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1.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224891

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, Flaviviruses such as yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) have expanded their transmission areas. These viruses originated in Africa, where they exhibit both sylvatic and interhuman transmission cycles. In Brazil, the risk of YFV urbanization has grown, with the sylvatic transmission approaching the most densely populated metropolis, while concern about ZIKV spillback to a sylvatic cycle has risen. To investigate these health threats, we carried out extensive collections and arbovirus screening of 144 free-living, non-human primates (NHPs) and 5219 mosquitoes before, during, and after ZIKV and YFV outbreaks (2015-2018) in southeast Brazil. ZIKV infection was not detected in any NHP collected at any time. In contrast, current and previous YFV infections were detected in NHPs sampled between 2017 and 2018, but not before the onset of the YFV outbreak. Mosquito pools screened by high-throughput PCR were positive for YFV when captured in the wild and during the YFV outbreak, but were negative for 94 other arboviruses, including ZIKV, regardless of the time of collection. In conclusion, there was no evidence of YFV transmission in coastal southeast Brazil before the current outbreak, nor the spread or establishment of an independent sylvatic cycle of ZIKV or urban Aedes aegypti transmission of YFV in the region. In view of the region's receptivity and vulnerability to arbovirus transmission, surveillance of NHPs and mosquitoes should be strengthened and continuous.

2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 185, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132999

ABSTRACT

Background: There is an urgent need to understand the complex relationship between cross-reactive anti-viral immunity, disease susceptibility, and severity in the face of differential exposure to related, circulating Flaviviruses. Co-exposure to Dengue virus and Zika virus in Brazil is a case in point. A devastating aspect of the 2015-2016 South American Zika outbreak was the dramatic increase in numbers of infants born with microcephaly to mothers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. It has been proposed that this is more likely to ensue from Zika infection in women lacking cross-protective Dengue immunity. In this case series we measure the prevalence of Dengue immunity in a cohort of mothers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy in the 2015-2016 Zika outbreak that gave birth to an infant affected by microcephaly and explore their adaptive immunity to Zika virus. Results: Fifty women from Sergipe, Brazil who gave birth to infants with microcephaly following Zika virus exposure during the 2015-16 outbreak were tested for serological evidence of Dengue exposure and IFNγ ELISpot spot forming cell (SFC) response to Zika virus. The majority (46/50) demonstrated Dengue immunity. IFNγ ELISpot responses to Zika virus antigens showed the following hierarchy: Env>NS1>NS3>C protein. Twenty T cell epitopes from Zika virus Env were identified. Responses to Zika virus antigens Env and NS1 were polyfunctional with cells making IFNγ, TNFα, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10. In contrast, responses to NS5 only produced the immune regulatory TGFß1 cytokine. There were SFC responses against Zika virus Env (1-20) and variant peptide sequences from West Nile virus, Dengue virus 1-4 and Yellow Fever virus. Conclusion: Almost all the women in our study showed serological evidence of Dengue immunity, suggesting that microcephaly can occur in DENV immune mothers. T cell immunity to Zika virus showed a multifunctional response to the antigens Env and NS1 and immune regulatory responses to NS5 and C protein. Our data support an argument that different viral products may skew the antiviral response to a more pro or anti-inflammatory outcome, with an associated impact on immunopathogenesis.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 520-533, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116148

ABSTRACT

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas, followed by the yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreaks in Angola and Brazil highlight the urgent need for safe and efficient vaccines against the ZIKV as well as much greater production capacity for the YFV-17D vaccine. Given that the ZIKV and the YFV are largely prevalent in the same geographical areas, vaccines that would provide dual protection against both pathogens may obviously offer a significant benefit. We have recently engineered a chimeric vaccine candidate (YF-ZIKprM/E) by swapping the sequences encoding the YFV-17D surface glycoproteins prM/E by the corresponding sequences of the ZIKV. A single vaccine dose of YF-ZIKprM/E conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge with wild-type ZIKV strains. Surprisingly, this vaccine candidate also efficiently protected against lethal YFV challenge in various mouse models. We demonstrate that CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells, nor ZIKV neutralizing antibodies are required to confer protection against YFV. The chimeric YF-ZIKprM/E vaccine may thus be considered as a dual vaccine candidate efficiently protecting mice against both the ZIKV and the YFV, and this following a single dose immunization. Our finding may be particularly important in the rational design of vaccination strategies against flaviviruses, in particular in areas where YFV and ZIKV co-circulate.


