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1.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 126: 109594, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344554

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Congenital defects affecting the auditory and visual capacity of newborns represent a public health problem as they result in substantial disability, directly impacting the quality of life of newborns and their families. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with congenital defects that alter hearing or vision in newborns in the city of Bogotá between 2002 and 2016. METHOD: Data from the Bogotá Birth Defects Surveillance and Follow-up Program was used, which consolidated data regarding 167 ECLAMC study (Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas, in spanish) variables in a case-control design to identify risk factors for birth defects after parents provided signed informed consent. Cases were defined as any newborn (alive or stillborn) with a weight greater than 500 g with any visual or hearing abnormality. Controls were defined as newborn in the same hospital and month with no birth defects. Groups were formed according to the case presentation as follows: isolated eye anomaly, isolated ear anomaly, polymalformative, syndromic, and teratogenic. RESULTS: In total, 402,657 births were reviewed, of which 968 cases had some congenital defects that alter hearing or vision. An association was found between the presence of defects and prematurity, as well as between syndromic cases and increasing maternal age. When comparing cases and controls with the risk of having a birth defect, multiparity had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.27-1.71), acute respiratory infection had an OR of 2.41 (95% CI: 1.04-5.58), low maternal education level had an OR of 1.34 (95% CI:1.10-1.62), low paternal education had an OR of 1.42, (95% CI:1.17-1.73), manual labor in the maternal occupation had an OR of 1.31 (95% CI:1.03-1.67), and a history of congenital anomalies in the family had an OR of 1.55 (95% CI:1.19-2.00). CONCLUSION: This research allowed the identification of epidemiological data and significant risk factors for congenital defects that alter hearing or vision in the population of Bogotá.

2.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; : 1-24, 2019 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003592

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine long-term neurobehavioural symptom reporting following mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating TBI in U.S. military service members and veterans (SMV). Participants were 445 SMVs divided into four groups: 158 uncomplicated mild TBI ("unMTBI" group), 105 penetrating, severe, moderate, or complicated mild TBI ("smcTBI" group), 101 injured controls (IC), and 81 non-injured controls (NIC). Two independent cohorts were examined that included participants 5-years or 10-year post-injury. Participants completed the TBI-Quality of Life, Neurobehavioural Symptom Inventory, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. At 5-years and 10-years post-injury, there were significant main effects for the majority of measures (all p's < .005). At 10-years post-injury, the NIC group had consistently better scores compared to the IC, unMTBI, and smcTBI groups. At 5-years post-injury, either (a) the IC and NIC group had better scores compared to both TBI groups, or (b) the NIC group had better scores compared to the IC, unMTBI, and smcTBI groups. A high proportion of SMVs reported poor long-term neurobehavioural symptoms following TBI or bodily injury without TBI. Injured SMVs (regardless of injury type) can have long-term symptoms that impact mental health and overall quality of life requiring long-term follow-up and care.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(4): 222-228, 2019 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the numerous reports on the limb body wall complex (LBWC), this association has never been adequately defined. Amniotic bands (AB) are frequently present but their role remains unclear. Since most reports were based on clinical and often subjective diagnoses, the aim of this work was to define LBWC and the role of AB, minimizing subjectivity. METHODS: Data were obtained from the ECLAMC maternity hospitals network database. A total of 450 live and stillborn infants, born during 1967-2013, with AB or the LBWC were selected. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify cases into homogeneous groups (sharing similar associated defects); robustness of the classification was confirmed with a discriminant analysis. The frequency of associated defects was compared among groups; those whose frequency differed significantly were included in a logistic regression to establish their association within each group. RESULTS: The cluster analysis identified two groups: a body wall defect (BWD) predominating in one, AB in the other. These groups were further divided into: BWD (cases with only BWD), AB (with only AB), BWD + AB, and NONE (with neither). Association with caudal defects and lower limb amelia was observed for BWD, with cephalic defects and upper limb amputations for BWD + AB. CONCLUSIONS: The results, obtained with the least possible subjectivity, indicated that BWD and BWD + AB are different conditions. Since BWD specifically associates with amelia, we propose that this defect and not any limb deficiency should be considered as inclusion criterium and that it should be included in the BWD acronym as LBWC.

