barriers to its control is poor adherence to treatment. Peru has one of the highest burdens of TB in South America, with an incidence rate of 123 per 100,000 populations. There is currently a lack of evidence in South America about factors that facilitate adherence to treatment, with most previous research focusing on factors that negatively influence adherence to TB treatment. SETTING: This study was conducted in Iquitos, the capital city of the Loreto region, north-eastern Peru. Loreto has a high incidence of tuberculosis, estimated at 99 per 100,000 population, and a high poverty rate. METHODS: Twenty face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted at two healthcare centres. Data collected from the interviews was analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the data set. Personal Qualities, such as responsibility and determination, were perceived as important factors facilitating adherence. Participants described their Trust in Healthcare Providers positively, particularly focusing on their trust in clinical staff, although knowledge of tuberculosis and its treatment was limited. Social Support, from a variety of sources, was also seen as a driving factor for continued adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that more emphasis should be placed on educating tuberculosis patients about their disease and its treatment. Additionally, consideration should be given to improving the social support available to patients, for example with tuberculosis support groups involving 'expert' tuberculosis patients.

16.
Microb Pathog ; : 104884, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864876

ABSTRACT

Dogs are a reservoir for Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and other companion vector-borne diseases, including ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys), dirofilariasis (Dirofilaria immitis) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi). This study has two key objectives: 1) to determine seroreactivity against T. cruzi in dogs from the town of Colón, in Portoviejo city, in the central coast of Ecuador; and 2) to establish the coinfection frequency of other companion vector-borne diseases in dogs positive for T. cruzi. Antibodies against T. cruzi were detected using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Diagnostic consensus between ELISA tests was established using the Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Other haemoparasitic diseases were detected using the IDEXX SNAP® 4Dx® kit in dogs previously diagnosed as T. cruzi-seropositive. From 84 dogs sampled, 57.14% (48/84) tested positive for T. cruzi. Co-infection analysis of 25 dogs positive for T. cruzi revealed antibodies also against Ehrlichia spp. (48%), Anaplasma spp. (28%), and Dirofilaria immitis (12%). These results provide a novel perspective regarding the status of these pathogens which co-infect dogs in Colón. Since all these pathogens are zoonotic, our findings should warn regional health authorities to implement sanitary programs, to better prevent and control vectors associated to these pathogens. On the other hand, human and veterinarian doctors, should consider that patients with a cardiac infection condition could be suffering co-infections with two or more vector transmitted pathogens.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0246215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831004

ABSTRACT

Vale do Rio Juruá in western Acre, Brazil, is a persistent malaria transmission hotspot partly due to fish farming development that was encouraged to improve local standards of living. Fish ponds can be productive breeding sites for Amazonian malaria vector species, including Nyssorhynchus darlingi, which, combined with high human density and mobility, add to the local malaria burden.This study reports entomological profile of immature and adult Ny. darlingi at three sites in Mâncio Lima, Acre, during the rainy and dry season (February to September, 2017). From 63 fishponds, 10,859 larvae were collected, including 5,512 first-instar Anophelinae larvae and 4,927 second, third and fourth-instars, of which 8.5% (n = 420) were Ny. darlingi. This species was most abundant in not-abandoned fishponds and in the presence of emerging aquatic vegetation. Seasonal analysis of immatures in urban landscapes found no significant difference in the numbers of Ny. darlingi, corresponding to equivalent population density during the rainy to dry transition period. However, in the rural landscape, significantly higher numbers of Ny. darlingi larvae were collected in August (IRR = 5.80, p = 0.037) and September (IRR = 6.62, p = 0.023) (dry season), compared to February (rainy season), suggesting important role of fishponds for vector population maintenance during the seasonal transition in this landscape type. Adult sampling detected mainly Ny. darlingi (~93%), with similar outdoor feeding behavior, but different abundance according to landscape profile: urban site 1 showed higher peaks of human biting rate in May (46 bites/person/hour), than February (4) and September (15), while rural site 3 shows similar HBR during the same sampling period (22, 24 and 21, respectively). This study contributes to a better understanding of the larvae biology of the main malaria vector in the Vale do Rio Juruá region and, ultimately will support vector control efforts.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836024

