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1.
J Emerg Nurs ; 2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360295

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Disasters of any kind can affect public health severely. A shortage of health care specialists, such as physicians and nurses, during a disaster is a challenge for health care systems. The use of technology is 1 emerging strategy for addressing the continually increasing demand for care. Moreover, nurses may use technology in their roles. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the application of telehealth in disasters. METHODS: This systematic review study was conducted on the basis of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. English language international databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) were searched through November 2018. The quality of the studies was assessed using the International Narrative Systematic Assessment tool. RESULTS: Of the 5,759 titles identified in this search, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The important findings of this study were grouped into 3 main categories: clinical teams, disaster and communication types, and key outcomes of the telehealth programs used in disasters and incidents. We did not find any articles in the field of telenursing care during incidents. DISCUSSION: Providing health care during a disaster is essential, and technology is of vital importance for such care. Because of the shortage of specialized nurses in disaster areas, the presence of such a group in the telehealth program will provide a new window for care. Thus, telenursing offers a means of improving health care response.

4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-04-14. (OPS/PHE/IM/Covid-19/20-006).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52029

ABSTRACT

Las prácticas de prevención y control de infecciones necesitan implementarse para garantizar la seguridad de los trabajadores de salud y pacientes en establecimientos de salud, es fundamental prevenir la contaminación cruzada y contener la propagación del COVID 19. • Al día de esta publicación, están recomendadas las siguientes precauciones para el cuidado del paciente con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19‡: o Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de COVID-19: precauciones estándares + contacto + precauciones en la transmisión por gotitas o Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de COVID-19 y procedimientos generadores de aerosoles: precauciones estándares + contacto + transmisión aérea (aerosoles o núcleo de gotitas) • Los resultados de la aplicación de esta herramienta de evaluación, en conjunto con otras herramientas§, proveerán una visión general sobre el cumplimiento de las actividades de prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la atención médica en un establecimiento de salud, sin realizar juicios sobre el riesgo individual de los pacientes, o en casos particulares. Por su naturaleza, esta herramienta es sólo un diagnóstico externo de apoyo a profesionales de PCI y gerentes para evaluar las brechas y tomar medidas correctivas.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Hospitals, Packaged , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Euro Surveill ; 25(9)2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156332

ABSTRACT

Two months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the possibility of established and widespread community transmission in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) is becoming more likely. We provide scenarios for use in preparedness for a possible widespread epidemic. The EU/EEA is moving towards the 'limited sustained transmission' phase. We propose actions to prepare for potential mitigation phases and coordinate efforts to protect the health of citizens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disaster Planning , Epidemics , Health Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Forecasting , Humans , Internationality , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Risk Factors , Uncertainty
6.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(4): 1-15, 2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160942

ABSTRACT

This article outlines practical steps that businesses can take now to prepare for a pandemic. Given the current growing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) around the world, it is imperative that businesses review their pandemic plans and be prepared in case this epidemic expands and affects more people and communities. Preparing for a potential infectious disease pandemic from influenza or a novel corona virus is an essential component of a business continuity plan, especially for businesses that provide critical healthcare and infrastructure services. Although many businesses and organisations have a pandemic plan or address pandemic preparedness in their business continuity plans, few have recently tested and updated their plans. Pandemics can not only interrupt an organisation's operations and compromise long-term viability of an enterprise, but also disrupt the provision of critical functions. Businesses that regularly test and update their pandemic plan can significantly reduce harmful impacts to the business, play a key role in protecting employees' and customers' health and safety, and limit the negative impact of a pandemic on the community and economy.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disaster Planning , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Commerce/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 924-925, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162604

ABSTRACT

This article describes similarities and differences in the response of governments and the international community to the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic. It expresses the opinion that the speed and scale of the response to COVID-19 are affected by the important role that China plays in the global economy. By contrast, insufficient and less timely action was initially undertaken in West African countries during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. It concludes by stating why preparedness for and response to all disease outbreaks, also in countries of lower economic importance, should become a priority in the global health agenda.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disaster Planning , Ebolavirus , Global Burden of Disease/economics , Global Health , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Pneumonia, Viral , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health/economics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/economics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(1): 139-149, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148219

ABSTRACT

Social media research during natural disasters has been presented as a tool to guide response and relief efforts in the disciplines of geography and computer sciences. This systematic review highlights the public health implications of social media use in the response phase of the emergency, assessing (1) how social media can improve the dissemination of emergency warning and response information during and after a natural disaster, and (2) how social media can help identify physical, medical, functional, and emotional needs after a natural disaster. We surveyed the literature using 3 databases and included 44 research articles. We found that analyses of social media data were performed using a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Social media platforms were identified as broadcasting tools presenting an opportunity for public health agencies to share emergency warnings. Social media was used as a tool to identify areas in need of relief operations or medical assistance by using self-reported location, with map development as a common method to visualize data. In retrospective analyses, social media analysis showed promise as an opportunity to reduce the time of response and to identify the individuals' location. Further research for misinformation and rumor control using social media is needed.