Subject(s)
Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Zika Virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Mice , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use
4.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105390, 2020 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044285

ABSTRACT

The southeastern region of Brazil has recently experienced the largest yellow fever disease outbreak in decades. Since July 2016 epizootic events were reported in São Paulo state's north region, where 787 Culicidae were captured as part of public health surveillance efforts and tested using real-time quantitative PCR. One Aedes scapularis pool collected in November 2016 in an agriculture area in Urupês city tested positive for YFV-RNA. Using a validated multiplex PCR approach we were able to recover a complete virus genome sequence from this pool. Phylogenetic analysis of the novel strain and publicly available data indicates that the belongs to the South American genotype 1 clade circulating in Sao Paulo state and is basal to the recent outbreak clade in southeast Brazil. Our findings highlight the need of additional studies, including vector competence studies, to disentangle the role of Aedes scapularis in yellow fever transmission in the Americas.

5.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105398, 2020 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068030

ABSTRACT

Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide; the area of endemic transmission has been increasing due to several factors linked to globalization, urban sprawl, and climate change. The Aedes aegypti mosquito plays a central role in the dissemination of dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and urban yellow fever. Current preventive measures include mosquito control programs; however, identifying high-risk areas for mosquito infestation over a large geographic region based only on field surveys is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the potential of remote satellite images (WorldView) for determining land features associated with Ae. aegypti adult infestations in São José do Rio Preto/SP, Brazil. We used data from 60 adult mosquito traps distributed along four summers; the remote sensing images were classified by land cover types using a supervised classification method. We modeled the number of Ae. aegypti using a Poisson probability distribution with a geostatistical approach. The models were constructed in a Bayesian context using the Integrated nested Laplace Approximations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equation method. We showed that an infestation of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes was positively associated with the presence of asbestos roofing and roof slabs. This may be related to several other factors, such as socioeconomic or environmental factors. The usage of asbestos roofing may be more prevalent in socioeconomically poor areas, while roof slabs may retain rainwater and contribute to the generation of temporary mosquito breeding sites. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the utility of satellite remote sensing in identifying landscape differences in urban environments using a geostatistical approach, and indicated directions for future research. Further analyses including other variables, such as land surface temperature, may reveal more complex relationships between urban mosquito micro-habitats and land cover features.

6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049261

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti is associated with epidemic diseases in Brazil, such as urban yellow fever, dengue, and more recently, chikungunya and Zika viruses infections. More information about Ae. aegypti infestation is fundamental to virological surveillance in order to ensure the effectiveness of control measures in use. Thus, the present study aims to identify and compare infestation and infectivity of Ae. aegypti females in Macapa city, Amapa State (Amazon region), Brazil, between the epidemiological weeks 2017/02 and 2018/20. A total number of 303 Ae. aegypti females were collected at 21 fixed collection points, 171 at the 10 collection points in the Marabaixo neighborhood and 132 at the 11 collection points in the Central neighborhood. Among the collected samples, only two were positive for dengue virus, with a 2.08% (2/96 pools) infectivity rate for Marabaixo. The difference between the medians of Ae. aegypti females captured in Central and Marabaixo sites was not statistically significant. The findings indicate similar mosquito infestation levels between the neighborhoods, and a low-level of mosquito infectivity, although dengue virus was found only in Marabaixo. Virological surveillance of Ae. aegypti was important to identify sites of infection and determine possible routes of transmission to enable health surveillance teams to adopt preventive strategies where infected mosquitoes are present and act faster.

