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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Resumo A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 499-507, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased agricultural production has been increased use of pesticides worldwide, which poses a threat to both human and environmental health. Recent studies suggest that several non-target organisms, from bees to mammals, show a wide variety of toxic effects of pesticides exposure, including impaired behavior, development and reproduction. Among mammals, bats are usually a neglected taxon among ecotoxicological studies, although they play important ecological and economical roles in forest ecosystems and agriculture through to seed dispersal and insect population control. Considering their wide variety of food habits, bats are exposed to environmental pollutants through food or water contamination, or through direct skin contact in their roosting areas. In order to better understand the risk posed by pesticides to bats populations, we compiled studies that investigated the main toxicological effects of pesticides in bats, aiming at contributing to discussion about the environmental risks associated with the use of pesticides.


Resumo O aumento da produção agrícola tem levado ao aumento do uso de pesticidas em todo o mundo, o que representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana e ambiental. Estudos recentes sugerem que vários organismos não-alvo, de abelhas a mamíferos, apresentam uma grande variedade de efeitos tóxicos após a exposição aos pesticidas a pesticidas, incluindo alterações de comportamento, no desenvolvimento e na reprodução. Entre os mamíferos, os morcegos geralmente são negligenciados entre os estudos ecotoxicológicos, embora desempenhem importantes papéis ecológicos e econômicos nos ecossistemas florestais e na agricultura por meio do controle de dispersão de sementes e de populações de insetos. Considerando sua ampla variedade de hábitos alimentares, eles estão expostos a poluentes ambientais através da contaminação de alimentos ou água, ou através do contato direto com a pele em suas áreas de descanso. Para entender melhor o risco que os agrotóxicos representam para as populações de morcegos, compilamos estudos que investigaram os principais efeitos toxicológicos de agrotóxicos em morcegos, visando à discussão sobre os riscos ambientais associados ao uso de agrotóxicos.

4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797721

ABSTRACT

Shallow urban polluted reservoirs at tropical regions can be hotspots for CO2 and CH4 emissions. In this study, we investigated the relationships between eutrophication and GHG emissions in a highly urbanized tropical reservoir in São Paulo Metropolitan Area (Brazil). CO2 and CH4 fluxes and limnological variables (water and sediment) were collected at three sampling stations classified as hypereutrophic and eutrophic. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the principal component analysis (PCA) determined the most significant parameters to CO2 and CH4 fluxes. ANOVA showed significant differences of CO2 and CH4 fluxes between sampling stations with different trophic state. The hypereutrophic station showed higher mean fluxes for both CO2 and CH4 (5.43 ± 1.04 and 0.325 ± 0.167 g m-2 d-1, respectively) than the eutrophic stations (3.36 ± 0.54 and 0.060 ± 0.005 g m-2 d-1). The PCA showed a strong relationship between nutrients in the water column (surface and bottom) and GHG fluxes. We concluded that GHG fluxes were higher whenever the trophic state increases as observed previously in temperate and tropical reservoirs. High concentrations of nutrients in the water column in the studied area support the high production of autotrophic biomass that, when sedimented, ends up serving as organic matter for CH4 producers. These outcomes reinforce the necessity of water quality improvement and eutrophication mitigation in highly urbanized reservoirs in tropical regions.

5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Disruptors , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Brazil , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Subject(s)
Allium , Onions , Chile , Chromosome Aberrations , DNA Damage , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Mitotic Index , Plant Roots , Rivers
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 245, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821384

