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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
2.
Clin Lab ; 68(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) a consequence of hypercoagulability status associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and worsens its course. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to PE in COPD settings. We aimed to measure expression levels of miRNAs145 and 126 in COPD patients with and without PE. METHODS: Herein, miRNA (145 and 126) expression levels were measured in 250 COPD patients with PE by quan-titative real-time PCR, and their data were compared with 300 COPD patients without PE. RESULTS: Our results showed that miRNA-145 expression was downregulated in COPD patients with PE compared to those without PE. The reverse was observed in miRNA-126 expression that was higher in COPD patients with PE than in those without PE. miRNA-145 correlated positively with FEV1/FVC and correlated negatively with D-dimer in all patients regardless of the presence of PE. In addition, miRNA-126 positively correlated with D-dimer and negatively correlated with FEV1/FVC in all studied COPD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of miRNA-145 and higher levels of miRNA-126 associated with worse diagnosis PE in patients with COPD. Extensive studies are mandated to bring a better understanding of the role of these miRNAs in the mechanism of thrombosis in COPD patients.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Respiratory Function Tests
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): .84-90, feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385595

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes cartilage degradation and tissue destruction, can affect synovial joints such as the knee joint. The link between the nitrosative stress enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1β) in RA-induced knee joint synovial membrane damage with and without the incorporation of the GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8 has never been studied. As a result, we used active immunization method with collagen type II (COII) for twenty one days to induce RA in rats. TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg; i.p.) was given daily into matched immunized rats for three weeks after day 21 (COII+TDZD-8). Blood and tissue samples were taken 42 days after immunization. A dramatic increase in rheumatoid factor (RF) blood levels, as well as considerable synovial tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration of the synovial membrane, were used to validate the onset of RA following COII immunization. COII immunization increased tissue levels of iNOS protein and IL- 1β mRNA and protein expression, which TDZD-8 suppressed considerably (p<0.0001). Furthermore, there was a significantly (p<0.001) positive correlation between iNOS, inflammatory biomarkers, and RF. We concluded that TDZD-8 reduced RA-induced IL-1β -iNOS axis-mediated arthritis in the rat knee joint synovium.


RESUMEN: La artritis reumatoide (AR), es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria que causa la degradación del cartílago y la destrucción del tejido, pudiendo afectar las articulaciones sinoviales, como la articulación de la rodilla. No se ha estudiado el vínculo entre la óxido nítrico sintasa inducible por la enzima del estrés nitrosativo (iNOS) y la citocina interleucina-1 (IL-1β) en el daño de la membrana sinovial de la articulación de la rodilla provocado por AR con y sin la incorporación del inhibidor de GSK3β TDZD-8. Utilizamos el método de inmunización activa con colágeno tipo II (COII) durante veintiún días para inducir AR en ratas. Se administró TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg; i.p.) diariamente a ratas inmunizadas emparejadas durante tres semanas después del día 21 (COII+TDZD- 8). Se tomaron muestras de sangre y tejido 42 días después de la inmunización. Se observó un gran aumento de los niveles sanguíneos del factor reumatoideo (FR), así como un daño considerable del tejido sinovial e infiltración de células inflamatorias en la membrana sinovial, para validar la aparición de la AR después de la inmunización con COII. La inmunización con COII aumentó los niveles tisulares de la proteína iNOS y la expresión de proteína y ARNm de IL-1β, que TDZD-8 suprimió considerablemente (p<0,0001). Además, hubo una correlación positiva significativa (p<0,001) entre iNOS, biomarcadores inflamatorios y FR. Concluimos que TDZD- 8 redujo la artritis mediada por el eje IL-1β-iNOS inducida por la AR en la sinovial de la articulación de la rodilla de rata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Thiadiazoles/administration & dosage , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/chemically induced , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type II/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/administration & dosage , Nitrosative Stress/drug effects , Inflammation
4.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 128(6): 1548-1558, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574082

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), endothelin-1 and angiotensin II are responsible for extracellular matrix accumulation within the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of adding Gum Arabic (GA) and insulin on serum glucose, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II in rats with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into; normal, normal plus GA, diabetic rats (DM), DM plus insulin, DM plus GA, and DM plus insulin plus GA groups. Levels of glucose and creatinine in serum, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 in renal homogenate and HbA1c were measured. RESULTS: Serum creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 were increased in diabetic rats. GA decreased serum glucose, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. GA and insulin decreased serum glucose, creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of GA with insulin to rats with diabetic nephropathy improved the glycemic state, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II.