7.
Transfusion ; 60(3): 622-627, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Africa and Brazil, and massive vaccine campaigns triggered to contain the outbreaks, have raised concerns over blood transfusion safety and availability with increased risk of YFV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) by native and vaccine-acquired YFV. Blood donor deferral for 2 to 4 weeks following live attenuated YFV vaccination, and deferral for travel to endemic/epidemic areas, may result in blood donor loss and impact platelet component (PC) stocks. This study investigated the efficacy of INTERCEPT Blood System pathogen reduction (PR) with use of amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) light to inactivate high levels of YFV in PCs. MATERIALS: Four units of apheresis platelets prepared in 35% plasma/65% platelet additive solution (PC-PAS) and 4 units of PC in 100% human plasma (PC-Plasma) were spiked with high infectious titers of YFV (YFV-17D vaccine strain). YFV-17D infectious titers were measured by plaque assay and expressed as plaque-forming units (PFU) before and after amotosalen/UVA treatment to determine log reduction. RESULTS: The mean YFV-17D infectious titers in PC before inactivation were 5.5 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL in PC-PAS and 5.3 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL in PC-Plasma. No infectivity was detected immediately after amotosalen/UVA treatment. CONCLUSION: The amotosalen/UVA PR system inactivated high titers of infectious YFV-17D in PC. This PR technology could reduce the risk of YFV TTI and help secure PC supplies in areas experiencing YFV outbreaks where massive vaccination campaigns are required.

8.
Virol J ; 17(1): 9, 2020 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973727

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease, affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP), caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the existence of a safe vaccine, YF continues to cause morbidity and mortality in thousands of people in Africa and South America. Since 2016, massive YF outbreaks have taken place in Brazil, reaching YF-free zones, causing thousands of deaths of humans and NHP. Here we reviewed the main epidemiological aspects, new clinical findings in humans, and issues regarding YFV infection in vectors and NHP in Brazil. The 2016-2019 YF epidemics have been considered the most significant outbreaks of the last 70 years in the country, and the number of human cases was 2.8 times higher than total cases in the previous 36 years. A new YFV lineage was associated with the recent outbreaks, with persistent circulation in Southeast Brazil until 2019. Due to the high number of infected patients, it was possible to evaluate severity and death predictors and new clinical features of YF. Haemagogus janthinomys and Haemagogus leucocelaenus were considered the primary vectors during the outbreaks, and no human case suggested the occurrence of the urban transmission cycle. YFV was detected in a variety of NHP specimens presenting viscerotropic disease, similar to that described experimentally. Further studies regarding NHP sensitivity to YFV, YF pathogenesis, and the duration of the immune response in NHP could contribute to YF surveillance, control, and future strategies for NHP conservation.

9.
J Virol ; 94(5)2020 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801869

ABSTRACT

The Amazon basin is home to numerous arthropod-borne viral pathogens that cause febrile disease in humans. Among these, Oropouche orthobunyavirus (OROV) is a relatively understudied member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae, that causes periodic outbreaks in human populations in Brazil and other South American countries. Although several studies have described the genetic diversity of the virus, the evolutionary processes that shape the OROV genome remain poorly understood. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the genomic dynamics of OROV that encompasses phylogenetic analysis, evolutionary rate estimates, inference of natural selective pressures, recombination and reassortment, and structural analysis of OROV variants. Our study includes all available published sequences, as well as a set of new OROV genome sequences obtained from patients in Ecuador, representing the first set of genomes from this country. Our results show differing evolutionary processes on the three segments that comprise the viral genome. We infer differing times of the most recent common ancestors of the genome segments and propose that this can be explained by cryptic reassortment. We also present the discovery of previously unobserved putative N-linked glycosylation sites, as well as codons that evolve under positive selection on the viral surface proteins, and discuss the potential role of these features in the evolution of OROV through a combined phylogenetic and structural approach.IMPORTANCE The emergence and reemergence of pathogens such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and yellow fever virus have drawn attention toward other cocirculating arboviruses in South America. Oropouche virus (OROV) is a poorly studied pathogen responsible for over a dozen outbreaks since the early 1960s and represents a public health burden to countries such as Brazil, Panama, and Peru. OROV is likely underreported since its symptomatology can be easily confounded with other febrile illnesses (e.g., dengue fever and leptospirosis) and point-of-care testing for the virus is still uncommon. With limited data, there is a need to optimize the information currently available. Analysis of OROV genomes can help us understand how the virus circulates in nature and can reveal the evolutionary forces that shape the genetic diversity of the virus, which has implications for molecular diagnostics and the design of potential vaccines.