4.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(12): 103603, 2019 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572171

ABSTRACT

Currently accepted birth prevalence for osteochondrodysplasias (OCDs) is about 2 per 10,000 births. Our main goal is to estimate the prevalence of OCDs in Argentina and compare it with other surveillance systems. We examined 1,663,610 births among 160 hospitals of RENAC (Red Nacional de Anomalías Congénitas - National Network of Congenital Anomalies) between November 2009 and December 2016. Cases were detected and registered according to a pre-established protocol, ranked in three diagnostic evidence levels according to available clinical documentation, and categorized according to the 9th edition of the nosology and classification of genetic skeletal disorders. Within our dataset, the most frequent groups were Group-1 (FGFR3, chondrodysplasia) and Group-25 (Osteogenesis Imperfecta and decreased bone density). Birth prevalence per 10,000 for the main OCD types, were: Achondroplasia 0.47 (95% CI: 0.38-0.59), Thanatophoric Dysplasia 0.37 (95% CI: 0.29-0.48), and the Osteogenesis Imperfecta group 0.34 (95% CI: 0.26-0.44). For total OCD, birth prevalence was 2.20 per 10.000 births (95% CI: 1.98-2.44). RENAC prevalence of total OCDs was found to be lower than that reported by the Latin-American Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) and Utah Birth Defect Network but higher than EUROCAT. Our investigation is the first study of OCD prevalence in Argentina using data from every jurisdiction of the country.

5.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 26(5): 325-327, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464714

ABSTRACT

Objective: The epidemiological profile of congenital anomalies of the upper limbs (CAULs) is of major relevance to monitoring and planning. A study of this profile may reveal if there is prevalence of some specific type of malformation in comparison to a more comprehensive epidemiological sample. The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) has an extensive database, providing an excellent source of comparison. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological profile of CAULs at the hand surgery department of the Hospital Federal da Lagoa (HFL) in Brazil, and compare it to the ECLAMC data. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent treatment at the pediatric outpatient hand surgery clinic. The sample universe consisted of 126 patients (4 of these patients presented with 2 simultaneous anomalies), totaling 130 malformations. Results: The results demonstrated that the comparable pathologies have significantly similar incidence rates. It is worth noting the polydactylies (pre- and post-axial), where the percentile of incidence in the ECLAMC was higher. Conclusion: This study showed that the epidemiological profile of patients who underwent treatment at this hospital was equivalent to that found in the ECLAMC database. Level of evidence III, Retrospective epidemiological study.

6.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(5): 325-327, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-973576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The epidemiological profile of congenital anomalies of the upper limbs (CAULs) is of major relevance to monitoring and planning. A study of this profile may reveal if there is prevalence of some specific type of malformation in comparison to a more comprehensive epidemiological sample. The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) has an extensive database, providing an excellent source of comparison. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological profile of CAULs at the hand surgery department of the Hospital Federal da Lagoa (HFL) in Brazil, and compare it to the ECLAMC data. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent treatment at the pediatric outpatient hand surgery clinic. The sample universe consisted of 126 patients (4 of these patients presented with 2 simultaneous anomalies), totaling 130 malformations. Results: The results demonstrated that the comparable pathologies have significantly similar incidence rates. It is worth noting the polydactylies (pre- and post-axial), where the percentile of incidence in the ECLAMC was higher. Conclusion: This study showed that the epidemiological profile of patients who underwent treatment at this hospital was equivalent to that found in the ECLAMC database. Level of evidence III, Retrospective epidemiological study.