Subject(s)
Acacia , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies , Insulins , Male , Rats , Animals , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Creatinine , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Endothelin-1 , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Senegal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney , Glucose/pharmacology , Insulins/pharmacology
5.
Brain Sci ; 11(2)2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671898

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is known to be associated with an increased risk of dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Intermittent fasting (IF) has been proposed to produce neuroprotective effects through the activation of several signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the effect of IF on rat behavior in type 2 diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar Kyoto rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each): the ad libitum (Ad) group, the intermittent fasting group (IF), the streptozotocin-induced diabetic 2 group (T2DM) fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 25 mg kg-1, and the diabetic group with intermittent fasting (T2DM+IF). We evaluated the impact of 3 months of IF (16 h of food deprivation daily) on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate in the hippocampus, and rat behavior was assessed by the forced swim test and elevated plus maze. IF for 12 weeks significantly increased (p < 0.05) the levels of NT3 and BDNF in both control and T2DM rats. Additionally, it increased serotonin, dopamine, and glutamic acid in diabetic rats. Moreover, IF modulated glucose homeostasis parameters, with a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in insulin resistance and downregulation of serum corticosterone level. Interestingly, T2DM rats showed a significant increase in anxiety and depression behaviors, which were ameliorated by IF. These findings suggest that IF could produce a potentially protective effect by increasing the levels of BDNF and NT3 in both control and T2DM rats. IF could be considered as an additional therapy for depression, anxiety, and neurodegenerative diseases.

6.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 29(1): 61-71, 2018 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a systemic procoagulant hypofibrinolysis state that is considered as a risk factor for microangiopathy and peripheral vascular diseases. Swimming exercise ameliorates the metabolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Vitamin E is a natural antioxidant that reduces the risk of endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of combined swimming exercise with vitamin E on coagulation as well as blood fibrinolysis markers in rats with NAFLD. METHODS: Eighty male rats were divided into control, control+vitamin E, control+exercise, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+vitamin E, HFD+exercise, and HFD+vitamin E+exercise groups. Glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), endothelin-1, von Willebrand factor (vWF), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), fibrin degradation products (FDP), platelet count and aggregation, bleeding and clotting times, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and prothrombin time (PT) were determined. RESULTS: HFD increased lipid profile, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, liver enzymes, adhesion molecules, endothelin-1, vWF, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen, FDP, and PAI-1, and decreased clotting and bleeding times and HDL. Although exercise reduced lipid profile, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, vWF, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen, FDP, and PAI-1 and increased PT, aPTT, bleeding and clotting times, and HDL, vitamin E had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, but not vitamin E, ameliorated the HFD-induced prothrombotic state and enhanced fibrinolytic activity.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/physiopathology , Swimming/physiology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin/blood , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Lipids/blood , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diet therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Obesity/blood , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Risk Factors , Triglycerides/blood
7.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 29(1): 47-59, 2018 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at risk of experiencing chronic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy and myopathy. We aimed to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on type II DM (T2DM)-induced biochemical, contractile and pathological changes in skeletal muscles of rats. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the control, control+L-carnitine, T2DM and T2DM+L-carnitine groups. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde and antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) as well as the contractile properties of the gastrocnemius muscle were measured. Also, histopathological studies and immunohistochemical examination of the gastrocnemius muscle using the MuRF1 (muscle RING-finger protein-1) marker were performed. RESULTS: In diabetic rats, malondialdehyde, glucose, insulin, HbA1c and MuRF1 were increased, whereas ISI and antioxidants were decreased and the contractile properties deteriorated. L-carnitine decreased malondialdehyde, glucose, insulin, HbA1c and MuRF1 and increased ISI and antioxidants. Also, L-carnitine improves the contractile properties in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies confirm our data. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that L-carnitine exhibits protective effects on skeletal muscles of T2DM rats through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant actions as well as its inhibitory effect on protein degradation.