ABSTRACT

Studies to assess variability factors of heavy metals in soils are essential to understand their behavior in the environment and for the assessment of contaminated areas. In this context, this research aimed to study the factors that influence the variability of heavy metal levels and their bioavailability in pasture areas in the Alturas de Nazareno region, Mayabeque, Cuba, as well as the transfer to plants. Forty-five points were distributed in a natural pasture and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) as a function of relief and soil type. Pseudo-total heavy metal contents were determined according to method 3051A of USEPA, geochemical fractionation according to the Community Bureau of Reference method, and plant digestion according to method 3052 of USEPA. Soil samples were separated into two groups, according to cluster analysis. The type of soil associated with the pH and Ca attributes were the factors that most influenced the variability of the total and bioavailable levels of metals in natural pasture soils in the region of Alturas de Nazareno. Group 1 showed the lowest heavy metal contents and the highest pH and calcium values, which were predominantly associated with carbonate soils. Group 2 had the highest contents of heavy metals and Fe, corresponding mainly to the soil Ferralítico Rojo. The concentration of metals in plants was directly related to their bioavailable content in the soil, where G2 represents the group with the highest risk of transferring metals to the food chain.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Cuba , Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
8.
Preprint in Portuguese | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-2091

ABSTRACT

Tastes and odors in tap water are problems faced by water companies all over the world, with complaints from consumers especially during the summer when cyanobacterial blooms occur that produce compounds such as geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB).  We analyzed data on the intensity of taste and odor, and total concentration of the substances geosmin and 2-MIB, present in drinking water and raw water collected by the sanitation company that supplies the metropolitan region of the state of RJ/Brazil, during water crises in the year 2020, and in the new event of 2021, despite the previous warnings made by experts. Statistical and correlation analysis of the public data, and metagenomic analysis of the raw water captured from the Guandu basin in the year 2020 were performed. Organoleptic data allowed us to signal the presence of these compounds in drinking water, the values of the intensity of taste were more times above the MPV of the Brazilian legislation, with the average of the data for 2020 being 37.5 and in the following year this average was 5 times lower, indicating that the measures to remove the compounds were more effective, but did not eliminate the problem. For the year 2020 there was a linear correlation of 0.97 between the taste organoleptic standard and the total concentration of the compounds. The metagenomic data of the raw water of the year 2020, related to the genes mtf, mic and glys indicated that the substance responsible for the taste and odor was 2-MIB, since the read rate for it was higher, both in the first visit and only in the second visit, when there was still perception of intensity of taste and odor. Modifications in the surveillance system of the quality of the water taken and consumed need to be adopted to circumvent the problems of cyanobacterial proliferation in the Guandu basin, since conditions favorable to blooms will occur as long as the sanitation problems in this watershed are not solved.


Gostos e odores na água da torneira são problemas enfrentados por empresas produtoras de água em todo o mundo, com reclamações dos consumidores principalmente durante o verão, quando ocorrerem florações de cianobactérias produtoras dos compostos como geosmina e o 2-metilisoborneol (2-MIB).  Foram analisados dados de intensidade do gosto e do odor, e concentração total das substâncias geosmina e 2-MIB, presente na água  potável e na água bruta captada pela empresa de saneamento, que abastece a região metropolitana do estado do RJ/Brazil,  durante  crises hídricas do ano 2020, e no novo evento de 2021, a despeito dos alertas prévios feitos por especialistas. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas e de correlação dos dados públicos, e analise metagenômica da água bruta captada no manancial da Bacia do Guandu, no ano de 2020. Dados organolépticos permitiram sinalizar a presença desses compostos na água de consumo, os valores da intensidade do gosto estiveram maior número de vezes acima do VMP da legislação brasileira, sendo a  média dos dados de 2020 de 37,5 e no ano seguinte esta média foi 5 vezes menor, indicando que as medidas para retirar dos compostos foram mais eficazes, mas não eliminaram o problema. Para o ano de 2020 houve correlação linear de 0,97 entre o padrão organoléptico gosto e a concentração total dos compostos. Os dados metagenômicos da água bruta do ano 2020, relacionados com os genes mtf, mic e glys indicaram que a substância responsável pelo gosto e odor foi o 2-MIB, visto o índice de reads para ele ter sido maior, tanto na primeira visita e único na segunda, quando ainda havia percepção de intensidade de gosto e odor. Modificações no sistema de vigilância da qualidade da água captada e de consumo precisam ser adotadas para contornar os problemas de proliferação de cianobactérias na bacia do Guandu, pois condições favoráveis às florações irão acontecer enquanto não forem resolvidos os problemas de saneamento dessa bacia hidrográfica.

