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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608272

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The national and international guidelines recommend evaluating all healthcare workers (HCWs) for their measles immune status and possibly vaccinating those who are seronegative. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to estimate the rate of measles susceptibility among HCWs in Italy and to explore possible options for the management of those found to be susceptible. Twenty-three studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of HCWs susceptible to measles was 11.5% (95%CI = 8.1-15.4%) and was higher in studies in which prevalence was evaluated by survey (16.7%; 95%CI = 8.9-26.3) than by the direct evaluation of blood specimens (9.1%; 95%CI = 6.2-12.5%). Occupational medicine examinations for measles screening with possible subsequent vaccination of seronegatives and the exclusion of susceptible HCWs from high-risk settings were common management strategies. EXPERT OPINION: HCWs susceptible to measles are an important epidemiological concern in Italy, and efforts to identify and actively offer the vaccine to this population should be increased.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 251, 2020 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of age at administration of the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) on protection against measles and on antibody response after one- and two-dose measles vaccinations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane databases (1964-2017) to identify observational studies estimating vaccine effectiveness and/or measles attack rates by age at first vaccination as well as experimental studies comparing seroconversion by age at first vaccination. Random effect models were used to pool measles risk ratios (RR), measles odds ratios (OR) and seroconversion RR of MCV1 administered at < 9, 9-11 or ≥ 15 months compared with 12 or 12-14 months of age. RESULTS: We included 41 and 67 studies in the measles protection and immunogenicity analyses. Older age at MCV1, from 6 to ≥15 months, improved antibody response and measles protection among one-dose recipients. Pooled measles RR ranged from 3.56 (95%CI: 1.28, 9.88) for MCV1 at < 9 months to 0.48 (95%CI: 0.36, 0.63) for MCV1 at ≥15 months, both compared to 12-14 months. Pooled seroconversion RR ranged from 0.93 (95%CI: 0.90, 0.96) for MCV1 at 9-11 months to 1.03 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.06) for MCV1 at ≥15 months, both compared to 12 months. After a second dose, serological studies reported high seropositivity regardless of age at administration of MCV1 while epidemiological data based on few studies suggested lower protection with earlier age at MCV1. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier age at MCV1 decreases measles protection and immunogenicity after one dose and might still have an impact on vaccine failures after two doses of measles vaccine. While two-dose vaccination coverage is most critical to interrupt measles transmission, older age at first vaccination may be necessary to keep the high level of population immunity needed to maintain it.