Subject(s)
Carnitine/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycated Hemoglobin/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
8.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 28(4): 347-354, 2017 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28315847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a result of renal artery stenosis, which is commonly due to astherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to clarify the central and peripheral effects of ghrelin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in a rat model of RVH. METHODS: RVH was induced in rats by partial subdiaphragmatic aortic constriction. Experiment A was designed to assess the central effect of ghrelin via the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin (5 µg/kg) or losartan (0.01 mg/kg) in RVH rats. Experiment B was designed to assess the peripheral effect of ghrelin via the subcutaneous (SC) injection of ghrelin (150 µg/kg) or losartan (10 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, plasma renin activity (PRA), and oxidative stress markers were measured in all rats. In addition, angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) concentration was measured in the hypothalamus of rats in Experiment B. RESULTS: RVH significantly increased brain AT1R, PRA, as well as the brain and plasma oxidative stress. Either SC or ICV ghrelin or losartan caused a significant decrease in MAP with no change in the heart rate. Central ghrelin or losartan caused a significant decrease in brain AT1R with significant alleviation of the brain oxidative stress. Central ghrelin caused a significant decrease in PRA, whereas central losartan caused a significant increase in PRA. SC ghrelin significantly decreased PRA and plasma oxidative stress, whereas SC losartan significantly increased PRA and decreased plasma oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: The hypotensive effect of ghrelin is mediated through the amelioration of oxidative stress, which is induced by RAS centrally and peripherally.


Subject(s)
Ghrelin/pharmacology , Hypertension, Renovascular/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate/drug effects , Losartan/pharmacology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(3): 469-484, sept. 2016. graf, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-168289

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Isorhapontigenin is a derivative of stilbene with chemical structure similar to resveratrol. The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with isorhapontigenin and omega-3 FA on rat model of isoproterenol-induced MI. Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups: normal, normal + isorhapontigenin, normal + omega-3 FA, MI, MI + isorhapontigenin, MI + omega-3 FA, and MI + isorhapontigenin + omega-3 FA. Serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)], cardiac troponin I (cTnI), inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6], and lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol (T.Ch), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), and phospholipids] as well as cardiac levels of malondialdehyde and anti-oxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase)] were measured in all rats. ECG and histopathological examination were performed. Isoproterenol caused a significant elevation of ST segment, decreased R wave amplitude, HDL, and anti-oxidants, and increased LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, triglycerides, T.Ch, LDL, and phospholipids. Omega-3 FA or isorhapontigenin significantly decreased the ST segment elevation, LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and phospholipids and increased R wave amplitude and anti-oxidants. The effects of combined omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin were more significant than either of them alone. Therefore, we conclude that omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin have a cardioprotective effect on rats with isoproterenol-induced MI through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions (AU)


No disponible


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Stilbenes/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardium/metabolism , Antioxidants , Biomarkers , Lipids/blood , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Isoproterenol , Lipid Peroxidation , Inflammation Mediators , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
10.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 94(7): 719-27, 2016 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135919

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SC-IRI). Fifty male rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CON); control + GSE (CON + GSE) (received GSE for 28 days); sham operated (Sham); IRI; and IRI + GSE. SC-IRI was induced by clamping the aorta just above the bifurcation for 45 min, and then the clamp was released for 48 h for reperfusion. IRI + GSE group received GSE for 28 days before SC-IRI. Sensory, motor, and placing/stepping reflex assessment was performed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in spinal cord homogenate. Immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord for OPN and COX-2 were carried out. SC-IRI resulted in significant increase in plasma nitrite/nitrate level and spinal cord homogenate levels of TBARs and PGE2, and OPN and COX-2 expression with significant decrease in TAC. GSE improves the sensory and motor functions through decreasing OPN and COX-2 expression with reduction of oxidative stress parameters. We conclude a neuroprotective effect of GSE in SC-IRI through downregulating COX-2 and OPN expression plus its antioxidants effects.