9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 256, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835289

ABSTRACT

Naturally elevated contents of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) are found in soils worldwide, and their potential toxicity is better understood when geochemical reactive fractions are identified and monitored. Thus, this study aimed to assess the bioavailability of Cu and Ni and estimate environmental risks in naturally metal-enriched soils of Carajás Mining Province, Eastern Amazon, Brazil. For that, 58 surficial soil samples were analyzed for their extractable contents of Cu and Ni by Mehlich 1. Next, 13 soil samples were selected for additional single and sequential extractions, for the determination of metal content in the shoots of grasses naturally growing in these soils and for calculating the risk assessment code. Despite the naturally high total concentrations, the contents of easily available Cu and Ni are a minor fraction of total concentrations (up to 10.15%), and the reducible oxide and residual pools hold the major proportion of total content of metals. This contributed to low bioavailability, low environmental risk, and also to low concentrations of these metals on grasses collected in the field. Soil organic matter, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and clay content have a dominant role in metals retention on studied soils. Our findings on the bioavailability of Cu and Ni in a region of great economic relevance for Brazil are important not only for predicting the elements' behavior in the soil-plant system but also for refining risk assessments and to provide useful data for environmental quality monitoring.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Biological Availability , Brazil , Copper/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nickel , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 627, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the interactive effects of Brazilian public interventions, environmental health programs (access to water, sanitation and solid waste collection) and a Conditional Cash Transfer Program (PBF), on the mortality reduction due to diarrhea and malnutrition among children under 5 years old. METHODS: The study design is ecological, with longitudinal analysis in a balanced panel. The period covered is 2006 to 2016, including 3467 municipalities from all regions of the country, which resulted in 38,137 observations. The generalized linear models were adjusted considering the Negative Binomial (NB) distribution for the number of deaths due to malnutrition and diarrhea, with fixed effects. NB models with and without zero-inflation were assessed. Subsequent interaction models were applied to assess the combined effects of the two public policies. RESULTS: In relation to the decline of mortality rates due to diarrhea in the municipalities, positive effect modification were observed in the presence of: high coverage of the target population by the PBF and access to water, 0.54 (0.28-1.04) / 0.55 (0.29-1.04); high coverage by the total population by the PBF and access to water, 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and high coverage by the total population by the PBF and access to sanitation, 0.98 (0.97-1.00). Decline on diarrhea mortality was also observed in the joint presence of high coverage of solid waste collection and access to water, categories 1 (> 60% ≤85%): 0.98 (0.96-1.00), 0.98 (0.97-1, 00) and 2 (> 85% ≤ 100%): 0.97 (0.95-0.98), 0.97 (0.95-0.99). Negative effect modification were observed for mortality due to malnutrition in the presence of simultaneous high coverage of the total population by the PBF and access to sanitation categories 1 (≥ 20 < 50%): 1.0061 (0.9991-1.0132) and 2 (≥ 50 < 100%): 1.0073 (1.0002-1.0145) and high coverage of the total population by the PBF and solid waste collection, 1.0004 (1.0002-1.0005), resulting in malnutrition mortality rates increase. CONCLUSION: Implementation of environmental health services and the coverage expansion by the PBF may enhance the prevention of early deaths in children under 5 years old due to diarrhea, a poverty related disease.

11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 262, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846871

