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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 392-397, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disease in cats. However, scarce data on its prevalence are available in Brazil. Persian cats and Persian-related breeds were assessed by molecular genotyping for a C to A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1 gene to determine ADPKD prevalence in a Brazilian population. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood or oral swabs samples was used to amplify exon 29 of PKD1 gene employing a PCR-RFLP methodology. From a total of 616 animals, 27/537 Persian and 1/17 Himalayan cats showed the single-nucleotide variant (C to A) at position 3284 in exon 29 of feline PKD1. This pathogenic variation has been identified only in heterozygous state. The prevalence of ADPKD in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds was 5.03% and 1.6%, respectively. There was no significant association between feline breed, gender or age with ADPKD prevalence. Of note, the observed ADPKD prevalence in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds in Brazil was lower than the ones reported in other parts of the world. This finding may be related to genetic counseling and consequent selection of ADPKD-free cats for reproduction.


Resumo A doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD) é a doença genética mais comum em gatos. No entanto, poucos dados sobre sua prevalência estão disponíveis no Brasil. Gatos Persas e de raças relacionadas foram avaliados por genotipagem molecular para a transversão C→A no exon 29 do gene PKD1 felino para determinar a prevalência de DRPAD. DNA genômico extraído de sangue total periférico ou amostras de swabs orais foram utilizados para amplificar o exon 29 do gene PKD1 pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. De um total de 616 gatos, 27/537 Persas e 1/17 Himalaia mostraram a variante de nucleotídeo único (C→A) na posição 3284 no exon 29 do gene PKD1. Esta variante patogênica foi identificada apenas em heterozigose. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas foram de 5,03% e 1,6%, respectivamente. Não houve associações significativas entre raça, gênero ou idade dos felinos e incidência de DRPAD. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas no Brasil foi menor do que em outras partes do mundo, o que pode estar relacionado ao aconselhamento genético e consequente seleção de gatos sem ADPKD para reprodução.

2.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 22, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we present and analyze toponyms referring to Socotra Island's endemic dragon's blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari) in four areas on the Socotra Archipelago UNESCO World Heritage site (Republic of Yemen). The motivation is the understanding of the past distribution of D. cinnabari trees which is an important part of conservation efforts by using ethnobotanical data. We assumed that dragon's blood trees had a wider distribution on Socotra Island in the past. METHODS: This research was based on field surveys and interviews with the indigenous people. The place names (toponyms) were recorded in both Arabic and the indigenous Socotri language. We grouped all toponyms into five different categories according to the main descriptor: terrain, human, plant, water, and NA (unknown). Also, this study identified current and historical Arabic names of dragon's blood trees of the genus Dracaena through literature review. RESULTS: A total of 301 toponyms were recorded from the four study areas in Socotra Island. Among names related to plants, we could attribute toponyms to nine different plants species, of which six toponyms referred to the D. cinnabari tree, representing 14.63% of the total phytotoponyms in the category. Three historical naming periods prior to 2000 could be identified. The most commonly used name for dragon's blood trees (D. cinnabari, D. serrulata, D. ombet) appears to be "ahrieb" "إعريهب" and its resin "dum al-akhawin" "دم الأخوين," while derived (mixed-cooked) products are called "eda'a" "إيدع," while regionally different names can be found. CONCLUSION: The place names that refer to D. cinnabari are herein suggested to represent remnant areas of once large populations. Therefore, the toponyms may support known hypotheses based on climate models that D. cinnabari had a wider distribution on Socotra Island in the past. This study also confirmed the historical importance of dragon's blood.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800525

ABSTRACT

This research investigates the relationships between airborne and depositional industrial lead emission concentrations modeled using Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and childhood blood lead levels (BLL) in the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) 2006-2013. Linear and mediation interaction regression models estimated the effects of older housing and airborne and depositional lead emission concentrations on black and white childhood BLLs, controlling for neighborhood levels of racial isolation and poverty-important social structures in the DMA. The results showed a direct relationship between airborne and depositional lead emissions and higher childhood BLL, after controlling for median housing age. Lead emissions also exacerbated the effect of older housing on black and white children's BLLs (indirect relationship), after controlling for social structures. Findings from this research indicate that black and white children exposed to lead-based paint/pipes in older housing are further impacted by industrial lead pollution that may lead to permanent neurological damage.