9.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-13, 2020 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189603

ABSTRACT

To compile the findings of studies assessing emotional and behavioral changes in the survivors of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, we performed a systematic review in August 2019 using four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI). Peer-reviewed manuscripts, either in English or Japanese, were included in the searches. Sixty-one studies were retrieved for the review. Of these, 41 studies (67.2%) assessed emotional consequences, 28 studies (45.9%) evaluated behavioral consequences, and 8 studies (13.1%) evaluated both emotional and behavioral outcomes. The main research topic in emotional change was radiation exposure-associated risk perception, as reported in 15 studies. This risk perception included immediate health effects (eg, acute radiation syndrome) as well as future health effects (eg, future cancer and genetic effects). Lowered subjective well-being was reported in eight studies. Six studies reported perceived discrimination/stigmatization in the disaster survivors. The most critical behavioral change was an increase in suicides compared with residents in the whole of Japan or affected by the earthquake and tsunami, but not by the nuclear disaster. Increased rate of alcohol and tobacco use was reported, although the effect on one's health was inconsistent. As a conclusion, the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors suffered issues in risk perception, well-being, stigmatization, and alcohol/tobacco use in the first 8 years after the disaster. The present study is important in order to better understand the emotional and behavioral responses to future nuclear/radiological disasters as well as other "invisible" disasters, such as chemical and biological public health crises.

10.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 171-182, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify debris management best practices for planning and responding to debris-generating disaster events. METHODOLOGY: Four best practice county case studies were selected through the responses of emergency management directors to an initial survey about debris management. Interviews were setup with the emergency management directors, and additional interviewees were identified through snowballing. Interviews were conducted, transcribed, and coded to identify six themes. RESULTS: The six themes that were identified through the coding include: debris management plans, challenges, collaboration, learning, communication, and debris operations. Case study interviewees identified their pre-event debris management plans as important for an effective and efficient debris management process. Interviewees also demonstrated a strong willingness to work together on debris management as well as an understanding of individual roles and responsibilities. Furthermore, interviewees address the concept of learning from past disaster events as a means of managing the uncertainty of disaster debris management.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disasters , Waste Management , Communication , Humans , Organizational Case Studies
12.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-16, 2020 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192553

ABSTRACT

To integrate scholastic literature regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the psychological consequences faced by survivors of the 2011 Fukushima earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster, we conducted a systematic review of survivor studies concerning the Fukushima disaster. In August 2019, four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI) were used in the literature search. Peer-reviewed manuscripts reporting psychological consequences, either in English or Japanese, were selected. A total of 79 studies were selected for the review. Twenty-four studies (30.4%) were conducted as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey-large-scale cohort study recruiting the residents of the entire Fukushima prefecture. Study outcomes were primarily nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. The rates of high-risk individuals determined by the studies varied significantly owing to methodological differences. Nevertheless, these rates were mostly high (nonspecific psychological distress, 8.3%-65.1%; depressive symptoms, 12%-52.0%; and post-traumatic stress symptoms, 10.5%-62.6%). Many studies focused on vulnerable populations such as children, mothers of young children, evacuees, and nuclear power plant workers. However, few studies reported on the intervention methods used or their effect on the survivors. As a conclusion, high rates of individuals with psychological conditions, as well as a wide range of mental conditions, were reported among the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors in the first 8 years after the disaster. These findings demonstrate the substantial impact of this compound disaster, especially in the context of a nuclear catastrophe.

13.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 365-373, 2020 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since 2013, the First Care Provider (FCP) model has successfully educated the non-medical population on how to recognize life-threatening injuries and perform interventions recommended by the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) and the Hartford Consensus in the disaster setting. Recent programs, such as the federal "Stop The Bleed" campaign, have placed the emphasis of public training on hemorrhage control. However, recent attacks demonstrate that access to wounded, recognition of injury, and rapid evacuation are equally as important as hemorrhage control in minimizing mortality. To date, no training programs have produced a validated study with regard to training a community population in these necessary principles of disaster response. METHODS: In our study, we created a reproducible community training model for implementation into prehospital systems. Two matched demographic groups were chosen and divided into "trained" and "untrained" groups. The trained group was taught the FCP curriculum, which the Department of Homeland Security recognizes as a Stop the Bleed program, while the untrained group received no instruction. Both groups then participated in a simulated mass casualty event, which required evaluation of multiple victims with varying degree of injury, particularly a patient with an arterial bleed and a patient with an airway obstruction. RESULTS: The objective measures in comparing the two groups were the time elapse until their first action was taken (T1A) and time to their solution of the simulation (TtS). We compared their times using one-sided t-test to demonstrate their responses were not due to chance alone. At the arterial bleed simulation, the T1A for the trained and untrained groups, respectively, were 34.75 seconds and 111 seconds (p-value = .1064), while the TtS were 3 minutes and 33 seconds in the trained group and eight minutes in the untrained groups (physiologic cutoff) (p-value = .0014). At the airway obstruction simulation, the T1A for the trained and untrained groups, respectively, were 20.5 seconds and 43 seconds (p-value = .1064), while the TtS were 32.6 seconds in the trained group and 7 minutes and 3 seconds in the untrained group (p-value = .0087). Simulation values for recently graduated nursing students and a local fire department engine company (emergency medical services [EMS]) were also given for reference. The trained group's results mirrored times of EMS. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an effective training model to civilian trauma response, while adhering to established recommendations. We offer our model as a potential solution for accomplishing the Stop The Bleed mission while advancing the potential of public disaster response.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Responders , Emergency Treatment , Hemorrhage/therapy , Mass Casualty Incidents , Consensus , Education , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Treatment/standards , Humans
17.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(1): 7-14, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031668