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the discourses of patients who were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the perception of why they acquired this health condition and barriers to seeking care in a priority city in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was an exploratory qualitative study, which used the theoretical-methodological framework of the Discourse Analysis of French matrix, guided by the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. The study was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Seven participants were interviewed who were undergoing treatment at the time of the interview. The analysis of the participants' discourses allowed the emergence of four discursive blocks: (1) impact of the social determinants in the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, (2) barriers to seeking care and difficulties accessing health services, (3) perceptions of the side effects and their impact on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, and (4) tuberculosis and COVID-19: a necessary dialogue. Through discursive formations, these revealed the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Considering the complexity involved in the dynamics of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, advancing in terms of equity in health, that is, in reducing unjust differences, is a challenge for public policies, especially at the current moment in Brazil, which is of accentuated economic, political and social crisis. The importance of psychosocial stressors and the lack of social support should also be highlighted as intermediary determinants of health. The study has also shown the situation of COVID-19, which consists of an important barrier for patients seeking care. Many patients reported fear, insecurity and worry with regard to returning to medical appointments, which might contribute to the worsening of tuberculosis in the scenario under study.

19.
Malar J ; 20(1): 186, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria infections, increasing the risk of maternal-fetal complications, mainly in high-endemicity areas. However, few studies of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) have been carried out in Latin America, a region with low endemicity and transmission of both, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Despite the high malaria burden in Venezuela in the last years, no recent studies of MiP have been conducted. Hence, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in southern Venezuela are described herein. METHODS: A retrospective study in pregnant women attending at the "Ruíz y Páez" University Hospital Complex, Bolivar state, Venezuela, was carried out between February and October, 2019. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory information was analysed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven out of 52 pregnant women analysed were infected with P. vivax. Age ranged between 15 and 39 years, and adolescent pregnancies were common. Malaria infection was diagnosed mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy (63.4%). The distribution of symptoms and signs as well as clinical laboratory values was similar among Plasmodium spp. Although uncomplicated malaria was most frequent, 30% (13/52) had severe anaemia. A high proportion of studied women (44%) presented at least one complication during the pregnancy or delivery. Spontaneous abortion was recorded in four women, and three fetal deaths were observed. Six women had preterm delivery without any further complication. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of maternal-fetal complications was found in the studied population, highlighting the requirement for a careful medical follow up during the prenatal check-ups, which should include routinary malaria tests. Preventive measures as distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito net for pregnant women at risk should also be implemented. Those measures can help to reduce the negative impact of malaria on the newborn and mother.

20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(4): e209-e219, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Temperature and rainfall patterns are known to influence seasonal patterns of dengue transmission. However, the effect of severe drought and extremely wet conditions on the timing and intensity of dengue epidemics is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to quantify the non-linear and delayed effects of extreme hydrometeorological hazards on dengue risk by level of urbanisation in Brazil using a spatiotemporal model. METHODS: We combined distributed lag non-linear models with a spatiotemporal Bayesian hierarchical model framework to determine the exposure-lag-response association between the relative risk (RR) of dengue and a drought severity index. We fit the model to monthly dengue case data for the 558 microregions of Brazil between January, 2001, and January, 2019, accounting for unobserved confounding factors, spatial autocorrelation, seasonality, and interannual variability. We assessed the variation in RR by level of urbanisation through an interaction between the drought severity index and urbanisation. We also assessed the effect of hydrometeorological hazards on dengue risk in areas with a high frequency of water supply shortages. FINDINGS: The dataset included 12 895 293 dengue cases reported between 2001 and 2019 in Brazil. Overall, the risk of dengue increased between 0-3 months after extremely wet conditions (maximum RR at 1 month lag 1·56 [95% CI 1·41-1·73]) and 3-5 months after drought conditions (maximum RR at 4 months lag 1·43 [1·22-1·67]). Including a linear interaction between the drought severity index and level of urbanisation improved the model fit and showed the risk of dengue was higher in more rural areas than highly urbanised areas during extremely wet conditions (maximum RR 1·77 [1·32-2·37] at 0 months lag vs maximum RR 1·58 [1·39-1·81] at 2 months lag), but higher in highly urbanised areas than rural areas after extreme drought (maximum RR 1·60 [1·33-1·92] vs 1·15 [1·08-1·22], both at 4 months lag). We also found the dengue risk following extreme drought was higher in areas that had a higher frequency of water supply shortages. INTERPRETATION: Wet conditions and extreme drought can increase the risk of dengue with different delays. The risk associated with extremely wet conditions was higher in more rural areas and the risk associated with extreme drought was exacerbated in highly urbanised areas, which have water shortages and intermittent water supply during droughts. These findings have implications for targeting mosquito control activities in poorly serviced urban areas, not only during the wet and warm season, but also during drought periods. FUNDING: Royal Society, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, National Institutes of Health, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

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