4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800899

ABSTRACT

The Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC) has demonstrated racial/ethnic differences in smoking-associated lung cancer risk. As part of the ongoing effort to characterize exposure to cigarette smoke constituents and better understand risk differences, we evaluated Cd exposure as it is a known lung carcinogen. We quantified urinary cadmium (Cd) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in a subset of 1956 current smokers from MEC. Ethnic-specific geometric means (GM) were compared adjusting for age at urine collection, sex, creatinine (natural log), education, and smoking (urinary total nicotine equivalents [TNE] and smoking duration). Self-reported questionnaire data, including occupation, were also considered. Latinos and Native Hawaiians had the highest GM urinary Cd (0.871 and 0.836 ng/mL, respectively) followed by Japanese Americans and African Americans (0.811 ng/mL and 0.807, respectively) and Whites (0.736 ng/mL). Patterns in race/ethnicity were consistent by sex such that females had the highest GM urinary Cd. When further adjusting for categorical occupational Cd exposure, racial/ethnic differences of Cd remained (p = 0.009). Findings suggest differences in urinary Cd among smokers across different racial/ethnic groups exist and highlight the importance in considering environmental sources of Cd exposure beyond smoking. These finding lay ground for future studies of individual characteristics that are associated with lower risk for cancer despite higher carcinogenic exposures.

5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801200

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic health disparities persist among veterans despite comparable access and quality of care. We describe racial/ethnic differences in self-reported health characteristics among 437,413 men and women (mean age (SD) = 64.5 (12.6), 91% men, 79% White) within the Million Veteran Program. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and linear mixed models were used to compare age-standardized frequencies and means across race/ethnicity groups, stratified by gender. Black, Hispanic, and Other race men and women reported worse self-rated health, greater VA healthcare utilization, and more combat exposure than Whites. Compared to White men, Black and Other men reported more circulatory, musculoskeletal, mental health, and infectious disease conditions while Hispanic men reported fewer circulatory and more mental health, infectious disease, kidney, and neurological conditions. Compared to White women, Black women reported more circulatory and infectious disease conditions and Other women reported more infectious disease conditions. Smoking rates were higher among Black men, but lower for other minority groups compared to Whites. Minority groups were less likely to drink alcohol and had lower physical fitness than Whites. By identifying differences in burden of various health conditions and risk factors across different racial/ethnic groups, our findings can inform future studies and ultimately interventions addressing disparities.

6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801411

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe variation in age of onset of functional limitations of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) compared to other racial and ethnic groups. (2) Methods: Adults age 45 years and older who responded to the Functioning and Disability module within the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were included (n = 628 NHPI; 7122 non-Hispanic Whites; 1418 Blacks; 470 Asians; and 1216 Hispanic adults). The NHIS Functioning and Disability module included 13 items, which we organized into three domains of functional limitations using factor analysis: Mobility, Gross Motor Skills, and Fine Motor Skills. Responses were summed within each domain. (3) Results: After adjusting for age and sex, we found that racial/ethnic minority groups, with the exception of Asians, experience more functional limitations than Whites. Results further indicate that NHPI adults experienced an earlier surge in all three domains of functional limitations compared to other racial/ethnic groups. (4) Conclusions: These findings are novel and provide additional evidence to the existence of disparities in functional health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are needed to develop targeted and culturally tailored interventions for those most in need.

7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806747

ABSTRACT

Little research examines how tobacco quitlines affect disparities in smoking cessation in the United States. Our study utilized data from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2018) (TUS-CPS) and state-level quitline data from the North American Quitline Consortium and National Quitline Data Warehouse. We ran multilevel logistic regression models assessing a state-run quitline's budget, reach, number of counseling sessions offered per caller, and hours of operation on 90-day smoking cessation. Multiplicative interactions between all exposures and sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education were tested to understand potential effect modification. We found no evidence that budget, reach, number of counseling sessions, or hours available for counseling were associated with cessation in the main effects analyses. However, when looking at effect modification by sex, we found that higher budgets were associated with greater cessation in males relative to females. Further, higher budgets and offering more sessions had a stronger association with cessation among individuals with lower education, while available counseling hours were more strongly associated with cessation among those with higher education. No quitline characteristics examined were associated with smoking cessation. We found evidence for effect modification by sex and education. Despite proven efficacy at the individual-level, current resource allocation to quitlines may not be sufficient to improve rates of cessation.

