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1.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 127(1): 42-63, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979034

ABSTRACT

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face challenges in accessing diagnostic and treatment services; these challenges vary by race, ethnicity, and culture. This systematic review examines parental perceptions of ASD within Latinx and Black American communities. Findings indicate that interconnections with family and religious groups promoted positive coping and describe positive impacts of having a child with ASD. Relative to White families, community members reported reduced access to information and more inaccurate beliefs about ASD, higher levels of ASD-related stigma, and more negative experiences with healthcare providers, which serve to exacerbate healthcare disparities. Conclusions are limited by an underrepresentation of minority groups in research. We call for efforts to address the specific needs of racial and ethnic minorities.

2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:  In March 2020, many state, local, and national governments declared various states of emergencies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In Massachusetts, where our multidisciplinary pediatric feeding clinic is located, the governor declared of a state of emergency encouraging social distancing, and simultaneously signed an order establishing reimbursement parity for telehealth visits to in-office traditional visits by both commercial and state health insurers. This presented a challenge and an opportunity for our multidisciplinary program for children with pediatric feeding disorders embedded in a large academic children's hospital. In this paper we aim to provide a roadmap for rapid implementation of telehealth practice without a reliance on in-person care in a multidisciplinary pediatric feeding clinic. Description: Within a week, the program pivoted from solely in-person care to 100% telehealth services for both new and established patients. Through this transition, the program encountered several challenges with technology, scheduling, licensing, and concerns for reinforcing pre-existing healthcare disparities. ASSESSMENT:  The program quickly overcame many of these challenges and found telehealth to offer benefits to patients such as improved coordination of care with other agencies, reduced appointment times, and reduced travel time and travel cost. Even with a reduction in the number of patients seen per clinic due to the manner in which telehealth was implemented, there was an increase in the number of visits completed with a slight reduction in the no-show rate. Additionally, providers in the program are better able to evaluate feeding practices in the home and understand many of the barriers families may face in implementing interventions. While telehealth does have some challenges, it can help to improve access, communication, and may increase patient satisfaction for children who require multidisciplinary care for their pediatric feeding disorder. CONCLUSION:  Our hope is that billing parity for telehealth will continue to be supported by insurance companies and state governments throughout the remainder of this pandemic, and far beyond.

3.
Nursing ; 52(1): 38-43, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This article discusses the interconnection between the syndemic effect of racial inequities and disparities as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black Americans. It also highlights meaningful reforms and priorities to achieve health equity in Black communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , United States/epidemiology
4.
Prev Med Rep ; 25: 101680, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976708

ABSTRACT

Regular physical activity is important for general health and reduces the risk for COVID-19 infections and for severe outcomes among infected people. However, measures to mitigate COVID-19 likely decrease population physical activity. This study aimed to examine 1) changes in exercise frequency in a representative sample of US adults during the pandemic (04/01/2020-07/21/2021), and 2) how sociodemographic characteristics, pre-COVID health-related behaviors and outcomes, and state-level stringency of COVID-19 containment measures predict exercise frequency. Self-reported exercise frequency and its individual-level predictors were determined based on 151,155 observations from 6,540 adult participants (aged ≥ 18 years) in all US states from the Understanding America Study. State-level stringency of COVID-19 control measures was examined from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Exercise frequency varied significantly over 28 survey waves across 475 days of follow-up (F 1,473 = 185.5, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.23-1.00), where exercise frequency decreased between April 2020 and January 2021, and then increased from January 2021 to July 2021. Those who were younger, living alone, non-White, had no college degree, lower household income, low pre-pandemic physical activity levels, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease and hypertension had lower exercise frequency. State-level stringency of COVID-19 control measures was inversely associated with exercise frequency (B = 0.002, SE = 0.001, p < 0.01) between April and December 2020 when the overall stringency level was relatively high; but the association was non-significant (B = 0.001, SE = 0.001, p > 0.05) between January and July 2021, during which the stringency index sharply declined to a low level. This longitudinal probability survey of the US population revealed significant fluctuations in exercise during COVID-19. Low exercise levels are concerning and deserve public health attention. Health inequalities from physical inactivity are likely to exacerbate because of COVID-19. Physical activity promotion in safe environments is urgently warranted, especially in at-risk population subgroups.