RESUMO Objetivo: O perfil epidemiológico das anomalias congênitas dos membros superiores (ACMS) é de suma relevância para monitoramento e planejamento. Um estudo nesse sentido pode revelar se há prevalência de algum tipo específico de malformação em comparação com amostra epidemiológica mais abrangente. O Estudo Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformação Congênita (ECLAMC) tem uma extensa base de dados, que serve como excelente fonte de comparação. Este estudo tem por escopo avaliar o levantamento da casuística das ACMS no serviço de cirurgia da mão do Hospital Federal da Lagoa (HFL) e compará-la aos dados do ECLAMC. Métodos: Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva dos pacientes atendidos no ambulatório infantil de cirurgia da mão. O universo amostral foi de 126 pacientes (sendo que 4 pacientes apresentavam 2 anomalias simultaneamente), totalizando 130 malformações. Resultados: Demonstrou-se que as patologias que puderam ser comparadas têm percentuais de incidência significativamente semelhantes. Cabe ressalvar as polidactilias (pré e pós-axiais), em que o percentil de incidência no ECLAMC foi maior. Conclusão: Este estudo evidenciou que o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes atendidos neste hospital foi equivalente ao encontrado na base de dados do ECLAMC. Nível de evidência III, Estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo.

7.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 73(3): 247-252, 2018 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797210

ABSTRACT

In food industry, roselle beverages and their subproducts could be functional ingredients since they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with improved performance due to their important anthocyanins content. The aim of this study was to analyze anthocyanin content and antioxidant properties of aqueous infusions elaborated with color contrasting Hibiscus materials and design a mathematical model in order to predict color-composition relationship. Color measurements of beverages from roselle (Negra, Sudan and Rosa) were made by transmission spectrophotometry, anthocyanins quantification was determined by HPLC, and antioxidant potential was evaluated by in vitro methods (ABTS and FRAP assays). Beverages prepared with particle size minor of 250 µm presented until 4- and 2- times more anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity respectively, in comparison to beverages prepared with powders with particle size major of 750 µm. Positive correlations among pigments composition and color parameters were found (p < 0.05), showing that anthocyanins content, antioxidant capacity, C*ab and hab values increased in relation with the smallest particle size of flours. Also, mathematical models were stablished to predict anthocyanin content (r ≥ 0.97) and antioxidant capacity (r ≥ 0.89) from color data; we propose equations for quick estimation of the antioxidant capacity in the Hibiscus beverages with high anthocyanin content. The obtained models could be an important tool to be used in food industry for pigment characterization or functional compounds with potential health benefits.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Beverages/analysis , Hibiscus/chemistry , Models, Theoretical , Color , Colorimetry , Pigments, Biological , Spectrophotometry
8.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 55(4): 517-520, 2018 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Among congenital craniofacial anomalies, orofacial clefts (OFCs) are the most common. Global prevalence is 2 in 1000 and in Colombia, 1 in 700. Our goal was to describe cleft palate (CP) prevalence and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) from 2001 to 2015 in Bogota and Cali, Colombia. METHOD: Using the ECLAMC case-control design method, information was obtained from the Congenital Anomalies Monitoring and Surveillance Programs in Bogota and Cali. We describe the prevalence of cases classified into the following groups: isolated, polymalformed, and syndromic. The proportion of cases and controls was 1:4. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution and Student t test to compare means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We identified 529 OFC cases and 2116 controls from 448,930 births: a rate of 11.8 per 10,000 (CI = 10.80-12.83). From the total cases, 73% were identified with CL/CP compared to 27% with CP. Males had higher CL±P (59%) prevalence, whereas the highest neonatal mortality was observed among polymalformed cases (7%). The most common anomaly identified among our cases was cleft lip without isolated cleft palate (58%). We found that OFCs are linked to birthweight, size, and gestational age and higher parity with statistically significant differences in all variables compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: OFC is a highly prevalent anomaly in Colombia, with a range of maternal and infant differences across case subgroups. The identification of important OFC subgroups that follow certain patterns of prevalence may prove useful to primary and tertiary care facilities with the goal of reducing further disability.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193127, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Historically, neural tube defects (NTDs) have predominated in female infants but the reasons remain unclear. In South America, the pre- folic acid fortification (FAF) rates of NTDs were around 18/10,000 births for females and 12/10,000 births for males, with an estimated sex ratio (male/female) of 0.67. During the post- FAF period, unpublished routine reports have indicated changes in the sex ratio for these defects while some descriptive reports are controversial. To date and to our knowledge, however, no studies specifically focusing on these changes to test this hypothesis directly have been undertaken. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the sex ratio of infants with NTDs after FAF in South American countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With a descriptive cross-sectional study design, 2,597 infants with isolated NTDs born between 1990 and 2013 in 3 countries participating in the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) network were included: (Chile N = 521 and Argentina N = 1,619 [with FAF policies]; Venezuela N = 457 [without FAF policies; used as control]; total births = 2,229,561). The differences-in-differences method and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate the sex ratio shift from female to male before vs. after FAF, and to assess whether these differences were related to the fortification. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In Chile and Argentina the prevalence of NTDs, particularly anencephaly and cervico-thoracic spina bifida, showed a greater reduction rate in females than in males after FAF, resulting in a change of the sex ratio of infants with NTDs. Some mechanisms possibly involved in this differential reduction are proposed which might be useful to identify the pathogenesis of NTDs as a whole and specifically of those susceptible to the protective effect of folic acid.