ABSTRACT

In our increasingly interconnected world, the potential for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to spread globally is of paramount concern. Travel bans-herein defined as the complete restriction of travel from at least one geographic region to at least one other international geographic region-are a potential policy solution to control the global spread of disease. The social, economic, and health-related consequences of travel bans, as well as the available evidence on the effectiveness of travel restrictions in preventing the global spread of influenza, have been previously described. However, the effectiveness of travel bans in reducing the spread of noninfluenza EIDs, characterized by different rates and modes of transmission, is less well understood. This study employs an integrative review approach to summarize the minimal evidence on effectiveness of travel bans to decrease the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), Ebola virus disease (EVD), and Zika virus disease (ZVD). We describe and qualify the evidence presented in six modeling studies that assess the effectiveness of travel bans in controlling these noninfluenza EID events. We conclude that there is an urgent need for additional research to inform policy decisions on the use of travel bans and other control measures to control noninfluenza EIDs in advance of the next outbreak.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disasters , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Infection Control , Travel , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Public Policy
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19342, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large-scale disasters such as earthquakes cause mental health problems in individuals and lead to serious economic burdens on their communities and societies. Effective, simple, and safe intervention is needed to manage survivors of large-scale disasters. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate clinical studies using ear acupuncture for psychological trauma-related disorders after large-scale disasters, to determine its effectiveness, safety, and feasibility. METHODS: A comprehensive search of 15 electronic databases was conducted to collect relevant clinical studies up to November 2019. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using appropriate tools according to their study design. RESULTS: In total, 10 studies including 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 3 before-after studies, 1 case report, 1 qualitative research, and 2 reports of public mental health services were analyzed. Ear acupuncture improved overall post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related symptoms in patients with PTSD after disasters. For insomnia in patients with PTSD, although ear acupuncture improved a few subscales of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index in an RCT, other outcomes including sleep diary, actigraph, and the insomnia severity index were not improved. The methodological quality of RCTs was generally low. Serious adverse events related to ear acupuncture were not reported. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found limited evidence suggesting the benefits of ear acupuncture in trauma-related mental disorders after large-scale disasters. Because of the small number of studies included and their heterogeneity, we could not draw conclusions about its effectiveness and safety. As 1 of the medical resources available after large-scale disasters, ear acupuncture still needs to be studied further. Registry studies aimed at investigating the results of ear acupuncture at disaster sites may be considered. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134658.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture, Ear , Disasters , Psychological Trauma/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Humans , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
20.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-16, 2020 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the relevant research on religious organizations' participation in disasters risk management and to understand the ways in which these organizations impact on disaster management. Today, community-based disaster risk management is emphasized as a very effective approach. Religious organizations are one of the most important components of community. They have access to resources that can be critical to help government agencies to manage disasters successfully. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted since August 2018 to investigate the role of religious institutions in disasters management and was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, Proquest, Embase, and Google scholar were the primary databases used for search of literature. Keywords used in this review were "religious institution," "disaster management," and their equivalents were obtained from Mesh, Emtree, or extracted from related articles. The papers from a broad range of disciplines related to keywords were included, and those articles that focus on response to disaster based on religious beliefs' and religion rather than participation of religious institutions in disaster risk management were excluded. From the 18,071 records identified through database searching in the early stage, 22 articles were selected for this review followed by analysis of the characteristics and content analysis of the included studies to answer the study questions. RESULTS: The findings of this systematic review that emerged from content analysis are summarized in 11 themes: religious institutions' potential for disaster management, preparedness of religious institutions for disasters, response, recovery, the social capital, partnership with all stakeholders, collaboration and communication between mental health professionals and faith-based organization leaders, unity of information and message, religious institution shelters, dealing with disaster in old and new approaches, and barriers and challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Religious institutions have a vital role and great potential in disasters management. They often contribute in response and recovery phases of disasters, although these services are valuable but the great potential of these groups should also be recruited to participate in preparedness and mitigation efforts as part of disasters cycle. Coordination and collaboration of all stakeholders is essential in this way.

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