5.
LGBT Health ; 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981963

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders is high among military veterans and even higher among transgender veterans. Prior prevalence estimates have become outdated, and novel methods of estimation have since been developed but not used to estimate PTSD prevalence among transgender veterans. This study provides updated estimates of PTSD prevalence among transgender and cisgender veterans. Methods: We examined Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical record data from October 1, 1999 to April 1, 2021 for 9995 transgender veterans and 29,985 cisgender veteran comparisons (1:3). We matched on age group at first VHA health care visit, sex assigned at birth, and year of first VHA visit. We employed both probabilistic and rule-based algorithms to estimate the prevalence of PTSD for transgender and cisgender veterans. Results: The prevalence of PTSD was 1.5-1.8 times higher among transgender veterans. Descriptive data suggest that the prevalence of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, alcohol and non-alcohol substance use disorders, current/former smoking status, and military sexual trauma was also elevated among transgender veterans. Conclusion: The PTSD and overall psychiatric burden observed among transgender veterans was significantly higher than that of their cisgender peers, especially among recent users of VHA care. These PTSD findings are consistent with prior literature and minority stress theory, and they were robust across probabilistic and two rule-based methods employed in this study. As such, enhanced and careful screening, outreach, and evidence-based practices are recommended to help reduce this disparity among transgender veterans.

6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981965

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem in the United States, accounting for 87,647 deaths in 2019. This study aimed to assess the association between cannabis use and diabetes mellitus by sex among U.S. adults. Methods: Data were abstracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2013 through 2018. Cannabis use was estimated using exposure status and frequency of use. Diabetes mellitus was assessed based on physician diagnosis or laboratory results, per the American Diabetes Association guidelines. A multivariable survey logistic regression model was fitted to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: A total of 15,062 participants were included in this study. The majority were female (n=7845; 51.1%), >40 years of age (n=8564; 56.3%), non-Hispanic white (n=4873; 61.5%), with at least a college-level education (n=8239; 62.5%). Female participants who used cannabis heavily were less likely to be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus than female noncannabis users (aOR=0.49; 95% CI: 0.30-0.81; aOR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84). However, no significant association was found for female adults who engaged in light use of cannabis (aOR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.55-1.75; aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.57-1.79). Among male adults, cannabis use, irrespective of the degree of exposure, was not significantly associated with diabetes mellitus (heavy users: aOR=0.89; 95% CI=0.56-1.41; light users: aOR=0.53; 95% CI=0.22-1.29). Conclusions: Heavy cannabis use is inversely associated with diabetes mellitus in females but not males. Further studies are needed to explore the sex-based heterogeneity-and individual and contextual factors responsible-in the association between cannabis use and diabetes mellitus.

7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982099

ABSTRACT

Importance: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends referring children at elevated risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for Part C early intervention (EI) services, but notes that EI services often fail to provide ASD screening. Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis that a multistage screening protocol for ASD implemented in 3 EI settings will increase autism detection, especially among Spanish-speaking families. Design, Setting, and Participants: Difference-in-differences analyses with propensity score weighting of a quasi-experimental design using administrative data on 3 implementation EI agencies and 9 comparison EI agencies from 2012 to 2018 provided by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Eligible children were aged 14 to 36 months, enrolled in EI, had no prior ASD diagnosis or medical condition precluding participation, and had parents who spoke English or Spanish. The final analytic sample included 33 326 unique patients assessed across 150 200 person-quarters. Exposures: Multistage ASD assessment protocol including ASD screening questionnaires, observational screener, and diagnostic evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Increased incidence of ASD diagnoses as documented in Department of Public Health records and reductions in language-associated health care disparities. Results: Implementation of screening at 3 EI sites was associated with a significant increase in the rate of ASD diagnoses (incidence rate ratios [IRR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1; P < .001), representing an additional 8.1 diagnoses per 1000 children per quarter. Among Spanish-speaking families, screening was also associated with a significant increase in the rate of ASD diagnoses (IRR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3; P < .001), representing 15.4 additional diagnoses per 1000 children per quarter-a larger increase than for non-Spanish-speaking families (interaction IRR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.1; P = .005). Exploratory analyses revealed that screening was associated with a larger increase in the rate of ASD diagnoses among boys (IRR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.3; P < .001) than among girls (IRR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.7; P = .84). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, associations between increased rates of ASD diagnoses and reductions in disparities for Spanish-speaking households support the effectiveness of multistage screening in EI. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of ASD screening in EI settings as well as a rigorous evaluation of ASD screening in any setting with a no-screening comparison condition. Given that the intervention included multiple components, mechanisms of action warrant further research, as do disparities by child sex.

