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PLoS One ; 19(2): e0292765, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408074


BACKGROUND: The home-based vaccination card is an important health record for determining vaccination status of children during surveys, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. However, there are limited evidence on the factors that influence its retention in Ghana. We assessed the predictors of vaccination card retention in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from 21st December 2022 to 10th January 2023 among children aged 0-59 months in the Tamale Metropolis. Multi-stage sampling was used to select caregivers of children aged 0-59 months for enrolment in the study. Data were collected using validated questionnaire through face-to-face interviews of caregivers. A vaccination card was retained if it was presented for physical inspection by research assistants. The factors that influence vaccination card retention were determined in a multivariate logistic regression analysis at p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 1,532 eligible children were enrolled in this study. Vaccination card retention was 91.5%. Negative predictors of card retention included: being resident in the Nyohini (AOR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.15-0.50) and Tamale Central (AOR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.29-0.90) sub-Metro areas and being caregivers of children aged 24-59 months (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.22-0.68). On the other hand, paying for the vaccination card (AOR = 5.14; 95% CI = 2.95-8.95) was a positive predictor of vaccination card retention. CONCLUSION: In this study, vaccination card retention among children aged 0-59 months was higher than national estimates. Vaccination card retention was mainly influenced by sub-Metro area, age of child and mode of acquisition of the card such as out-of-pocket payment. There is need to design and deliver tailored messages including the importance of vaccination card retention to caregivers of children based on geographic context. Additionally, the policy on sale of vaccination cards should be revised to allow for cost sharing to enhance its retention.

Mothers , Vaccination , Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Ghana , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Ghana Med J ; 56(2): 64-70, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449257


Objective: To assess the effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in reducing under-five malaria morbidity and mortality. Design: Under-five malaria data for confirmed episodes, deaths, and number of children dosed per cycle of SMC campaign were extracted from the District Health Information Management System (DHIMS-2) for 2018-2019. Data verification was done to compare extracted data with the source for completeness and consistency. Association between SMC and the main outcome variables (malaria cases and mortality) was computed from 2X2 tables and reported as rate ratios at a 95% confidence level. Setting: All seven (7) districts in Savannah Region, Ghana. Participants: Children under five years. Intervention: Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Amodiaquine (SPAQ) prophylaxis given monthly, four times, durng the rainy season (July to October). Main outcome measures: SMC coverage per cycle and under-five malaria morbidity and mortality ratios. Results: Over 370,000 dose packs of SPAQ were administered with an average cycle coverage of 93%. There was approximately 17% (p<0.01) and 67% (p=0.047) reduction in malaria-related morbidity and mortality, respectively, in the implementation year compared with the baseline. This translated into nearly 9,300 episodes of all forms of malaria and nine malaria-attributable deaths averted by the intervention. Conclusion: SMC (combined with existing control measures) wields prospects of accelerating the regional/national malaria elimination efforts if the implementation is optimised. Expansion of the intervention to other high-prevalence regions with seasonal variation in disease burden may be worthwhile. Funding: None declared.

Antimalarials , Malaria , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Seasons , Ghana/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/drug therapy , Amodiaquine/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Chemoprevention