8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807808

ABSTRACT

Older adults with multiple chronic conditions have a higher risk than those without multiple conditions of developing a mental health condition. Individuals with both physical and mental conditions face many substantial burdens. Many such individuals also belong to racial and ethnic minority groups. Private insurance coverage can reduce the risks of developing mental illnesses by increasing healthcare utilization and reducing psychological stress related to financial hardship. This study examines the association between private insurance and mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment) among older adults in the United States with multiple chronic conditions by race and ethnicity. We apply a multivariate logistic model with individual fixed-effects to 12 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Among adults with multiple chronic conditions in late middle age nearing entry to Medicare and of all racial and ethnic groups, those without private insurance have a stronger probability of having depressive symptoms. Private insurance and Medicare can mediate the risk of cognitive impairment among non-Hispanic Whites with multiple chronic conditions and among Blacks regardless of the number of chronic conditions. Our study has implications for policies aiming to reduce disparities among individuals coping with multiple chronic conditions.

9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808769

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, health services utilization, and outcomes including disabling and life-threatening complications among patients with diabetes. Home health care may especially benefit older adults with diabetes through individualized education, advocacy, care coordination, and psychosocial support for patients and their caregivers. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity and hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of adults (age 50 and older) who experienced a diabetes-related hospitalization. The study was limited to patients who were continuously enrolled in Medicare for at least 12 months and in the United States. The cohort (n = 786,758) was followed for 14 days after their diabetes-related index hospitalization, using linked Medicare administrative, claims, and assessment data (2014-2016). Multivariate logistic regression models included patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital length of stay, geographic region, neighborhood deprivation, and rural/urban setting. In fully adjusted models, hospital discharge to home health care was significantly less likely among Hispanic (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.8) and American Indian (OR 0.8, CI 0.8-0.8) patients compared to White patients. Among those discharged to home health care, all non-white racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days. Future efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in post-acute care outcomes among patients with a diabetes-related hospitalization should include policies and practice guidelines that address structural racism and systemic barriers to accessing home health care services.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inequities in COVID-19 outcomes in the USA have been clearly documented for sex and race: men are dying at higher rates than women, and Black individuals are dying at higher rates than white individuals. Unexplored, however, is how sex and race interact in COVID-19 outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Use available data to characterize COVID-19 mortality rates within and between race and sex strata in two US states, with the aim of understanding how apparent sex disparities in COVID-19 deaths vary across race. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This observational study uses COVID-19 mortality data through September 21, 2020, from Georgia (GA) and Michigan (MI). MAIN MEASURES: We calculate age-specific rates for each sex-race-age stratum, and age-standardized rates for each race-sex stratum. We investigate the sex disparity within race groups and the race disparity within sex groups using age-standardized rate ratios, and rate differences. KEY RESULTS: Within race groups, men have a higher COVID-19 mortality rate than women. Black men have the highest rate of all race-sex groups (in MI: 254.6, deaths per 100,000, 95% CI: 241.1-268.2, in GA:128.5, 95% CI: 121.0-135.9). In MI, the COVID-19 mortality rate for Black women (147.1, 95% CI: 138.7-155.4) is higher than the rate for white men (39.1, 95% CI: 37.3-40.9), white women (29.7, 95% CI: 28.3-31.0), and Asian/Pacific Islander men and women. COVID-19 mortality rates in GA followed the same pattern. In MI, the male:female mortality rate ratio among Black individuals is 1.7 (1.5-2.0) while the rate ratio among White individuals is only 1.3 (1.2-1.5). CONCLUSION: While overall, men have higher COVID-19 mortality rates than women, our findings show that this sex disparity does not hold across racial groups. This demonstrates the limitations of unidimensional reporting and analyses and highlights the ways that race and gender intersect to shape COVID-19 outcomes.

11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated racial/ethnic differences in emergency department (ED) utilization, but less is known about racial/ethnic differences in the experience of care received during an ED visit. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in self-reported healthcare utilization and experiences with ED care by patients' race/ethnicity. DESIGN: Adult ED patients discharged to community (DTC) were surveyed (response rate: 20.25%) using the Emergency Department Patient Experience of Care (EDPEC) DTC Survey. Linear regression was used to estimate case-mix-adjusted differences in patient experience between racial/ethnic groups. PARTICIPANTS: 3122 survey respondents who were discharged from the EDs of 50 hospitals nationwide January-March 2016. MAIN MEASURES: Six measures: getting timely care, doctor and nurse communication, communication about medications, receipt of sufficient information about test results, whether hospital staff discussed the patient's ability to receive follow-up care, and willingness to recommend the ED. KEY RESULTS: Black and Hispanic patients were significantly more likely than White patients to report visiting the ED for an ongoing health condition (40% Black, 30% Hispanic, 28% White, p<0.001), report having visited an ED 3+ times in the last 6 months (26% Black, 25% Hispanic, 19% White, p<0.001), and report not having a usual source of care (19% Black, 19% Hispanic, 8% White, p<0.001). Compared with White patients, Hispanic patients more often reported that hospital staff talked with them about their ability to receive needed follow-up care (+7.2 percentile points, p=0.038) and recommended the ED (+7.2 points, p=0.037); Hispanic and Black patients reported better doctor and nurse communication (+6.4 points, p=0.008; +4 points, p=0.036, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic and Black ED patients reported higher ED utilization, lacked a usual source of care, and reported better experience with ED care than White patients. Results may reflect differences in care delivery by staff and/or different expectations of ED care among Hispanic and Black patients.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e214482, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825841