Subject(s)
Immunization Schedule , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Measles Vaccine/therapeutic use , Measles/prevention & control , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD004407, 2020 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) are serious diseases that can lead to serious complications, disability, and death. However, public debate over the safety of the trivalent MMR vaccine and the resultant drop in vaccination coverage in several countries persists, despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. This is an update of a review published in 2005 and updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, safety, and long- and short-term adverse effects associated with the trivalent vaccine, containing measles, rubella, mumps strains (MMR), or concurrent administration of MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine (MMR+V), or tetravalent vaccine containing measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella strains (MMRV), given to children aged up to 15 years. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2019, Issue 5), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 2 May 2019), Embase (1974 to 2 May 2019), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (2 May 2019), and ClinicalTrials.gov (2 May 2019). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), prospective and retrospective cohort studies (PCS/RCS), case-control studies (CCS), interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, case cross-over (CCO) studies, case-only ecological method (COEM) studies, self-controlled case series (SCCS) studies, person-time cohort (PTC) studies, and case-coverage design/screening methods (CCD/SM) studies, assessing any combined MMR or MMRV / MMR+V vaccine given in any dose, preparation or time schedule compared with no intervention or placebo, on healthy children up to 15 years of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We grouped studies for quantitative analysis according to study design, vaccine type (MMR, MMRV, MMR+V), virus strain, and study settings. Outcomes of interest were cases of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella, and harms. Certainty of evidence of was rated using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 138 studies (23,480,668 participants). Fifty-one studies (10,248,159 children) assessed vaccine effectiveness and 87 studies (13,232,509 children) assessed the association between vaccines and a variety of harms. We included 74 new studies to this 2019 version of the review. Effectiveness Vaccine effectiveness in preventing measles was 95% after one dose (relative risk (RR) 0.05, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.13; 7 cohort studies; 12,039 children; moderate certainty evidence) and 96% after two doses (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.28; 5 cohort studies; 21,604 children; moderate certainty evidence). The effectiveness in preventing cases among household contacts or preventing transmission to others the children were in contact with after one dose was 81% (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.89; 3 cohort studies; 151 children; low certainty evidence), after two doses 85% (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.75; 3 cohort studies; 378 children; low certainty evidence), and after three doses was 96% (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23; 2 cohort studies; 151 children; low certainty evidence). The effectiveness (at least one dose) in preventing measles after exposure (post-exposure prophylaxis) was 74% (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.50; 2 cohort studies; 283 children; low certainty evidence). The effectiveness of Jeryl Lynn containing MMR vaccine in preventing mumps was 72% after one dose (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.76; 6 cohort studies; 9915 children; moderate certainty evidence), 86% after two doses (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.35; 5 cohort studies; 7792 children; moderate certainty evidence). Effectiveness in preventing cases among household contacts was 74% (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49; 3 cohort studies; 1036 children; moderate certainty evidence). Vaccine effectiveness against rubella is 89% (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.42; 1 cohort study; 1621 children; moderate certainty evidence). Vaccine effectiveness against varicella (any severity) after two doses in children aged 11 to 22 months is 95% in a 10 years follow-up (rate ratio (rr) 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08; 1 RCT; 2279 children; high certainty evidence). Safety There is evidence supporting an association between aseptic meningitis and MMR vaccines containing Urabe and Leningrad-Zagreb mumps strains, but no evidence supporting this association for MMR vaccines containing Jeryl Lynn mumps strains (rr 1.30, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.56; low certainty evidence). The analyses provide evidence supporting an association between MMR/MMR+V/MMRV vaccines (Jeryl Lynn strain) and febrile seizures. Febrile seizures normally occur in 2% to 4% of healthy children at least once before the age of 5. The attributable risk febrile seizures vaccine-induced is estimated to be from 1 per 1700 to 1 per 1150 administered doses. The analyses provide evidence supporting an association between MMR vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP). However, the risk of ITP after vaccination is smaller than after natural infection with these viruses. Natural infection of ITP occur in 5 cases per 100,000 (1 case per 20,000) per year. The attributable risk is estimated about 1 case of ITP per 40,000 administered MMR doses. There is no evidence of an association between MMR immunisation and encephalitis or encephalopathy (rate ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.61; 2 observational studies; 1,071,088 children; low certainty evidence), and autistic spectrum disorders (rate ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.01; 2 observational studies; 1,194,764 children; moderate certainty). There is insufficient evidence to determine the association between MMR immunisation and inflammatory bowel disease (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.16; 3 observational studies; 409 cases and 1416 controls; moderate certainty evidence). Additionally, there is no evidence supporting an association between MMR immunisation and cognitive delay, type 1 diabetes, asthma, dermatitis/eczema, hay fever, leukaemia, multiple sclerosis, gait disturbance, and bacterial or viral infections. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Existing evidence on the safety and effectiveness of MMR/MMRV vaccines support their use for mass immunisation. Campaigns aimed at global eradication should assess epidemiological and socioeconomic situations of the countries as well as the capacity to achieve high vaccination coverage. More evidence is needed to assess whether the protective effect of MMR/MMRV could wane with time since immunisation.