8.
J Aging Health ; : 8982643211052718, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978204

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study examines educational differences in living alone and in self-rated health trends among middle-aged and older adults. Methods: We used logistic regression to analyze data from the 1972-2018 National Health Interview Survey (n = 795,239 aged 40-64; n = 357,974 aged 65-84). Results: Between 1972-1974 and 2015-2018, living alone became more prevalent, particularly among men and at lower levels of education. Self-rated health trends varied by living arrangement and education. We found self-rated health declines among middle-aged adults having no college degree and living alone, but trends in self-rated health were mostly stable or even improved among middle-aged adults living with others. Among older adults, self-rated health improved over time, but for the least-educated older Americans living alone, the probability of reporting fair or poor health increased between 1972-1974 and 2015-2018. Discussion: The findings suggest growing disparities by social class, in living arrangements and in self-rated health.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150551, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627115

ABSTRACT

Exposure to urban greenspaces promotes a variety of mental health benefits. However, much of the evidence for these benefits is biased towards high-income countries. In contrast, urban areas in low-income settings that have the highest rates of urbanisation remain understudied. Given the increasing burden of mental ill-health associated with urbanisation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a clear need to better understand the role urban greenspaces play in mitigating mental ill-health. Here we use a novel combination of research methods (participatory video, focus groups and the Q-methodology) in a rapidly urbanising low-income city (Kathmandu, Nepal). We explored residents' perspectives on ecosystem services, and the pathways linking greenspaces to mental health. Residents indicated that greenspaces are linked to mental health through pathways such as reducing harm (exposure to air pollution and heat), restoring capacities (attention restoration and stress reduction), building capacities (encouraging physical activity, fostering social cohesion and child development) and causing harm (human - wildlife conflicts, gender discrimination). It is likely that a combination of such pathways triggers mental health impacts. Of all ecosystem services, cultural services such as providing settings for recreation, or intellectual or mental interactions with greenspaces involving analytical, symbolic, spiritual or religious activities were most preferred. Our findings emphasise that cultural ecosystem services provide a fundamental basic need which all people, including low-income residents, depend on to participate meaningfully in society. Urban greenspaces therefore play a pivotal role in reducing the burden of mental ill-health for low-income residents in LMICs. Greater efforts to increase the quantity, quality and accessibility of greenspaces may help to address current health inequalities in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Mental Health , Child , Humans , Parks, Recreational , Poverty
10.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104537, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore how age and sex affect the impacts of self-rated health, self-reported physical activities, physical function, and depressive symptoms on long-term mortality among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults using a nationally representative population-based cohort study. METHODS: Data from 1550 study participants from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) were retrieved for analysis, and all participants were divided into four groups based on their age and gender. Middle aged participants were aged 53 to 64 years, and elderly subjects were ≥ 65 years old. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to investigate the associations between age, sex, and self-reported disabilities of physical activities, physical function (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and depression. RESULTS: Although the self-reported health status was similar across different age- and sex-stratified subgroups, older women were at the highest risk in self-reported difficulty with physical activities (aOR 2.58 [1.55-4.28]) and difficulty with IADL (aOR 3.32 [2.20-5.03]) compared to men. After adjusting for living arrangement, residence locale, education levels, occupation, socioeconomic status, self-reported health, multimorbidity, impairments in daily activities, and depressive symptoms, older men were found to display the highest risk of mortality (aHR 2.06 [95% CI 1.45-2.93]). CONCLUSIONS: Although self-reported health was similar across different age and sex stratified subgroups, women (particularly older women) are significantly more likely to have worse physical and functional health than men. After adjusting for all confounding factors, men are at substantially greater risk for mortality despite reporting better health and functional performance.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Sex Characteristics , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166289, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656797

ABSTRACT

To explore the recovery of renal function in severely ill coronavirus disease (COVID-19) survivors and determine the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with different renal outcomes 3 months after discharge, we included 89 severe COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Wuhan Union Hospital for 3 months. All patients had no underlying kidney disease before admission. At patient recruitment, renal function assessment, laboratory examination, chest computed tomography (CT) were performed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect metabolites in the plasma. We analyzed the longitudinally change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine and cystatin-c levels using the CKD-EPI equation and explored the metabolomic differences in patients with different eGFR change patterns from hospitalization to 3 months after discharge. Lung CT showed good recovery; however, the median eGFR significantly decreased at the 3-month follow-up. Among the 89 severely ill COVID-19 patients, 69 (77.5%) showed abnormal eGFR (<90 mL/min per 1.73 m2) at 3 months after discharge. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.47, p = 0.003), body mass index (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.20-3.22, p = 0.007), and cystatin-c level (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) at discharge were independent risk factors for post-discharge abnormal eGFR. Plasma metabolomics at the 3-months follow-up revealed that ß-pseudouridine, uridine, and 2-(dimethylamino) guanosine levels gradually increased with an abnormal degree of eGFR. Moreover, the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and arginine biosynthesis were also perturbed in survivors with abnormal eGFR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Energy Metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Patient Discharge , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment
12.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 99-114, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672829