Subject(s)
Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Osteopontin/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Animals , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Down-Regulation/physiology , Grape Seed Extract/pharmacology , Male , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Osteopontin/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology
11.
J Physiol Biochem ; 72(3): 469-84, 2016 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193109

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Isorhapontigenin is a derivative of stilbene with chemical structure similar to resveratrol. The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with isorhapontigenin and omega-3 FA on rat model of isoproterenol-induced MI. Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups: normal, normal + isorhapontigenin, normal + omega-3 FA, MI, MI + isorhapontigenin, MI + omega-3 FA, and MI + isorhapontigenin + omega-3 FA. Serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)], cardiac troponin I (cTnI), inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6], and lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol (T.Ch), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), and phospholipids] as well as cardiac levels of malondialdehyde and anti-oxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase)] were measured in all rats. ECG and histopathological examination were performed. Isoproterenol caused a significant elevation of ST segment, decreased R wave amplitude, HDL, and anti-oxidants, and increased LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, triglycerides, T.Ch, LDL, and phospholipids. Omega-3 FA or isorhapontigenin significantly decreased the ST segment elevation, LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and phospholipids and increased R wave amplitude and anti-oxidants. The effects of combined omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin were more significant than either of them alone. Therefore, we conclude that omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin have a cardioprotective effect on rats with isoproterenol-induced MI through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.


Subject(s)
Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Disease Models, Animal , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardium/metabolism , Stilbenes/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/adverse effects , Heart/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Isoproterenol , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipids/blood , Male , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardium/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stilbenes/adverse effects
12.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 94(6): 588-98, 2016 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974593

ABSTRACT

The clinical application of doxorubicin is limited by its cardiotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of valsartan on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups: control, control + valsartan (10 mg/kg, for 14 days, orally), doxorubicin-treated (2.5 mg/kg, 3 times/week for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally), valsartan then doxorubicin, valsartan + doxorubicin, and doxorubicin then valsartan. ECG, isolated heart, lipid peroxidation (thiobaribituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Bax, Bcl-2, and senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) gene expression were measured in cardiac tissue. Blood samples were collected to measure lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB). Doxorubicin significantly increased LDH, CK-MB, TBARS, heart rate (HR), Bax gene expression, and -dP/dtmax and decreased TAC, Bcl-2 and SMP30 gene expression, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and +dP/dtmax. Also, doxorubicin lengthened ST, QT, and QTc intervals. Concurrent or post- but not pre-treatment of doxorubicin-treated rats with valsartan reduced LDH, CK-MB, TBARS, HR, Bax gene expression, -dP/dtmax, and ST, QT, and QTc intervals and increased TAC, Bcl-2 and SMP30 gene expression, LVDP, and +dP/dtmax. Therefore, we conclude that concurrent or post- but not pre-treatment of doxorubicin-induced rats with valsartan attenuated doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through inhibiting oxidative stress, apoptosis, and senescence.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiotoxins/toxicity , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Valsartan/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Animals , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Apoptosis/physiology , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Male , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome
13.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 94(4): 426-32, 2016 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854732

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore we investigated the effects of levothyroxine and MgSO4 on inflammatory markers as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in hypothyroid rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups; normal, normal + MgSO4, hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism + levothyroxine, hypothyroidism + MgSO4, and hypothyroidism + levothyroxine + MgSO4. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured in all rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased TSH, CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 and decreased triiodothronine and thyroxine. Treatment of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine or MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Combined therapy of hypothyroid rats with levothyroxine and MgSO4 significantly decreased CRP, interleukin-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 compared with hypothyroid rats either untreated or treated with levothyroxine or MgSO4. This study demonstrates that hypothyroid rats have chronic low grade inflammation, which may account for increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Combined levothyroxine and MgSO4 is better than levothyroxine or MgSO4 alone in alleviating the chronic low grade inflammatory status and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid animals.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Magnesium Sulfate/pharmacology , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Risk Factors , Thyrotropin/metabolism , Triiodothyronine/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
14.
J. physiol. biochem ; 70(3): 809-820, sept. 2014.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-127325