10.
J Med Entomol ; 57(2): 454-462, 2020 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559435

ABSTRACT

Dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya arboviruses are endemic in tropical countries and are transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Resistant populations of this mosquito against chemical insecticides are spreading worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure of pesticide-sensitive Ae. aegypti larvae (Rockefeller) to conidia of the entomopathogen, Metarhizium brunneum, laboratory strains ARSEF 4556 and V275, and any synergistic activity of phenylthiourea (PTU). In addition, to investigate the nature of any cross-resistance mechanisms, these M. brunneum strains were tested against the Rockefeller larvae and two temephos- and deltamethrin-resistant wild mosquito populations from Rio de Janeiro. Treatment of Rockefeller larvae with 106 conidia/ml of ARSEF 4556 and V275 fungal strains resulted in significant decreased survival rates to 40 and 53.33%, respectively (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated controls. In contrast, exposure to 104 or 105 conidia/ml showed no such significant survival differences. However, the addition of PTU to the conidia in the bioassays significantly increased mortalities in all groups and induced a molt block. Experiments also showed no differences in Ae. aegypti mortalities between the fungal treated, wild pesticide-resistant populations and the Rockefeller sensitive strain. The results show the efficacy of M. brunneum in controlling Ae. aegypti larvae and the synergistic role of PTU in this process. Importantly, there was no indication of any cross-resistance mechanisms between Ae. aegypti sensitive or resistant to pesticides following treatment with the fungi. These results further support using M. brunneum as an alternative biological control agent against mosquito populations resistant to chemical insecticides.

11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(1): 68-69, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725551

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever is an endemic disease in tropical areas in America and Africa. We report a case where the wild-type yellow fever virus was detected in a breast milk sample of a 33-year-old woman, from a rural area in the municipality of São Paulo, thus highlighting a potential risk for transmission of yellow fever virus through breast-feeding.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 149-151, 2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077278

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever has never previously been reported in transplant recipients. The first reported case of yellow fever in a kidney transplant recipient in Brazil and the re-emergence of arboviruses in many areas of the world dictate the need of studies aimed to answer multiple unanswered questions.

13.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-17, 2020 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854239

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever disease is considered a re-emerging major health issue which has caused recent outbreaks with a high number of deaths. Tropical countries, mainly African and South American, are the most affected by Yellow fever outbreaks. Despite the availability of an attenuated vaccine, its use is limited for some groups such as pregnant and nursing women, immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients, elderly people >65 years, infants <6 months and patients with biological disorders like thymus disorders. In order to achieve new preventive measures, we applied immunoinformatics approaches to develop a multi-epitope-based subunit vaccine for Yellow fever virus. Different epitopes, related to humoral and cell-mediated immunity, were predicted for complete polyproteins of two Yellow fever strains (Asibi and 17 D vaccine). Those epitopes common for both strains were mapped into a set of 137 sequences of Yellow fever virus, including 77 sequences from a recent outbreak at the state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. Therefore, the present work uses robust bioinformatics approaches for the identification of a multi-epitope vaccine against the Yellow fever virus. Our results indicate that the identified multi-epitope vaccine might stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses and could be a potential vaccine candidate against Yellow fever virus infection. Hence, it should be subjected to further experimental validations. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