4.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(1): 46-58, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Europe has experienced a major resurgence of measles in recent years, despite the availability and free access to a safe, effective, and affordable vaccination measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). The main driver for this is suboptimal vaccine coverage. The three objectives of this study are to synthesize and critically assess parental attitudes and beliefs toward MMR uptake, to develop strategies and policy recommendations to effectively improve MMR vaccine uptake accordingly, and ultimately to identify areas for further research. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using primary studies from PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Scopus published between 2011 and April 2019. Inclusion criteria comprised primary studies in English conducted in Europe and studying parental attitudes and behavior regarding MMR uptake. Data were extracted using an inductive grounded theory approach. RESULTS: In all, 20 high-quality studies were identified. Vaccine hesitancy or refusal were mainly due to concerns about vaccine safety, effectiveness, perception of measles risk and burden, mistrust in experts, and accessibility. Factors for MMR uptake included a sense of responsibility toward child and community health, peer judgement, trust in experts and vaccine, and measles severity. Anthroposophical and Gypsy, Roma, and Traveler populations presented unique barriers such as accessibility. CONCLUSION: A multi-interventional, evidence-based approach is vital to improve confidence, competence, and convenience of measles vaccination uptake. Healthcare professionals need an understanding of individual contextual attitudes and barriers to MMR uptake to tailor effective communication. Effective surveillance is needed to identify under-vaccinated populations for vaccination outreach programs to improve accessibility and uptake.

5.
J Infect ; 80(2): 152-160, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women represent a category at high risk of severe measles infection, that negatively affects the fetus as well. A systematic review of clinical outcomes of measles infection in gravid subjects and a meta-analysis of antibodies prevalence among pregnant women was conducted. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to 18 June 2018. The screening focused on: (i) articles describing the outcome of measles in pregnancy, synthesized in a descriptive fashion; (ii) articles addressing the measles seroprevalence in cohorts of gravid women, analysed quantitatively. RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles met inclusion criteria. A total of 420 cases of measles in gravid subjects were described, from 1941 to 2012. Among women, 18 deaths (4.3%) occurred, and the most frequent complication was pneumonia (75/420, 17.9%). Prematurity was the most important complication concerning fetal outcomes (55 out of 410 cases with available data, 13.4%). The random-effects pooled seroprevalence of measles in 20,546 gravid women worldwide was 89.3% (95% CI: 87.3-91.1%), that decreased, although not in a statistically significant way, over time (p = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Measles infection in pregnancy is dangerous both for the mother and the foetus. Antibody seroprevalence among gravid women on a global scale is lower than the herd immunity threshold.

6.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985307

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Warts can be difficult to treat and progressing to chronic and resistant disease. Several studies have reported the successful application of mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine resulting in clearance of warts via immunomodulation and induction of immune system.Methods: We performed a comprehensive search on the role of intralesional MMR in warts from several electronic databases. Complete response is defined as complete clearance of warts lesion.Results: There were a total of 425 subjects from five studies. Intralesional injection of MMR was associated with an increased complete response (OR 9.43 [5.78, 15.37], p < .001; I2: 5%, p = .38). Subgroup analysis on patients receiving injection for every 2 weeks for a maximum of five injections revealed an OR of 11.70 [6.40, 21.38], p < .001; I2: 20%, p = .29. Patients receiving intralesional MMR were associated with a lower partial response (OR 0.54 [0.33, 0.88], p = .01; I2: 0%, p = .66). Intralesional MMR was associated with a reduced no-response (OR 0.16 [0.06, 0.43], p < .001; I2: 69%, p = .01). Funnel plot analysis for complete response was asymmetrical, indicating the risk of publication bias. There were statistically significant small-study effects for intralesional MMR on complete response upon analysis using Harbord's test (p = .047). Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment showed that intralesional MMR injection has high level of certainty (quality of evidence) for complete response in warts with an absolute increase of 505 per 1000.Conclusion: Intralesional MMR injection was associated with a higher complete response and lower no-response with a high level of certainty.