ABSTRACT

Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacokinetics , Urocortins/pharmacokinetics , Obesity/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Protective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Platelet Aggregation , Lipid Metabolism
15.
J Physiol Biochem ; 70(3): 809-20, 2014 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062615

ABSTRACT

Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Hemostasis/drug effects , Obesity/blood , Obesity/diet therapy , Urocortins/administration & dosage , Animals , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , Lipids/blood , Male , Obesity/pathology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
J. physiol. biochem ; 70(2): 535-546, jun. 2014.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-122973

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex progressive disease characterized by hyperglycemia and a high risk of atherothrombotic disorders affecting the coronary, cerebral, and peripheral arterial trees. Oxidative stress is reported in diabetic patients. We investigated the hemostatic functions and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the effects of warfarin and L-carnitine on those parameters. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, DM, and DM received warfarin or L-carnitine. In all rats, blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fibrinogen, factor VII (FVII), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation products (FDP), protein C, antithrombin III (ATIII), malondialdehydes (MDA), and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) were measured. Also, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), coagulation time, and platelet aggregation were evaluated. In diabetic rats, plasma glucose, HbA1c, MDA, fibrinogen, FVII, FDP, PAI-1, and platelet aggregation increased while insulin, PT, aPTT, coagulation time, protein C, ATIII, and antioxidants decreased. Warfarin administration to diabetic rats decreased FVII and FDP and increased PT, aPTT, and coagulation time with no effect on MDA, antioxidants, PAI-1, protein C, ATIII, and platelet aggregation. On the other hand, L-carnitine decreased fibrinogen, FVII, FDP, PAI-1, MDA, and platelet aggregation and increased PT, aPTT, coagulation time, protein C, ATIII, and antioxidants in diabetic rats. Therefore, we concluded that hyperglycemia plays an important role in hypercoagulation state and oxidative stress in STZ-induced DM. While L-carnitine improves oxidative stress and decreases the hypercoagulation state in DM, warfarin normalizes the hypercoagulation state with no effect on oxidative stress


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Warfarin/pharmacokinetics , Carnitine/pharmacokinetics , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred NOD , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal
17.
J Physiol Biochem ; 70(2): 535-46, 2014 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24671746

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex progressive disease characterized by hyperglycemia and a high risk of atherothrombotic disorders affecting the coronary, cerebral, and peripheral arterial trees. Oxidative stress is reported in diabetic patients. We investigated the hemostatic functions and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the effects of warfarin and L-carnitine on those parameters. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, DM, and DM received warfarin or L-carnitine. In all rats, blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fibrinogen, factor VII (FVII), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation products (FDP), protein C, antithrombin III (ATIII), malondialdehydes (MDA), and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) were measured. Also, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), coagulation time, and platelet aggregation were evaluated. In diabetic rats, plasma glucose, HbA1c, MDA, fibrinogen, FVII, FDP, PAI-1, and platelet aggregation increased while insulin, PT, aPTT, coagulation time, protein C, ATIII, and antioxidants decreased. Warfarin administration to diabetic rats decreased FVII and FDP and increased PT, aPTT, and coagulation time with no effect on MDA, antioxidants, PAI-1, protein C, ATIII, and platelet aggregation. On the other hand, L-carnitine decreased fibrinogen, FVII, FDP, PAI-1, MDA, and platelet aggregation and increased PT, aPTT, coagulation time, protein C, ATIII, and antioxidants in diabetic rats. Therefore, we concluded that hyperglycemia plays an important role in hypercoagulation state and oxidative stress in STZ-induced DM. While L-carnitine improves oxidative stress and decreases the hypercoagulation state in DM, warfarin normalizes the hypercoagulation state with no effect on oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Carnitine/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Warfarin/pharmacology , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin
18.
J. physiol. biochem ; 69(4): 737-750, dic. 2013.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-121633