ABSTRACT

Importance: Criminalizing immigrant policies, a form of structural racism, are associated with preterm birth; however, to date, few population studies have examined this association by race and nativity status or examined the association of inclusive immigrant policies with preterm birth. Objective: To assess the extent to which variation in preterm birth by race/ethnicity and nativity status is associated with state-level criminalizing vs inclusive immigrant policies. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzed birth record data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2018, as well as state-level indicators of inclusive and criminalizing immigrant policies. White, Black, Asian, and Latina women who had singleton births were included in the study. Statistical analysis was performed from June 1, 2020, to February 5, 2021. Two continuous variables were created to capture the number of criminalizing vs inclusive immigrant policies in effect as of 2017 in each state. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome measure was preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation). Results: Among the 3 455 514 live births that occurred in 2018, 10.0% were preterm, and 23.2% were to mothers born outside the US. Overall, for women born outside the US, each additional state-level inclusive policy was associated with a 2% decrease in preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-1.00]); there were no significant associations between inclusive policies and preterm birth among women born in the US. In models examining the combined associations of criminalizing and inclusive immigrant policies with preterm birth, each additional criminalizing policy was associated with a 5% increase in preterm birth among Black women born outside the US (aOR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.00-1.10]). Each additional inclusive immigrant policy was associated with a lower likelihood of preterm birth for Asian women born in the US (aOR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.93-0.98]) and White women born outside the US (aOR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.99]). No significant associations were found among other groups. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that criminalizing immigrant policies are associated with an increase in preterm birth specifically for Black women born outside the US. Inclusive immigrant policies are associated with a decrease in preterm birth for immigrants overall, Asian women born in the US, and White women born outside the US. No associations were found between criminalizing or inclusive immigrant policies and preterm birth among Latina women.

13.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826448

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: By exploring immigrant families' experiences of participating in a three-week rehabilitation program focused on adapted physical activity in Norway, this study investigated how beneficial, culturally adapted, and accessible the services were from the families' perspectives. METHODS: A hermeneutic design with semi-structured interviews supplemented by participant observation was applied. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: "learning through participating," "sharing the same experience," and "gaps in service delivery." By participating in physical activities together with their children, parents became aware of their children's capabilities and interests, as well as the available resources. Parents also socialized and exchanged experiences and information with each other. Children learned new skills, became aware of their preferences and capabilities, built friendships, and improved their social skills. However, a lack of cultural adaptation, such as insufficient information, as well as the location of the rehabilitation center, language barriers, and exclusion of siblings affected accessibility of the services to immigrant families. CONCLUSIONS: Although the beneficial aspects of the services were demonstrated, the cultural adaptation and accessibility of the services were limited. Providing flexible and culturally adapted services that meet immigrant families' needs may improve the accessibility of rehabilitation services to immigrant families.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONMaking information available to immigrant families, mapping their resources and needs well before the intervention may improve the accessibility of the services for these families.Rehabilitation professionals need to consider families' perceptions of their own role through the goal-setting process when engaging with families from cultural backgrounds different from their own.When planning the intervention, grounding physical activities in the diverse cultural background of participants may increase immigrant families' sense of belonging and inclusion, and thereby facilitate interaction between families regardless of cultural differences.

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 1)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827796

ABSTRACT

Health and the capacity to flourish are deeply intertwined. For members of vulnerable migrant groups, systemic inequalities and structural forms of marginalisation and exclusion create health risks, impede access to needed care and interfere with the ability to achieve one's full potential. Migrants often have limited access to healthcare, and they frequently are portrayed as less deserving than others of the resources needed to lead a healthy and flourishing life. Under these circumstances, clinicians, healthcare institutions and global health organisations have a moral and ethical obligation to consider the role they can-and do-play in either advancing or impeding migrants' health and their capacity to flourish. Drawing on case studies from three world regions, we propose concrete steps clinicians and health institutions can take in order to better serve migrant patients. These include recommendations that can help improve understanding of the complex circumstances of migrants' lives, strengthen collaboration between care providers and non-medical partners and transform the social, economic and structural circumstances that impede flourishing and harm health. Developing new strategies to promote the flourishing of precarious migrants can strengthen our collective ability to re-envision and redesign health systems and structures to value the health, dignity and bodily integrity of all patients-especially the most vulnerable-and to promote flourishing for all.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828236