ABSTRACT

Emerging contaminants is a topic that has been in evidence, especially in the last decades. These compounds are pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are present in several locations, mainly in large urban centers. The aim of this work was to investigate the fate of seven compounds (atrazine, simazine, ametrine, tebuthiuron, 2,4-D, fipronil, and diclofenac) using leaching column experiments to evaluate accumulation and transfer in 5 different types of urban soils from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Chemical analyses were carried out through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that the soil derived from quaternary sediments, with well-sorted sandy sediments, was the one in which the contaminants had higher mobility. This soil also has a pH above the average of the others in the city, a factor that may also be responsible for less retention of substances. Tebuthiuron is the substance with the greatest leaching potential overall. Column experiments are a relevant tool to understand the behavior of emerging contaminants in soils and implications on the population health.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Brazil , Chromatography, Liquid , Environmental Monitoring , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
12.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria, a Category 4 hurricane, swept across Puerto Rico (PR), wreaking devastation to PR's power, water, and health care infrastructure. To address the imminent humanitarian crisis, the US government mobilized Federal Medical Shelters (FMS) to serve the needs of hurricane victims. This study's objective was to provide a description of the patients seeking emergency care at FMS and the changes in their needs over time. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included all patients presenting to the FMS Manatí from October 6, two weeks after Hurricane Maria's landfall, to November 2, 2017. Categories were created to catalogue the nature of new acute medical issues by patients presenting to the Shelter. Descriptive, graphical analyses were performed to assess changes to presenting complaints over time, and by age groups defined as infant (age ≤1 years), child (1 year < age ≤10 years), adolescent (10 years < age ≤ 25 years), and adult (age > 25 years). RESULTS: Over the 30-day period, 5,268 patients were seen in the FMS seeking medical care (average 188.1 patients per day), spending less than five hours in the facility. The distribution of patients' age was bimodal: the first peak at one year and the second at age 50. The most common patient complaint was infection (38.8%), then musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints (11.8%) and management of chronic medical conditions (11.8%). The proportion of patients presenting with chronic disease complaints declined over the course of the period of observation (21.4% on Day 4 to 8.0% on Day 30) while the proportion of patients presenting with infection increased (31.0% on Day 4 to 48.6% on Day 30). Infection complaints were highest in all age groups, but most in infxants (80.2%), while MSK and chronic disease complaints were highest in adults (14.9% and 14.9%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Infection treatment and chronic disease management were important medical needs facing patients seeking care at FMS Manatí after Hurricane Maria. These findings suggest that basic needs related to sanitation and shelter remained important weeks after the hurricane, and a focus on access to medications, infection control, and injury prevention/management after a disaster needs to be prioritized during disaster response.

13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 247, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822279

ABSTRACT

The study presents the characterization of the water quality of the Corumbá IV reservoir in the State of Goiás, in the Brazilian Cerrado biome, based on data from the operation period between 2007 and 2017. Few are known about the temporal and spatial variations in the water quality of the reservoir. Up to now, the water quality has been analyzed only from the point of view of compliance with the limits required by Brazilian environmental legislation. Therefore, the integrated analysis of water quality parameters and water body dynamics may bring important information to support decision-making in reservoir management. An exploratory analysis of the limnological data series provided by the company in charge of the hydroelectric plant was then carried out. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to analyze the data period from 2007 to 2017. The results identify four distinct limnological phases representing the transition of the environment. The first phase (2007 to 2009) characterized by the decomposition of the flooded vegetal organic matter and subsequent phases, after 8 years (2010 to 2017), have featured the transition process from the lotic condition to the consolidation of the lentic environment. The spatial analysis of the results demonstrates that tributaries influence the water quality of the reservoir differently, probably due to the different impacts suffered in the sub-basins (e.g., sewage discharges; runoff). Although it is possible to evidence the impact of anthropic activities on water quality, the reservoir still presents characteristics of an environment with low trophic status.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Water Quality , Brazil , Ecosystem , Rivers , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 263, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847840

ABSTRACT

Rainfall is a climatic variable that dictates the daily rhythm of urban areas in Northeastern Brazil (NEB) and, therefore, understanding its dynamics is fundamental. The objectives of the study were (i) to validate the CHELSA product with data in situ, (ii) assess the spatial-temporality of the rains, and (iii) assess the trends and socio-environmental implications in the Metropolitan Region of Maceió (MRM). The monthly rainfall data observed between 1960 and 2016 were flawed and were filled with the imputation of data. These series were subjected to descriptive and exploratory statistics, statistical indicators, and the Mann-Kendall (MK) and Pettitt tests. CHELSA product was validated for MRM, and all stations obtained satisfactory determination coefficients (R2) and Pearson correlation (r). The standard error of the estimate (SEE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) were satisfactory. The highest annual rainfall accumulated occurred near the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons. The Pettitt test identified that abrupt changes occur in El Niño and La Niña years (strong and weak). The monthly rain boxplots showed high variability in the rainy season (April-July). Outliers have been associated with extreme rainfall at MRM. The drought period was 5 months in all MRM seasons, except in Satuba and Pilar. The Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method showed a tendency for a significant increase in rainfall in Satuba and not significant in the Pilar, while in the others, there was a tendency for a decrease in rainfall. The MRM rainfall depends on physiographic factors, multiscale meteorological systems, and the coastal environment. These results will assist in planning conservationist practices, especially in areas of socio-environmental vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Rain , Brazil , El Nino-Southern Oscillation , Seasons
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 210, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755811