Subject(s)
Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Food, Fortified , Neural Tube Defects/epidemiology , Neural Tube Defects/prevention & control , Sex Characteristics , Argentina/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Sex Factors
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 907-914, 2018 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424949

ABSTRACT

We compared Brazilian oral cleft (OC) frequencies between the population-based Brazilian System of Live Birth (SINASC) and the hospital-based Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), trying to understand the paucity of cleft of lip and palate (CLP) in the first system. SINASC uses the International Classification of Disease version 10 (ICD-10) for congenital defects coding, ECLAMC uses ICD-8 with modifications. In SINASC, the CLP frequency was 1.7 per 10,000 (95% confidence limits 1.7-1.8), cleft lip (CL) 1.6 (1.5-1.7), and cleft palate (CP) 2.0 (1.9-2.1). In ECLAMC, the CLP frequency was 10.4 per 10,000 (9.0-12.1), CL 5.5 (4.5-6.7), and CP 4.4. (4.5-6.7). In SINASC, only 33% of the oral clefts were CLP, versus 51% in ECLAMC. Part of this discrepancy may have been due to the relative excess of CP and CL cases. Although congenital defect frequencies are usually lower in population than in hospital-based registries, differences in the proportion of the main OC categories are not expected and are probably due to ICD-10 coding issues, such as lumping of unilateral CL and CL without other specifications. ICD-10 codes, whose deficiency for oral clefts is fully explained in the literature, lack modifiers for severity, or clinical subtypes. This paper shows the practical aspect of the ICD-10 system deficiency in capturing cleft lip and palate (CLP) subtypes, as demonstrated in SINASC covering three million births per year. Such errors are expected to occur in any registry that uses the ICD-10 coding system, and must be adjusted, given its relevance worldwide.

11.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(1): 14-22, ene.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-902088

ABSTRACT

Resumen: determinar la asociación entre factores sociodemográficos, exposición a teratógenos y enfermedad materna, con la presencia de malformaciones congénitas en un centro de tercer nivel de la región centro occidental de Colombia durante el año 2013. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico tipo casos y controles. Se analizaron variables maternas y del recién nacido, las cuales se presentaron como frecuencias y proporciones y se evaluaron usando las pruebas de Chi2(x2) y exacta de Fisher. Para determinar la asociación entre cada variable se calculó el Odds Ratio (OR) crudo, y Odds Ratio (ORa) ajustado para las variables que presentaron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, posterior a esto se encontró mediante test de razón de verosimilitud que no habían diferencias importantes entre el modelo completo y el reducido, mostrando entonces valores de un modelo más parsimonioso, con un test de bondad de ajuste Hosmer-Lemeshow 0.19. Resultados: Las variables sociodemográficas edad y ocupación materna, se hallaron como factor de riesgo para desarrollar malformaciones congénitas OR=7.7 (2.4 - 24.5) y OR=2,01 (1,1-3,7) respectivamente. Además en la historia obstétrica se encontró mayor riesgo al tener ganancia de peso mayor al ideal con OR=3.0a (1.3-6.7) y una ganancia de peso menor a lo ideal OR= 2.3a(1.1-4.5) y como factores protectores ser hijo del mismo padre y fácil concepción con OR=0,37C (0,2-0.8) P=0.007 y OR=0,20a (0,1-0,7), Conclusión: la edad mayor de 35 años, trabajar fuera y ganancias de peso mayores o inferiores a lo ideal, fueron los principales factores de riesgo para malformaciones congénitas en este estudio y la fácil concepción se encontró como factor protector para dicha condición del neonato.