7.
Vaccine ; 38(3): 460-469, 2020 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In settings where measles has been eliminated, vaccine-derived immunity may in theory wane more rapidly due to a lack of immune boosting by circulating measles virus. We aimed to assess whether measles vaccine effectiveness (VE) waned over time, and if so, whether differentially in measles-eliminated and measles-endemic settings. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of studies that reported VE and time since vaccination with measles-containing vaccine (MCV). We extracted information on case definition (clinical symptoms and/or laboratory diagnosis), method of vaccination status ascertainment (medical record or vaccine registry), as well as any biases which may have arisen from cold chain issues and a lack of an age at first dose of MCV. We then used linear regression to evaluate VE as a function of age at first dose of MCV and time since MCV. RESULTS: After screening 14,782 citations, we identified three full-text articles from measles-eliminated settings and 33 articles from measles-endemic settings. In elimination settings, two-dose VE estimates increased as age at first dose of MCV increased and decreased as time since MCV increased; however, the small number of studies available limited interpretation. In measles-endemic settings, one-dose VE increased by 1.5% (95% CI 0.5, 2.5) for every month increase in age at first dose of MCV. We found no evidence of waning VE in endemic settings. CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of data from measles-eliminated settings indicates that additional studies and approaches (such as studies using proxies including laboratory correlates of protection) are needed to answer the question of whether VE in measles-eliminated settings wanes. Age at first dose of MCV was the most important factor in determining VE. More VE studies need to be conducted in elimination settings, and standards should be developed for information collected and reported in such studies.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 221(10): 1576-1583, 2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies assume that the serologic correlate of protection from measles disease is 120 mIU/mL. We systematically reviewed the literature to examine the evidence supporting this correlate of protection. METHODS: We searched peer-reviewed and gray literature for articles reporting a measles correlate of protection. We excluded studies focusing on special populations, infants aged <9 months, and those using animal models or nonstandard vaccines or administration routes. We extracted and synthesized data from full-text articles that met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: We screened 14 778 articles and included 5 studies in our review. The studies reported either preexposure antibody concentrations of individuals along with a description of symptoms postexposure, or the proportion of measles cases that had preexposure antibody concentrations above a threshold of immunity specified by the authors. Some studies also described secondary antibody responses upon exposure. The variation in laboratory methods between studies made comparisons difficult. Some of the studies that assumed 120 mIU/mL as a correlate of protection identified symptomatic individuals with preexposure titers exceeding this threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the scant data upon which the commonly used 120 mIU/mL measles threshold of protection is based, suggesting that further work is required to characterize the measles immunity threshold.