14.
Rev. Bras. Entomol. ; 64(1): e201960, 2020.
Article | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib17546

ABSTRACT

Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (A. aegypti) transmits arboviral diseases of high public health importance, including those caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Yellow fever virus (YFV). Barreiras is a city with 157,638 inhabitants in the West of the State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. The climate is dry, with well-determined and concentrated seasons of rains. The city is crossed by a Federal Highway and by the Rio Grande river. In this study, we aimed to understand the dynamics of mosquito vectors and arboviral diseases in Barreiras. We used correlation statistics to investigate a possible relationship among rains, mosquito abundance and transmission of diseases. In addition, as a preliminary population genetics estimate, we used geometric morphometrics to compare mosquitoes from areas limited by a highway and a river. We found that i) infestation occurs in rain-dependent cycles and that ii) both, the river and the highway segregate populations of A. aegypti in different areas of the studied city. Our results indicate that it is necessary to treat anthropic containers with mosquito breading capacity during both, the dry and rain seasons in urban areas similar to Barreiras.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817103

ABSTRACT

The yellow fever (YF) vaccine consists of an attenuated virus, and despite its relative safety, some adverse events following YF vaccination have been described. At the end of 2016, Brazil experienced the most massive sylvatic yellow fever outbreak over the last 70 years and an intense campaign of YF vaccination occurred in Minas Gerais state in Southeast Brazil from 2016 to 2018. The present study aimed to develop a genotyping tool and investigate 21 cases of suspected adverse events following YF vaccination. Initial in silico analyses were performed using partial NS5 nucleotide sequences to verify the discriminatory potential between wild-type and vaccine viruses. Samples from patients were screened for the presence of the YFV RNA, using 5'UTR as the target, and then used for amplification of partial NS5 gene amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Genotyping indicated that 17 suspected cases were infected by the wild-type yellow fever virus, but four cases remained inconclusive. The genotyping tool was efficient in distinguishing the vaccine from wild-type virus, and it has the potential to be used for the differentiation of all yellow fever virus genotypes.

16.
J Med Entomol ; 2019 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840745

ABSTRACT

Siparuna guianensis (Laurales: Siparunaceae) has a terpene-rich essential oil with great potential for larvicides. The poor water miscibility of their compounds makes nano-emulsions of great interest for novel bioactive systems, including for control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). This species is adapted to urban environments with important role in the epidemiology of some arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya fever, zika, and urban yellow fever. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of nano-emulsification to affect Ae. aegypti larvae. An optimal system was achieved by using a nonionic single surfactant, highlighted by its satisfactory size distribution profile. Moreover, improved larvicidal activity in comparison to bulk essential oil can be observed for the nano-emulsions. The estimated LC50 and LC90 values after 24 h of treatment of larvae with the essential oil were, respectively, 86.5232 and 134.814 µg/ml, while the estimated LC50 and LC90 value after treatment with the nano-emulsion were 24.7572 and 75.2452 µg/ml, respectively. The utilization of a simple technique to produce a fine nano-emulsion opens perspective for further integrative practices of mosquito control and giving value to this Amazon plant species may encourage its sustainable use and contribute to conservation policies.

17.
PeerJ ; 7: e7920, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745446

ABSTRACT

Background: Zika is of great medical relevance due to its rapid geographical spread in 2015 and 2016 in South America and its serious implications, for example, certain birth defects. Recent epidemics urgently require a better understanding of geographic patterns of the Zika virus transmission risk. This study aims to map the Zika virus transmission risk in South and Central America. We applied the maximum entropy approach, which is common for species distribution modelling, but is now also widely in use for estimating the geographical distribution of infectious diseases. Methods: As predictor variables we used a set of variables considered to be potential drivers of both direct and indirect effects on the emergence of Zika. Specifically, we considered (a) the modelled habitat suitability for the two main vector species Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus as a proxy of vector species distributions; (b) temperature, as it has a great influence on virus transmission; (c) commonly called evidence consensus maps (ECM) of human Zika virus infections on a regional scale as a proxy for virus distribution; (d) ECM of human dengue virus infections and, (e) as possibly relevant socio-economic factors, population density and the gross domestic product. Results: The highest values for the Zika transmission risk were modelled for the eastern coast of Brazil as well as in Central America, moderate values for the Amazon basin and low values for southern parts of South America. The following countries were modelled to be particularly affected: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. While modelled vector habitat suitability as predictor variable showed the highest contribution to the transmission risk model, temperature of the warmest quarter contributed only comparatively little. Areas with optimal temperature conditions for virus transmission overlapped only little with areas of suitable habitat conditions for the two main vector species. Instead, areas with the highest transmission risk were characterised as areas with temperatures below the optimum of the virus, but high habitat suitability modelled for the two main vector species. Conclusion: Modelling approaches can help estimating the spatial and temporal dynamics of a disease. We focused on the key drivers relevant in the Zika transmission cycle (vector, pathogen, and hosts) and integrated each single component into the model. Despite the uncertainties generally associated with modelling, the approach applied in this study can be used as a tool and assist decision making and managing the spread of Zika.