Objective: to determine the association between sociodemographic factors, exposure to teratogens and maternal disease, with the presence of congenital malformations in a third-level center in the central western region of Colombia during the year 2013. Methods: An analytical case-control study was conducted And controls. We analyzed maternal and newborn variables, which were presented as frequencies and proportions and were evaluated using Chi2 (x2) and Fisher’s exact tests. To determine the association between each variable we calculated the Odds Ratio (OR) crude, and Odds Ratio (ORa) adjusted for the variables that presented a statistically significant difference, after this it was found by test of likelihood ratio that no differences were found Important between the complete and the reduced model, showing values of a more parsimonious model, with a goodness-of-fit test Hosmer-Lemeshow 0.19. Results: sociodemographic variables age and maternal occupation were found to be a risk for developing congenital malformations OR= 7.7 (2.4-24.5) and OR=2.01 (1.13-3.69), respectively. In the obstetric history, greater risk was found to have greater weight gain than the ideal with OR = 3.0a (1.3-6.7) and a weight gain lower than the ideal OR = 2.3a (1.1-4.9) and as protective factors being Child of the same father and conceive easy OR = 0.37C (0.2-0.8) P = 0.007 and OR = 0.20a (0.1-0.7), Conclusion: Age over 35 years, work outside and A weight gain greater than ideal, or weight gain less than ideal, are major risk factors for congenital malformations found in this study, easy conception is found as a protective factor for congenital malformations.

12.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 39(1): 155-184, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910604

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as causas, o impacto dos defeitos congênitos na morbimortalidade infantil e a importância da sua vigilância, bem como apresentar como nossa comunidade acadêmica está inserida neste monitoramento. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura nas bases de dados Medline/PubMed e Scielo, incluindo publicações de janeiro de 2010 até maio de 2018, em português e inglês. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "birth defects", "etiology", "infant mortality", "teratogens", "congenital abnormalities", "defeitos congênitos", "ECLAMC", "genética". Foram incluídos também livros-textos e artigos relevantes na área, independente da data de publicação, assim como sites eletrônicos de relevância. Adicionalmente, descrevemos o funcionamento do programa de monitoramento de defeitos congênitos do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, vinculado ao Estudo Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformações Congênitas (ECLAMC). RESULTADOS: 971 artigos foram localizados com as combinações das palavras-chave, destes 21 foram utilizados na revisão. No conteúdo da revisão incluímos as etiologias conhecidas dos defeitos congênitos, dentre elas, estão as genéticas, multifatoriais e teratógenos físicos, químicos e biológicos. Esses dados estão resumidos das tabelas 1 a 5 deste artigo. Com relação ao monitoramento de defeitos congênitos, o ECLAMC- PUCRS avaliou 3981 recém-nascidos no período de agosto de 2016 a dezembro de 2017, e a taxa observada de malformações foi de 3,77%. CONCLUSÃO: Os defeitos congênitos são uma causa importante de morbimortalidade em todos os países, inclusive no Brasil. A compreensão de suas etiologias contribui para o aconselhamento genético das famílias, para o estabelecimento do prognóstico e intervenções terapêuticas, assim como para sua prevenção.


OBJECTIVE: This article aims to review the impact of birth defects on infant morbidity and mortality and the importance of their surveillance, to review their causes, as well as to show how our academic community is included in this monitoring. METHODS: a literature review was conducted in the Medline / PubMed and Scielo databases, including publications from January 2010 to May 2018, in Portuguese and English. The keywords used were: "birth defects", "etiology", "infant mortality", "teratogens", "congenital abnormalities", "congenital defects", "ECLAMC", "genetics". Also included were textbooks and relevant articles in the area, regardless the date of publication, as well as relevant electronic sites. Additionally, we describe the operation of the congenital defect monitoring program of the São Lucas Hospital of PUCRS, linked to the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC). RESULTS: 971 articles were found using the keywords, from those 21 were used in the review. In the content of the review we include the known etiologies of the congenital defects, among which are the genetic, multifactorial, and physical, chemical and biological teratogens. These data are summarized in Tables 1-5 of this article. With regard to the monitoring of congenital defects, ECLAMC-PUCRS evaluated 3981 newborns from August 2016 to December 2017, and the observed malformation rate was 3.77%. CONCLUSION: Congenital defects are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in all countries, including Brazil. Understanding their etiologies contributes to the genetic counseling of families, to the establishment of prognosis and therapeutic interventions, as well as to their prevention.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Congenital Abnormalities/etiology , Teratogenesis
13.
BMJ ; 359: j5018, 2017 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162597