9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(11): 1235-1245, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of death in children, despite the availability of safe and cost-saving measles-containing vaccines (MCVs). The first MCV dose (MCV1) is recommended at 9 months of age in countries with ongoing measles transmission, and at 12 months in countries with low risk of measles. To assess whether bringing forward the age of MCV1 is beneficial, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of the benefits and risks of MCV1 in infants younger than 9 months. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Proquest, Global Health, the WHO library database, and the WHO Institutional Repository for Information Sharing database, and consulted experts. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials, outbreak investigations, and cohort and case-control studies without restriction on publication dates, in which MCV1 was administered to infants younger than 9 months. We did the literature search on June 2, 2015, and updated it on Jan 14, 2019. We assessed: proportion of infants seroconverted, geometric mean antibody titre, avidity, cellular immunity, duration of immunity, vaccine efficacy, vaccine effectiveness, and safety. We used random-effects models to derive pooled estimates of the endpoints, where appropriate. We assessed methodological quality using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines. FINDINGS: Our search identified 1156 studies, of which 1071 were screened for eligibility. 351 were eligible for full-text screening, and data from 56 studies that met all inclusion criteria were used for analysis. The proportion of infants who seroconverted increased from 50% (95% CI 29-71) for those vaccinated with MCV1 at 4 months of age to 85% (69-97) for those were vaccinated at 8 months. The pooled geometric mean titre ratio for infants aged 4-8 months vaccinated with MCV1 compared with infants vaccinated with MCV1 at age 9 months or older was 0·46 (95% CI 0·33-0·66; I2=99·9%, p<0·0001). Only one study reported on avidity and suggested that there was lower avidity and a shorter duration of immunity following MCV1 administration at 6 months of age than at 9 months of age (p=0·0016) or 12 months of age (p<0·001). No effect of age at MCV1 administration on cellular immunity was found. One study reported that vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed measles virus infection was 94% (95% CI 74-98) in infants vaccinated with MCV1 at 4·5 months of age. The pooled vaccine effectiveness of MCV1 in infants younger than 9 months against measles was 58% (95% CI 9-80; I2=84·9%, p<0·0001). The pooled vaccine effectiveness estimate from within-study comparisons of infants younger than 9 months vaccinated with MCV1 were 51% (95% CI -44 to 83; I2=92·3%, p<0·0001), and for those aged 9 months and older at vaccination it was 83% (76-88; I2=93·8%, p<0·0001). No differences in the risk of adverse events after MCV1 administration were found between infants younger than 9 months and those aged 9 months of older. Overall, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. INTERPRETATION: MCV1 administered to infants younger than 9 months induces a good immune response, whereby the proportion of infants seroconverted increases with increased age at vaccination. A large proportion of infants receiving MCV1 before 9 months of age are protected and the vaccine is safe, although higher antibody titres and vaccine effectiveness are found when MCV1 is administered at older ages. Recommending MCV1 administration to infants younger than 9 months for those at high risk of measles is an important step towards reducing measles-related mortality and morbidity. FUNDING: WHO.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(11): 1246-1254, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccinating infants with a first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) before 9 months of age in high-risk settings has the potential to reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. However, there is concern that early vaccination might blunt the immune response to subsequent measles vaccine doses. We systematically reviewed the available evidence on the effect of MCV1 administration to infants younger than 9 months on their immune responses to subsequent MCV doses. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials, outbreak investigations, and cohort and case-control studies without restriction on publication dates, in which MCV1 was administered to infants younger than 9 months. We did the literature search on June 2, 2015, and updated it on Jan 14, 2019. We included studies reporting data on strength or duration of humoral and cellular immune responses, and on vaccine efficacy or vaccine effectiveness after two-dose or three-dose MCV schedules. Our outcome measures were proportion of seropositive infants, geometric mean titre, vaccine efficacy, vaccine effectiveness, antibody avidity index, and T-cell stimulation index. We used random-effects meta-analysis to derive pooled estimates of the outcomes, where appropriate. We assessed the methodological quality of included studies using Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. FINDINGS: Our search retrieved 1156 records and 85 were excluded due to duplication. 1071 records were screened for eligibility, of which 351 were eligible for full-text screening and 21 were eligible for inclusion in the review. From 13 studies, the pooled proportion of infants seropositive after two MCV doses, with MCV1 administered before 9 months of age, was 98% (95% CI 96-99; I2=79·8%, p<0·0001), which was not significantly different from seropositivity after a two-dose MCV schedule starting later (p=0·087). Only one of four studies found geometric mean titres after MCV2 administration to be significantly lower when MCV1 was administered before 9 months of age than at 9 months of age or later. There was insufficient evidence to determine an effect of age at MCV1 administration on antibody avidity. The pooled vaccine effectiveness estimate derived from two studies of a two-dose MCV schedule with MCV1 vaccination before 9 months of age was 95% (95% CI 89-100; I2=12·6%, p=0·29). Seven studies reporting on measles virus-specific cellular immune responses found that T-cell responses and T-cell memory were sustained, irrespective of the age of MCV1 administration. Overall, the quality of evidence was moderate to very low. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that administering MCV1 to infants younger than 9 months followed by additional MCV doses results in high seropositivity, vaccine effectiveness, and T-cell responses, which are independent of the age at MCV1, supporting the vaccination of very young infants in high-risk settings. However, we also found some evidence that MCV1 administered to infants younger than 9 months resulted in lower antibody titres after one or two subsequent doses of MCV than when measles vaccination is started at age 9 months or older. The clinical and public-health relevance of this immunity blunting effect are uncertain. FUNDING: WHO.