ABSTRACT

High fat diet (HFD) is a common cause of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Published data showed that HFD and subsequent dyslipidemia are major triggers for oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague–Dawley rats, weighing 170–200 g, were divided into six groups: control, control with vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.), control with simvastatin (SIM) (10 mg/kg of body weight/day), HFD, HFD with vitamin E, and HFD with SIM. Standard and high cholesterol diets were given for 15 weeks and SIM and vitamin E were added in the last 4 weeks. In all rats, serum vitamin E, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) transaminases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) as well as cardiac and hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Also, electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded. HFD significantly increased QTc interval, heart rate (HR), serum TC, TG, LDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, liver TG, and cardiac and hepatic TBARS but decreased antioxidants and HDL, while SIM decreased HR, liver TG, serum TC, TG, and LDL and increased HDL in HFD rats. Vitamin E had no effect. Moreover, SIM and vitamin E decreased QTc interval, serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and cardiac and hepatic TBARS and increased antioxidants in HFD rats. Histopathological observations confirm the biochemical parameters. SIM and vitamin E slow progression of hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in liver and heart and improve their functions (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Simvastatin/pharmacokinetics , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Vitamin E/pharmacokinetics , Protective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
19.
J. physiol. biochem ; 69(3): 527-537, sept. 2013.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-121672

ABSTRACT

Indomethacin (IND) is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory agent that is known to induce severe gastric mucosal lesions. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of selenium (SEL), grape seed extract (GSE), and both on IND-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats (200–250 g) were given SEL, GSE, and both by oral gavage for 28 days, and then gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of 25 mg/kg IND. Malondialdehyde (MDA), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione, GSH) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in gastric mucosa, and serum tumor necrosis factor Alpha (TNF-Alpha) were measured. Moreover, gastric ulcer index and preventive index were determined. Indomethacin increased the gastric ulcer index, MDA, TNF-Alpha, and decreased PGE2 and non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants. Pretreatment with SEL, GSE, and both significantly decreased the gastric ulcer index, MDA, and TNF and increased antioxidants and PGE2. Histopathological observations confirm the gastric ulcer index and biochemical parameters. Selenium and GSE have a protective effect against IND-induced gastric ulcers through prevention of lipid peroxidation, increase of GSH, activation of radical scavenging enzymes, PGE2 generation, and anti-inflammatory activity. Co-administration of GSE and SEL is more effective than GSE or SEL alone


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Selenium/pharmacokinetics , Grape Seed Extract/pharmacokinetics , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Protective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Lipid Peroxidation , S-Nitrosoglutathione/pharmacokinetics , Prostaglandins E , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics
20.
J Physiol Biochem ; 69(4): 737-50, 2013 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23580160

ABSTRACT

High fat diet (HFD) is a common cause of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Published data showed that HFD and subsequent dyslipidemia are major triggers for oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 170-200 g, were divided into six groups: control, control with vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.), control with simvastatin (SIM) (10 mg/kg of body weight/day), HFD, HFD with vitamin E, and HFD with SIM. Standard and high cholesterol diets were given for 15 weeks and SIM and vitamin E were added in the last 4 weeks. In all rats, serum vitamin E, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) transaminases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) as well as cardiac and hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Also, electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded. HFD significantly increased QTc interval, heart rate (HR), serum TC, TG, LDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, liver TG, and cardiac and hepatic TBARS but decreased antioxidants and HDL, while SIM decreased HR, liver TG, serum TC, TG, and LDL and increased HDL in HFD rats. Vitamin E had no effect. Moreover, SIM and vitamin E decreased QTc interval, serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and cardiac and hepatic TBARS and increased antioxidants in HFD rats. Histopathological observations confirm the biochemical parameters. SIM and vitamin E slow progression of hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in liver and heart and improve their functions.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Hypercholesterolemia/metabolism , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Obesity/metabolism , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Catalase/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Drug Synergism , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Hypercholesterolemia/chemically induced , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Hypercholesterolemia/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Male , Obesity/chemically induced , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Vitamin E/blood
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