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the prevalence and clinical spectrum of microcephaly in South America for the period 2005-14, before the start of the Zika epidemic in 2015, as a baseline for future surveillance as the Zika epidemic spreads and as other infectious causes may emerge in future.Design Prevalence and case-control study.Data sources ECLAMC (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) database derived from 107 hospitals in 10 South American countries, 2005 to 2014. Data on microcephaly cases, four non-malformed controls per case, and all hospital births (all births for hospital based prevalence, resident within municipality for population based prevalence). For 2010-14, head circumference data were available and compared with Intergrowth charts.Results 552 microcephaly cases were registered, giving a hospital based prevalence of 4.4 (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 4.9) per 10 000 births and a population based prevalence of 3.0 (2.7 to 3.4) per 10 000. Prevalence varied significantly between countries and between regions and hospitals within countries. Thirty two per cent (n=175) of cases were prenatally diagnosed; 29% (n=159) were perinatal deaths. Twenty three per cent (n=128) were associated with a diagnosed genetic syndrome, 34% (n=189) polymalformed without a syndrome diagnosis, 12% (n=65) with associated neural malformations, and 26% (n=145) microcephaly only. In addition, 3.8% (n=21) had a STORCH (syphilis, toxoplasmosis, other including HIV, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex) infection diagnosis and 2.0% (n=11) had consanguineous parents. Head circumference measurements available for 184/235 cases in 2010-14 showed 45% (n=82) more than 3 SD below the mean, 24% (n=44) between 3 SD and 2 SD below the mean, and 32% (n=58) larger than -2 SD.Conclusion Extrapolated to the nearly 7 million annual births in South America, an estimated 2000-2500 microcephaly cases were diagnosed among births each year before the Zika epidemic began in 2015. Clinicians are using more than simple metrics to make microcephaly diagnoses. Endemic infections are important enduring causes of microcephaly.


Subject(s)
Microcephaly , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , South America/epidemiology
14.
Matern Child Health J ; 21(11): 2122-2131, 2017 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699095

ABSTRACT

Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC). Focusing on children without birth defects, we estimate gradients in several infant health outcomes including birth weight, gestational age, and hospital discharge status by maternal education using ordinary least squares regression models adjusting for several demographic factors. To explore channels, we add as covariates father's education, parental occupational activity, maternal health and fertility history, and use of prenatal services and technology and evaluate changes in the coefficient of maternal education. We use the same models for each country sample. Results We find important differences in gradients across countries. We find evidence for educational gradients in preterm birth in three countries but weaker evidence for gradients in fetal growth. The extent to which observed household and maternal factors explain these gradients based on changes in the regression coefficient of maternal education when controlling for these factors as covariates also varies between countries. In contrast, we generally find evidence across all countries that higher maternal education is associated with increased use of prenatal care services and technology. Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in infant health by maternal education and their underlying mechanisms vary and are not necessarily generalizable across countries. However, the positive association between maternal education and use of prenatal services and technology is more consistent across examined countries.