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to systematically review and synthesize quantitative studies that assessed the association between socioeconomic inequalities and primary health care (PHC) utilization among older people living in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Six databases were searched, including Embase, Medline, Psych Info, Global Health, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI, to identify eligible studies. A narrative synthesis approach was used for evidence synthesis. A total of 20 eligible cross-sectional studies were included in this systematic review. The indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) identified included income level, education, employment/occupation, and health insurance. Most studies reported that higher income, higher educational levels and enrollment in health insurance plans were associated with increased PHC utilization. Several studies suggested that people who were unemployed and economically inactive in older age or who had worked in formal sectors were more likely to use PHC. Our findings suggest a pro-rich phenomenon of PHC utilization in older people living in LMICs, with results varying by indicators of SES and study settings.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Social Class , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
13.
Midwifery ; 104: 103158, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey indicate that many pregnant women in rural Nigeria use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) rather than skilled birth attendants (SBAs) for maternal health care. This is one factor that accounts for the persistently high rate of maternal mortality in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to identify the pervading reasons that women use TBAs for pregnancy care in rural Nigeria and to make recommendations for policy and programmatic reform. DESIGN: Qualitative research design consisting of focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and community conversations, followed by inductive thematic analysis. SETTING: Twenty rural communities (villages) in Etsako East, and Esan South East Local Government Areas of Edo State, South-South, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty focus group discussions with men and women in a marital union; 15 key informant interviews with policymakers, senior health providers, and women leaders; and 10 community conversations with key community leaders. FINDINGS: Some reasons proffered for using TBAs included perceptions of higher efficacy of traditional medicines; age-long cultural practices; ease of access to TBAs as compared to SBAs; higher costs of services in health facilities; and friendly attitude of TBAs. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The continued use of TBA is a major challenge in efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 3 in Nigeria. We conclude that efforts to address the factors identified by community stakeholders as inhibiting the use of SBAs will promote skilled birth attendance and reduce maternal mortality in rural Nigeria.


Subject(s)
Maternal Health Services , Midwifery , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Policy , Pregnancy , Rural Population
14.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 48(1): 183-198, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798946

ABSTRACT

Health and health care disparities in pediatric rheumatology are prevalent among socially disadvantaged and marginalized populations based on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and geographic region. These groups are more likely to experience greater disease severity, morbidity, mortality, decreased quality of life, and poor mental health outcomes, which are in part due to persistent structural and institutional barriers, including decreased access to quality health care. Most of the research on health and health care disparities in pediatric rheumatology focuses on juvenile idiopathic arthritis and childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus; there are significant gaps in the literature assessing disparities associated with other pediatric rheumatic diseases. Understanding the underlying causes of health care disparities will ultimately inform the development and implementation of innovative policies and interventions on a federal, local, and individual level.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Arthritis, Juvenile/therapy , Child , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Quality of Life , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/therapy , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 48(1): 331-342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798956

ABSTRACT

Implementation science is the study of processes that promote reliable uptake of evidence-based practices into clinical care. The integration of implementation science and health disparities research approaches has been proposed as a method to reduce health inequity through detection, understanding, and implementation of health equity-focused interventions. In this review, we provide an argument for the study of implementation science in pediatric rheumatology in light of previously observed health disparities, present a framework for the study of health equity and implementation science in pediatric rheumatology, and propose next steps to accelerate action.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Rheumatology , Child , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Implementation Science , Research Design
16.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 37(1): 58-63, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: African Americans are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than all other populations in the United States. Although technological advances have supported rapid growth in applying genetics/genomics to address CVD, most research has been conducted among European Americans. The lack of African American representation in genomic samples has limited progress in equitably applying precision medicine tools, which will widen CVD disparities if not remedied. PURPOSE: This report summarizes the genetic/genomic advances that inform precision health and the implications for cardiovascular disparities in African American adults. We provide nurse scientists recommendations for becoming leaders in developing precision health tools that promote population health equity. CONCLUSIONS: Genomics will continue to drive advances in CVD prevention and management, and equitable progress is imperative. Nursing should leverage the public's trust and its widespread presence in clinical and community settings to prevent the worsening of CVD disparities among African Americans.