11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(Suppl 2)(6): S148-S154, 2019 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369545

ABSTRACT

Objective: Measles is still common in many developing countries, and its outbreaks have been on the rise since 2009 even though the disease is almost entirely preventable through safe and effective vaccination. This paper aims to provide evidence about the systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of measles treatment in different regions worldwide. Methods: The methodical search began on 10th January 2019 to look for all articles on the cost-effectiveness of measles treatment published from January 2019 to April 2019 in SCOPUS, Pubmed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Cochrane (www.cochrane.org).We summarised the articles by using a data table to extract all information using health economic evaluation methods. Results: We identified 14 articles from the 69 total articles searched. These articles showed favourable costeffectiveness or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries based on data organised by World Bank Income Level in 2018: the United States, Canada, Japan, India and Zambia. However, research is still limited in lowincome countries and thus the effectiveness of vaccination programmes cannot be conclusively identified. Conclusions: This review shows the overview of the research in health economic evaluations of measles in different places, years and using different methods of intervention. Overall, it evaluates the cost-effectiveness of measles treatment.


Subject(s)
Measles Vaccine/therapeutic use , Measles/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Immunization Programs/economics , Measles/economics , Measles Vaccine/economics , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/economics , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(12): 2240-2251, 2019 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210268

ABSTRACT

Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of measles morbidity and mortality. We searched abstracts from the PubMed, Embase, and Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information databases for articles published from the earliest date available through September 26, 2017. The primary outcome of interest was serological responses to measles vaccine, stratified by HIV infection status. A total of 2,858 potentially eligible articles were identified, and the final review included 12 studies published between 1992 and 2013, 9 of which reported data on vaccine safety. The studies we included represented 3,573 children, of whom at least 335 were infected with HIV, 788 were HIV-exposed but not infected, and 1,478 were unexposed to HIV. Four of the 12 studies found statistically significant reductions in seropositivity among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children within 4 months of vaccination (prevalence ratio range, 0.44-0.70), and forest plots provided visual trends of decreasing immunity over time among HIV-infected children in 2 additional studies. No vaccine-related deaths or serious adverse events were reported. This updated review demonstrated limitations of the existing published literature but supported evidence of reduced immunogenicity of measles vaccine among HIV-infected children, supporting the World Health Organization recommendation to revaccinate HIV-infected children against measles following immune reconstitution with combination antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Measles Vaccine/adverse effects
13.
Vaccine ; 37(13): 1725-1735, 2019 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review literature on uptake and timeliness of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, measles-mumps-rubella, and/or polio-containing vaccines ininfants who were born preterm, with a low birth weight, and/or with chronic health conditions that were diagnosed within the first 6 months of life. METHODS: Using a standardized search strategy developed by a medical librarian, records were extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and CINAHL up to May 8, 2018. RESULTS: Out of the 1997 records that were screened, we identified 21 studies that met inclusion criteria. Eleven studies assessed vaccine coverage and/or timeliness in preterm infants, 6 in low birth weight infants, and 7 in children with chronic health conditions. Estimates of coverage in these populations were highly variable, ranging from 40% to 100% across the vaccines and population groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of studies reporting coverage and timeliness of routine immunizations in special populations of children. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Our review suggests a need for improved surveillance of immunization status in special populations of infants, as wellas aneed for standardization of reporting practices.