ABSTRACT

This is one of the first studies carried out over three climatic seasons on the determination of ibuprofen and diclofenac, in the main rivers of Colombia and striped catfish Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum. Determination of water concentrations was carried out using SPE extraction, while for the analysis of the muscular tissue, the extraction was carried out by QuEChERS. For both matrices, quantification was done by UHPLC-MS/MS. No levels of ibuprofen or diclofenac concentrations were found in the muscle tissue of Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, in any season or sampling site, during the 2 years of sampling. In some sampling sites, concentrations of up to 75 µg/L of diclofenac were detected, corresponding to the sampling carried out in the dry season, being the highest reported so far in surface waters, possibly generated by large concentrations of population or agricultural activities. On the other hand, for ibuprofen, no concentrations above the limit of quantification (0.50 µg/L) were found in the waters of the Cauca and Magdalena rivers, for any season and sampling site.


Subject(s)
Catfishes , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Colombia , Diclofenac , Environmental Monitoring , Ibuprofen , Rivers , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease pandemic has disproportionately affected poor and racial/ethnic minority individuals and communities, especially Indigenous Peoples. The object of this study is to understand the spatially varying associations between socioeconomic disadvantages and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in New Mexico at the ZIP code level. METHODS: We constructed ZIP code-level data (n=372) using the 2014-2018 American Community Survey and COVID-19 data from the New Mexico Department of Health (as of 24 May 2020). The log-linear Poisson and geographically weighted Poisson regression are applied to model the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases (total population as the offset) in a ZIP code. RESULTS: The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in a ZIP code is positively associated with socioeconomic disadvantages-specifically, the high levels of concentrated disadvantage and income inequality. It is also positively associated with the percentage of American Indian and Alaskan Native populations, net of other potential confounders at the ZIP code level. Importantly, these associations are spatially varying in that some ZIP codes suffer more from concentrated disadvantage than others. CONCLUSIONS: Additional attention for COVID-19 mitigation effort should focus on areas with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, income inequality, and higher percentage of American Indian and Alaska Native populations as these areas have higher incidence of COVID-19. The findings also highlight the importance of plumbing in all households for access to clean and safe water, and the dissemination of educational materials aimed at COVID-19 prevention in non-English language including Indigenous languages.

17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009256, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788864

ABSTRACT

Residents of urban slums suffer from a high burden of zoonotic diseases due to individual, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. We conducted a cross-sectional sero-survey in four urban slums in Salvador, Brazil, to characterize how poverty and sanitation contribute to the transmission of rat-borne leptospirosis. Sero-prevalence in the 1,318 participants ranged between 10.0 and 13.3%. We found that contact with environmental sources of contamination, rather than presence of rat reservoirs, is what leads to higher risk for residents living in areas with inadequate sanitation. Further, poorer residents may be exposed away from the household, and ongoing governmental interventions were not associated with lower transmission risk. Residents at higher risk were aware of their vulnerability, and their efforts improved the physical environment near their household, but did not reduce their infection chances. This study highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and environmental determinants of risk, which ought to guide intervention efforts.