Subject(s)
Educational Status , Health Status Disparities , Infant Health , Mothers , Child , Family Characteristics , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , South America
15.
Birth Defects Res ; 109(4): 254-261, 2017 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies, mainly in the older literature, observed a significant association between miscarriages and birth defects (BDs) occurring in the same sibship. However, few studies examined the BD/miscarriage relationship in depth. In addition nothing has been added to the underlying mechanisms possibly linking both events. The purpose of this work was to identify specific BDs associated with maternal miscarriages. In particular, it examined whether the risk depended on the number of losses, and to suggest the existence of specific factors for each BD/miscarriage association observed. METHODS: The study relied on the Latin American Collaborative Study on Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) database registries including 26,906 live and stillborn infants with one of 19 selected isolated BDs and 93,853 normal controls. Infants born to primigravid mothers were excluded from the present study. Demographic and reproductive variables were compared between control mothers With and Without previous miscarriages. The number, frequency, and distribution of miscarriages were observed for each BD and controls. A conditional logistic regression was applied to evaluate the miscarriage risk for each BD. RESULTS: Control mothers with previous miscarriages were older, had had more pregnancies, and were less educated. Three risk patterns of miscarriages were observed: a very high risk of miscarriages associated with gastroschisis, omphalocele, and talipes; only one miscarriage associated with spina bifida, and two or more miscarriages associated with hypospadias. CONCLUSION: These three patterns suggest that different factors underly each BD/miscarriage association: infertility for hypospadias, vascular disruption for gastroschisis and talipes, while for spina bifida, the much debated trophoblastic cell residue theory could not be discarded. Birth Defects Research 109:254-261, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Gastroschisis/epidemiology , Hernia, Umbilical/epidemiology , Hypospadias/epidemiology , Spinal Dysraphism/epidemiology , Talipes/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/diagnosis , Abortion, Spontaneous/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Argentina/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Databases, Factual , Educational Status , Female , Gastroschisis/diagnosis , Gastroschisis/pathology , Gravidity/physiology , Hernia, Umbilical/diagnosis , Hernia, Umbilical/pathology , Humans , Hypospadias/diagnosis , Hypospadias/pathology , Logistic Models , Male , Parity/physiology , Pregnancy , Registries , Risk , Spinal Dysraphism/diagnosis , Spinal Dysraphism/pathology , Statistics as Topic , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Talipes/diagnosis , Talipes/pathology
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 325-334, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-840835

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. Materials and Methods A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. Results A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). Conclusion This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level.

17.
Int Braz J Urol ; 43(2): 325-334, 2017 Mar-Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). CONCLUSION: This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level.


Subject(s)
Hypospadias/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Gestational Age , Humans , Hypospadias/physiopathology , Infant, Newborn , Male , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Regression Analysis , Severity of Illness Index , South America/epidemiology , Time Factors
18.
In. Argentina. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación. Comisión Nacional de Salud Investiga. Anuario 2013. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, 2016. p.128-129.
Monography in Spanish | ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-993981

ABSTRACT

Los eventos adversos en el recién nacido (bajo peso al nacer [BPN], parto prematuro[PP] y retraso del crecimiento intrauterino [RCIU]) impactan de maneradirecta en la morbimortalidad individual e indirectamente en la salud de lapoblación. El costo económico del nacimiento prematuro o de bajo peso esalto en términos de cuidados intensivos neonatales, atención permanente dela salud y necesidades educativas especiales. Se trata de un problema de SaludPública de primera magnitud, que afecta principalmente a los grupos vulnerables.ObjetivosIdentificar factores determinantes relacionados con disparidades étnicas/socialesy analizar el impacto de la infraestructura regional como condicionantesobre los resultados perinatales adversos (BPN, PP y RCIU) en Argentina.MétodosLa muestra consistió en 953 recién nacidos con BPN, 1038 PP y 339 RCIU seleccionadosa partir de 11 844 recién nacidos, sobre un total de 575 432 nacimientos,ocurridos en 47 hospitales integrados al Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americanode Malformaciones Congénitas (ECLAMC) en Argentina durante 2000-2011. Seutilizaron diferentes análisis: método de Scan de Kuldorff para la identificaciónde agregados geográficos (AG), regresión de cuartiles, regresión logística multinively método de descomposición de Fairlie para evaluar el impacto de losfactores de riesgo.ResultadosSe identificaron tres AG para BPN, dos para PP y para RCIU en Argentina. Laaplicación de diferentes análisis mostró a las pocas consultas prenatales duranteel embarazo como la variable de mayor riesgo para un resultado perinataladverso


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Fellowships and Scholarships , Epidemiology , Risk Factors , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(5): 380-386, oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-830167