18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-4, 2019 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634051

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever has been recently described in nonurban areas of Brazil despite 80 years of commercial vaccine use. Although the disease does not spread fear in the general population as it did in the past, yellow fever virus continues to cause many cases of severe disease. Persistence of the virus in the host is a new mechanism to be considered in the pathology of the disease. Immunization with a fractional dose of vaccine during emergency situations needs to be evaluated for antibody duration, and new and improved vaccines should be considered.

19.
J Virol ; 94(1)2019 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597773

ABSTRACT

The recent reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Brazil has raised serious concerns due to the rapid dissemination of the virus in the southeastern region. To better understand YFV genetic diversity and dynamics during the recent outbreak in southeastern Brazil, we generated 18 complete and nearly complete genomes from the peak of the epidemic curve from nonhuman primates (NHPs) and human infected cases across the Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states. Genomic sequencing of 18 YFV genomes revealed the estimated timing, source, and likely routes of yellow fever virus transmission and dispersion during one of the largest outbreaks ever registered in Brazil. We showed that during the recent epidemic, YFV was reintroduced from Minas Gerais to the Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states multiple times between 2016 and 2019. The analysis of data from portable sequencing could identify the corridor of spread of YFV. These findings reinforce the idea that continued genomic surveillance strategies can provide information on virus genetic diversity and transmission dynamics that might assist in understanding arbovirus epidemics.IMPORTANCE Arbovirus infections in Brazil, including yellow fever, dengue, zika, and chikungunya, result in considerable morbidity and mortality and are pressing public health concerns. However, our understanding of these outbreaks is hampered by the limited availability of genomic data. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and spatial distribution of YFV during the current outbreak by analyzing genomic data from areas in southeastern Brazil not covered by other previous studies. To gain insights into the routes of YFV introduction and dispersion, we tracked the virus by sequencing YFV genomes sampled from nonhuman primates and infected patients from the southeastern region. Our study provides an understanding of how YFV initiates transmission in new Brazilian regions and illustrates that genomics in the field can augment traditional approaches to infectious disease surveillance and control.

20.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-10-30.
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51654

ABSTRACT

Las arbovirosis como el dengue, el chikungunya y la fiebre de Zika, transmitidas principalmente por los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus, son problemas de salud pública en la Región de las Américas… El reciente episodio de rápida dispersión del ZIKV en las Américas llamó la atención sobre la importancia de estructurar y fortalecer las actividades de control de A. aegypti (Ferguson et al., 2016) y mantiene en constante alerta a todo el sistema de salud del continente americano. También preocupan la potencial reemergencia y el riesgo de reurbanización del virus de la fiebre amarilla, que en el Brasil ha causado brotes explosivos en áreas silvestres, aunque algunas se hallaban próximas a centros urbanos (OMS, 2018)… El objetivo de este document es proporcionar un marco de referencia para la planeación e implementación de las acciones de vigilancia, prevención y control de A. aegypti, con base en la estratificación del riesgo, para apoyar la construcción de posibles escenarios operativos a nivel local. Los escenarios operativos sirven como referencia para seleccionar las herramientas de control vectorial más adecuadas y utilizarlas de forma más eficiente.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Vectors , Americas , Public Health Surveillance
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