18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112049, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647852

ABSTRACT

The disposal of untreated sanitary sewage in the soil has several consequences for human health and leads to environmental risks; thus, it is necessary investigating, monitoring and remediating the affected sites. The aims of the current study are to evaluate ecotoxicological effects on Eisenia andrei earthworms exposed to soil subjected to sources of sanitary sewage discharge and to investigate whether prevention values established by the Brazilian legislation for soil quality, associated with the incidence of chemical substances in it, are satisfactory enough to assure the necessary quality for different organisms. Earthworms' behavior, reproduction, acetylcholinesterase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated. The reproduction and behavior of earthworms exposed to sanitary sewage were adversely affected. Increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity acted as antioxidant defense mechanism. Significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels and acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition have indicated lipid peroxidation in cell membrane and neurotransmission changes, respectively. Results have confirmed that sanitary sewage induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, based on biochemical data analysis, the integrated biomarker response (IBR) has evidenced different toxicity levels in earthworms between the investigated points. Finally, results have indicated that effluents released into the soil, without proper treatment, lead to contaminant accumulation due to soil saturation and it can hinder different processes and biological development taking place in the soil. In addition, the current study has shown that physical-chemical analyses alone are not enough to assess soil quality, since it is also requires adopting an ecotoxicological approach. Brazilian legislation focused on soil quality must be revised and new guiding values must be proposed.


Subject(s)
Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Brazil , Catalase/metabolism , Ecotoxicology , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Humans , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oligochaeta/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sewage , Soil/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
19.
Waste Manag ; 125: 98-102, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677182

ABSTRACT

Solid waste management is a global challenge impacting the lives of thousands of people, among them the recyclable materials waste pickers, through the separation and sale of these materials, make a living for themselves. These workers face unhealthy working conditions and are exposed to various occupational risks, which predispose the prevalence of musculoskeletal as chronic back problems. METHOD: Exploratory cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire to investigate the prevalence of back pain and related risk factors. RESULTS: 1.025 waste pickers were interviewed, and 970 records of chronic back pain were detected. Among them, 660 were women (68.04%), 310 were men (31.96%), the average age of 40.21 years; 597 were single (61.92%); 629 (64.84%) had over 11 years of work; 942 (97.11%) worked exclusively in the open dump, 899 (92.68%) with bags, 922 (95.05%) on dayshift. We found significant associations between gender (p < 0.001); age (p < 0.001); time at work (p < 0.022) and place at work (p < 0.001). After adjusting, there were higher prevalence of chronic back pain women (OR = 1.7), older age (OR = 2.64); working more than 11 years (OR = 1.09); and working on the open dump (OR = 2.8). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders was high. Women, over 36 years old, who worked more than 11 h a day in the open dump were more exposed to suffer from chronic back problems. The importance of urgently addressing the labor impacts related to solid waste management in developing countries to protect these workers and, especially, women involved in this work is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Diseases , Refuse Disposal , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Recycling , Risk Factors
20.
Waste Manag ; 125: 235-248, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711737

ABSTRACT

Municipal Solid Waste Management is yet to be eco-effectively performed, especially in developing countries. In Brazil, a considerable fraction of waste has been improperly landfilled, generating environmental, social and economic problems. In 2018, the government of the state of Paraná released a revised version of its waste management plan, defining improvement strategies to be gradually implemented until 2038. However, these strategies' eco-effectiveness has not been forecasted, nor the plan was deployed to the regional level. This research aims to fill this gap, downscaling the plan to the region of Norte Pioneiro, simulating its implementation and monitoring environmental and economic benefits. The dynamics of waste generation, collection and disposal are investigated using an agent-based model, considering the four population growth scenarios addressed in the plan. Targets for strategies of waste reduction, collection, source-separation and charging of waste fees are modelled. Multiple simulation runs were performed and outputs assessed and discussed. Results show that, if the plan is thoroughly implemented since 2020, at least 650 kilotons of avoided CO2eq emissions and US$ 40 million in avoided expenditures can be achieved in the most conservative scenario by 2038. Implications from the strategies proposed in the plan are highlighted, and recommendations to improve the plan's eco-effectiveness are outlined.


Subject(s)
Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Brazil , Greenhouse Effect , Solid Waste , Systems Analysis
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