ABSTRACT

The role of sex, race, and suicide method on recent increases in suicide mortality in the United States remains unclear. Estimating the age, period, and cohort effects underlying suicide mortality trends can provide important insights for the causal hypothesis generating process. We generated updated age-period-cohort effect estimates of recent suicide mortality rates in the US, examining the putative roles of sex, race, and method for suicide, using data from all death certificates in the US between 1999 and 2018. After designating deaths as attributable to suicide according to ICD-10 underlying cause of death codes X60-X84, Y87.0, and U03, we (i) used hexagonal grids to describe rates of suicide by age, period, and cohort visually and (ii) modeled sex-, race-, and suicide method-specific age, period, and cohort effects. We found that, while suicide mortality increased in the US between 1999 and 2018 across age, sex, race, and suicide method, there was substantial heterogeneity in age and cohort effects by method, sex, and race, with a first peak of suicide risk in youth, a second peak in older ages-specific to male firearm suicide, and increased rates among younger cohorts of non-White individuals. Our findings should prompt discussion regarding age-specific clinical firearm safety interventions, drivers of minoritized populations' adverse early-life experiences, and racial differences in access to and quality of mental healthcare.

17.
Oncologist ; 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities among clinical trial participants present a challenge to assess whether trial results can be generalized into patients representing diverse races and ethnicities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of race and ethnicity on treatment response in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients treated with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors through analysis of real-world data (RWD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 11,138 lung cancer patients treated at hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System was performed. Patients with confirmed aNSCLC who received anti-PD1/PD-L1 treatment were analyzed for clinical outcomes. Our cohort included 249 aNSCLC patients who began nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab treatment between November 2014 and December 2018. Time-to-treatment discontinuation (TTD) and overall survival (OS) were the analyzed clinical endpoints. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14.8 months, median TTD was 7.8 months (95% confidence interval 5.4 - not estimable [NE]) in 75 African American patients vs. 4.6 (2.4 - 7.2) in 110 White patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.63). Median OS was not reached (18.4 - NE) in African Americans vs. 11.6 months (9.7 - NE) in Whites (HR 0.58). Multivariable cox regression conducted with potential confounders confirmed longer TTD (adjusted HR 0.65) and OS (adjusted HR 0.60) in African American vs. White patients. Similar real-world response rate (42.6% vs. 43.5%) and disease control rate (59.6% vs. 56.5%) were observed in the African American and White patient populations. Further investigation revealed the African American group had lower incidence (14.7%) of putative hyperprogressive diseases (HPD) upon anti-PD1/PD-L1 treatment than the White patient group (24.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of RWD showed longer TTD and OS in African American aNSCLC patients treated with anti-PD1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Lower incidence of putative HPD is a possible reason for the favorable outcomes in this patient population. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: There is a significant underrepresentation of minority patients in randomized clinical trials, and this study demonstrates we can use real world data to investigate the impact of race and ethnicity on treatment response. In retrospective analysis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors, African American patients had significantly longer time-to-treatment discontinuation and longer overall survival. Analysis of real-world data can yield clinical insights and establish a more complete picture of medical interventions in routine clinical practice.

18.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 10105395211006600, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829888

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of systematic population-based cervical cancer screening in Australia in 1991, age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer has halved. Given recent advances in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening, cervical cancer may be eliminated nationally within 20 years. However, immigrant women are not equitably reached by screening efforts. This study systematically reviewed evidence on cervical cancer screening practices among immigrant women in Australia. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and gray literature for English language studies published till March 1, 2019, was conducted. Observational and qualitative studies evaluating cervical cancer screening awareness and participation of immigrant women were screened. Of 125 potentially relevant studies, 25 were eligible: 16 quantitative (4 cohort, 12 cross-sectional), 6 qualitative, and 3 mixed-methods studies. Quantitative studies indicated 1% to 16% lower screening rates among migrant women compared with Australian-born women, with participation of South Asian women being significantly lower (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.61). Qualitative studies illustrated factors affecting women's willingness to participate in screening, including insufficient knowledge, low-risk perception, and unavailability of a female health professionals being key barriers. Future studies should focus on South Asian women, due to recent increase in their immigration.

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