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Numerosas publicaciones han alertado sobre el aumento sostenido de las tasas de prevalencia al nacimiento de gastrosquisis en todo el mundo, catalogado este hecho como una «pandemia¼ fuertemente asociada a edad materna baja. Objetivos: Comprobar si en Chile se ha producido también un aumento significativo de la tasa de prevalencia al nacimiento de gastrosquisis y si se relaciona con edad materna baja. Pacientes y método: Se usó la base de datos ECLAMC de 26 hospitales chilenos participantes. Las tasas de prevalencia entre hospitales y las categorías de edad materna se compararon con prueba de Chi cuadrado o prueba exacta de Fisher. Se estudió la serie temporal mediante comparación de tendencias lineales, usando comparaciones de medias vía t-test y Wilcoxon-test. Resultados: En el período 1982-2014 nacieron 721.901 niños, entre los que se encontró 107 casos de gastrosquisis (1,49/10.000), el 75,7% de ellos eran hijos de mujeres menores de 25 años. El promedio de edad materna de los casos fue de 21,6 años, y el promedio nacional es cercano a 28 años, según el Ministerio de Salud. A partir de 1995 esta tasa mostró una tendencia ascendente significativamente distinta de cero (p = 0,00714), con un aumento de 0,1591 cada año. Este incremento fue alrededor del 300% entre 1995 y 2014, respecto del período anterior (p < 0,00001). Conclusión: En Chile se ha producido un aumento significativo de las tasas de gastrosquisis después del año 1995, y esta anomalía se asocia fuertemente con baja edad materna.


Introduction: Several communications have reported a significant increase in the prevalence of gastroschisis at birth in the last three decades. In many Countries it is referred to as "a pandemic strongly associated to low maternal age". Objective: To verify if there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of gastroschisis at birth in Chile, and if this rate is associated with a low maternal age. Patients and methods: The study was performed using the ECLAMC data base from 26 Chilean Hospitals. Comparison between prevalence rates and maternal age categories were made using the X² test or Fisher exact Test. The time series was studied comparing average tendencies using the Student t test and Wilcoxon-test. Results: There were 721,901 newborns in the period 1982-2014, among which 107 were diagnosed with gastroschisis (1.48/10,000). Around three-quarters (75.7%) of them were born from mothers younger than 25. The mean maternal age was 21.6 years in mothers of children with gastroschisis, while the mean maternal age of all mothers from Chile was almost 28 years old. The gastroschisis prevalence at birth rate was constant at around 1/10,000 until 1994. From 1995 this rate has a significant increasing tendency of 0.1591 by year (P = .00714). This increase is about a 300% on average for the 1995-2014 period, compared with the previous one (P < .00001). Conclusion: There has been a significant increase in the gastroschisis prevalence at birth in Chile from 1995, and this anomaly is associated with a low maternal age.

20.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 87(5): 380-386, 2016 Sep - Oct.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27476074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several communications have reported a significant increase in the prevalence of gastroschisis at birth in the last three decades. In many Countries it is referred to as "a pandemic strongly associated to low maternal age". OBJECTIVE: To verify if there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of gastroschisis at birth in Chile, and if this rate is associated with a low maternal age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed using the ECLAMC data base from 26 Chilean Hospitals. Comparison between prevalence rates and maternal age categories were made using the X2 test or Fisher exact Test. The time series was studied comparing average tendencies using the Student t test and Wilcoxon-test. RESULTS: There were 721,901 newborns in the period 1982-2014, among which 107 were diagnosed with gastroschisis (1.48/10,000). Around three-quarters (75.7%) of them were born from mothers younger than 25. The mean maternal age was 21.6 years in mothers of children with gastroschisis, while the mean maternal age of all mothers from Chile was almost 28 years old. The gastroschisis prevalence at birth rate was constant at around 1/10,000 until 1994. From 1995 this rate has a significant increasing tendency of 0.1591 by year (P=.00714). This increase is about a 300% on average for the 1995-2014 period, compared with the previous one (P<.00001). CONCLUSION: There has been a significant increase in the gastroschisis prevalence at birth in Chile from 1995, and this anomaly is associated with a low maternal age.


Subject(s)
Gastroschisis/epidemiology , Maternal Age , Adolescent , Adult , Chile/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Female , Gastroschisis/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Young Adult
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