14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(4): e472-e481, 2019 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the 21st century, increases in immunisation coverage and decreases in under-5 mortality have substantially reduced the global burden of measles mortality. However, the assessment of measles mortality burden is highly dependent on estimates of case-fatality ratios for measles, which can vary according to geography, health systems infrastructure, prevalence of underlying risk factors, and measles endemicity. With imprecise case-fatality ratios, there is continued uncertainty about the burden of measles mortality and the effect of measles vaccination. In this study, we aimed to update the estimations of case-fatality ratios for measles, to develop a prediction model to estimate case-fatality ratios across heterogeneous groupings, and to project future case-fatality ratios for measles up to 2030. METHODS: We did a review of the literature to identify studies examining measles cases and deaths in low-income and middle-income countries in all age groups from 1980 to 2016. We extracted data on case-fatality ratios for measles overall and by age, where possible. We developed and examined several types of generalised linear models and determined the best-fit model according to the Akaike information criterion. We then selected a best-fit model to estimate measles case-fatality ratios from 1990 to 2015 and projected future case-fatality ratios for measles up to 2030. FINDINGS: We selected 124 peer-reviewed journal articles published between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2016, for inclusion in the final review-85 community-based studies and 39 hospital-based studies. We selected a log-linear prediction model, resulting in a mean case-fatality ratio of 2·2% (95% CI 0·7-4·5) in 1990-2015. In community-based settings, the mean case-fatality ratio was 1·5% (0·5-3·1) compared with 2·9% (0·9-6·0) in hospital-based settings. The mean projected case-fatality ratio in 2016-2030 was 1·3% (0·4-3·7). INTERPRETATION: Case-fatality ratios for measles have seen substantial declines since the 1990s. Our study provides an updated estimation of case-fatality ratios that could help to refine assessment of the effect on mortality of measles control and elimination programmes. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(5): 836-844, 2019 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an additional dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy following immune reconstitution. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize available evidence regarding measles seroprevalence and measles vaccine immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety in HIV-infected adolescents and adults to provide the evidence base for recommendations on the need for measles vaccination. METHODS: We conducted searches of 8 databases through 26 September 2017. Identified studies were screened independently by 2 reviewers. RESULTS: The search identified 30 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Across studies, measles seroprevalence among HIV-infected adolescents and adults was high (median, 92%; 27 studies), with no significant difference compared to HIV-uninfected participants (10 studies). In 6 studies that evaluated the immunogenicity of MCVs among seronegative HIV-infected adults, measles seropositivity at end of follow-up ranged from 0% to 56% (median, 39%). No severe adverse events were reported following measles vaccination in HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on similar measles seroprevalence between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adolescents and adults, and the low response to vaccination, these studies do not support the need for an additional dose of MCV in HIV-infected adolescents and adults. These findings support WHO guidelines that measles vaccine be administered to potentially susceptible, asymptomatic HIV-infected adults, and may be considered for those with symptomatic HIV infection if not severely immunosuppressed. Measles-susceptible adolescents and adults, regardless of HIV status, may require targeted vaccination efforts to reach critical vaccination thresholds and achieve regional elimination goals.

16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 1: 28-42, 2018 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193646

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have an increased risk of measles that may be due to altered immune responses or suboptimal timing of measles vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of measles vaccination in HIV-infected and HEU children. Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Global Health Library and IndMED on May 9, 2018. Studies were included if they reported on safety or seroresponse (either seroprotection/seropositivity/seroconversion) after measles vaccination in HIV-infected or HEU children. We calculated pooled estimates to compare immunogenicity outcomes between HIV-infected, HEU and HIV-unexposed children, using risk ratios [RRs] (with 95%CIs). PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017057411. Findings: Seventy-one studies met the inclusion criteria (15,363 children). Twenty-eight studies reported on safety; vaccine-associated adverse events and deaths were uncommon. Sixty-two studies reported on immunogenicity, 27 were included in the meta-analysis. HIV-infected children had lower seroresponse rates after primary vaccination compared with HIV-unexposed (RR 0.74; 95%CI: 0.61-0.90, I 2  = 85.9%) and HEU children (0.78; 0.69-0.88, I 2  = 77.1%), which was mitigated by antiretroviral therapy and time interval between vaccination and serology. HEU and HIV-unexposed children had similar seroresponses. Vaccination at 6-months resulted in similar proportions of HIV-infected children having seroresponse compared with HIV-unexposed (0.96; 0.77-1.19) and HEU children (1.00; 0.73-1.37, I 2  = 63.7%). Interpretation: Primary measles vaccination at 6-months of age may provide protection against measles during early infancy in settings with high prevalence of maternal HIV-infection, however, further studies are needed to evaluate this strategy in HEU children and HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy. Funding: South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation in Vaccine Preventable Diseases; Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit.