17.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E96-E99, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346581

ABSTRACT

There are no evidence-based findings to assist professionals with advanced public health and social science degrees in choosing the appropriate academic location. A cross-sectional case study in 2019 was conducted using publicly available online data of full-time, nonclinical, doctoral-level academic faculty in schools of public health (SOPHs) and schools of medicine (SOMs), within one large university system. Analyses included descriptive statistics and generalized linear regression models comparing salaries between school types by academic rank, after gender and race/ethnicity adjustment. The study included 181 faculty members, 35.8% assistant, 34.1% associate, and 30.1% full professors. After accounting for race/ethnicity and gender, SOM assistant and associate professors had 9% (P = .03) and 14% (P = .008) higher mean salaries than SOPH counterparts. Findings suggest slight salary advantages for SOM faculty for early- to mid-career PhDs in one university system. Factors such as start-up packages, time to promotion, and grant funding need further exploration.

18.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(1): 18-36, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890723

ABSTRACT

Paranasal sinus drainage is mediated by mucociliary transport and gravity. However, human orthograde posture, along with the superior positioning of the maxillary sinus (MS) ostium, increases reliance on the mucociliary system. Previous research has thus suggested that differences in MS size and shape may impede mucociliary clearance, potentially contributing to disparities in sinusitis susceptibility. To further investigate this hypothesis, this study collected 29 three-dimensional (3D) coordinate landmarks and seven linear measurements of MS morphology from 167 computed tomography (CT) scans of crania of European, East Asian, or Equatorial African ancestry. MANOVA results reveal the Asian-derived individuals are characterized by both a significantly taller MS (F = 14.15, p < 0.0001) and a significantly greater distance from the MS floor to the ostium (F = 17.22, p < 0.0001) compared to those of European and African ancestry. A canonical variate (CV) analysis conducted on 3D landmark data provides corroborative results, distinguishing Asian-derived individuals predominantly on the basis of a relatively lower MS floor. As a greater distance between the MS floor and ostium may impede mucociliary clearance, our results suggest MS anatomy may be a more prominent factor in chronic sinusitis among individuals of Asian ancestry compared to those of European and African ancestries. This provides tentative evidence of an anatomical etiology for chronic sinusitis even in the absence of anatomical variants/abnormalities (e.g., nasal polyps, concha bullosa, Haller's cells, and Agger nasi cells). Further research into the relationship between MS anatomy and sinusitis, in addition to socioeconomic inequalities of healthcare, is warranted to continue evaluating possible contributions to health disparities.

19.
Patient Educ Couns ; 105(1): 206-211, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare Black and White mental health care patients' perceptions of their providers' and their own participation in patient-centered mental health care. Perceptions of patient-centered care (PCC) in relation to the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity were explored. METHODS: Black and White veterans receiving mental health care (n = 82) completed surveys assessing patient activation, involvement in care, perceptions of PCC, and therapeutic alliance. Black participants (n = 40) also completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity. RESULTS: There were no differences by race in perceived PCC, though Black participants had lower levels of therapeutic alliance with their mental health care provider and were less activated. Black identity centrality, private regard, and public regard were positively related to PCC and elements of PCC such as patient information seeking/sharing. CONCLUSIONS: Intragroup identity variables such as racial centrality, regard, and ideology influenced perceived PCC among Black participants. Race identity variables should be explored in future research on racial disparities and PCC. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Mental health care providers serving Black patients should create opportunities to discuss racial identity and race-related experiences as part of their efforts to improve therapeutic alliance and increase the patient-centeredness of care.

20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 76(1): 38-44, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus on the relationship between economic inequality and mental health, which may be due to the measures of inequality used in empirical studies. We studied this relationship using individual and aggregate measures of economic inequality, and tested whether there is an interaction between the individual and the aggregate levels. METHODS: We used data from a nationally representative Mexican health survey (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición, n=44 324) where depressive symptoms were measured through a validated 7-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. We estimated multilevel models employing aggregate inequality measures (Gini coefficient) and the individual-level framework of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality, where economic status comprised absolute wealth, relative deprivation and relative affluence. RESULTS: The three facets of economic status were independently associated with depressive symptoms, while Gini coefficients showed no associations. Absolute wealth and relative affluence were associated with lower depressive symptoms while relative deprivation was associated with higher depressive symptoms. However, interaction models indicated an interplay between the Gini and relative affluence: higher status became a risk factor at high levels of aggregate economic inequality. For those at the top of the economic hierarchy, being in a context of high inequality more than doubles our measure of depressive symptoms-from 2.08 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.87) to 6.29 (95% CI 4.1 to 8.5) for state inequality and from 2.40 (95% CI 1.64 to 3.16) to 6.24 (95% CI 3.87 to 8.62) for municipal inequality. CONCLUSION: We provided a novel perspective on the economic gradient in mental health, and on how high aggregate economic inequality may harm also the better off. Policymakers need to consider the consequences of economic inequalities, which can harm the mental health of both those at the bottom and the top of the socioeconomic ladder.

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