17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(12): e420-e428, 2017 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757186

ABSTRACT

The basic reproduction number, R nought (R0), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity. In July, 2010, a panel of experts convened by WHO concluded that measles can and should be eradicated. Despite the existence of an effective vaccine, regions have had varying success in measles control, in part because measles is one of the most contagious infections. For measles, R0 is often cited to be 12-18, which means that each person with measles would, on average, infect 12-18 other people in a totally susceptible population. We did a systematic review to find studies reporting rigorous estimates and determinants of measles R0. Studies were included if they were a primary source of R0, addressed pre-existing immunity, and accounted for pre-existing immunity in their calculation of R0. A search of key databases was done in January, 2015, and repeated in November, 2016, and yielded 10 883 unique citations. After screening for relevancy and quality, 18 studies met inclusion criteria, providing 58 R0 estimates. We calculated median measles R0 values stratified by key covariates. We found that R0 estimates vary more than the often cited range of 12-18. Our results highlight the importance of countries calculating R0 using locally derived data or, if this is not possible, using parameter estimates from similar settings. Additional data and agreed review methods are needed to strengthen the evidence base for measles elimination modelling.


Subject(s)
Disease Transmission, Infectious , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/transmission , Humans , Models, Biological
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD011177, 2017 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (03 February 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1946 to 03 February 2017), Embase (1974 to 03 February 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 03 February 2017), LILACS (1982 to 03 February 2017), Web of Science (1985 to 03 February 2017), and BIOSIS Previews (1985 to 27 June 2014). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 03 February 2017 to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the effects of zinc in reducing morbidity and mortality in children with measles. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data on outcomes, details of the interventions, and other study characteristics using a standardised data extraction form. We used risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR) as measures of effect with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included only one study, and did not conduct meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We did not identify any new studies for inclusion in this update. One RCT met our inclusion criteria. The study was conducted in India and included 85 children diagnosed with measles and pneumonia. The trial showed no significant difference in mortality between children with measles and pneumonia who received zinc supplements and those who received placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.14). There was no significant difference in time to absence of fever between children who received zinc supplements and those who did not (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.74). No treatment-related side effects were reported in either group. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence as very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We could not draw any definitive conclusions from this review about the effects of zinc supplementation on clinical outcomes of children with measles due to the very low quality of the evidence available. There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effect of zinc supplementation in children with measles.


Subject(s)
Measles/therapy , Zinc/administration & dosage , Child , Fever/therapy , Humans , Measles/complications , Measles/mortality , Pneumonia/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Zinc/deficiency
19.
BMJ ; 356: j1241, 2017 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274931
20.
BMJ ; 355: i5170, 2016 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. DESIGN:  Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:  Clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies of the effects on mortality of BCG, whole cell DTP, and standard titre MCV in children under 5. DATA SOURCES:  Searches of Medline, Embase, Global Index Medicus, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, supplemented by contact with experts in the field. To avoid overlap in children studied across the included articles, findings from non-overlapping birth cohorts were identified. RESULTS:  Results from 34 birth cohorts were identified. Most evidence was from observational studies, with some from short term clinical trials. Most studies reported on all cause (rather than non-specific) mortality. Receipt of BCG vaccine was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality: the average relative risks were 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.01) from five clinical trials and 0.47 (0.32 to 0.69) from nine observational studies at high risk of bias. Receipt of DTP (almost always with oral polio vaccine) was associated with a possible increase in all cause mortality on average (relative risk 1.38, 0.92 to 2.08) from 10 studies at high risk of bias; this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Receipt of standard titre MCV was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality (relative risks 0.74 (0.51 to 1.07) from four clinical trials and 0.51 (0.42 to 0.63) from 18 observational studies at high risk of bias); this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Seven observational studies, assessed as being at high risk of bias, have compared sequences of vaccines; results of a subset of these suggest that administering DTP with or after MCV may be associated with higher mortality than administering it before MCV. CONCLUSIONS:  Evidence suggests that receipt of BCG and MCV reduce overall mortality by more than would be expected through their effects on the diseases they prevent, and receipt of DTP may be associated with an increase in all cause mortality. Although efforts should be made to ensure that all children are immunised on schedule with BCG, DTP, and MCV, randomised trials are needed to compare the effects of different sequences.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Mortality/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria/mortality , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Male , Measles/mortality , Measles/prevention & control , Tetanus/mortality , Tetanus/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , United Kingdom , Whooping Cough/mortality , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
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