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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , Incidence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669800

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 174, 2020 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052191

ABSTRACT

Association of trace metal concentrations in water is problematic; however, its information is scarce and sometimes contradicted. This work presents variations in dissolved major constituents and trace element concentrations along the quaternary aquifers located in middle Upper Egypt (Minia and Assiut governorates). A total of 205 groundwater samples from these aquifers were collected. Auxiliary parameters (pH, alkalinity, and conductivity), major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), dominant anions (HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-), and trace element (B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) concentrations were measured in all samples. Univariate (correlation coefficient and scatter matrix) analysis was employed combined with multivariate (principal coordinates analysis) analysis to identify the chemical characteristics of groundwater that are responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Also, hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to classify the geochemical origin of the groundwater constituents. The results indicate that the groundwater pollution is mainly due to water-rock interactions, including aquifer matrix dissolution, redox reaction of trace metals, input from wastewater, and agricultural fertilizers.


Subject(s)
Groundwater , Trace Elements , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Egypt , Environmental Monitoring
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 133: 701-710, 2018 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041367

ABSTRACT

To understand the effect of metal pollution on the speciation process, we conducted comparative analyses of six populations of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculata, which dominated the Manzala lagoon (Nile Delta, Egypt). Geometric morphometric analysis was implemented to quantify the phenotypic plasticity of the species. The results from both Canonical Variate Analysis and Relative Warp indicated an overall decrease in the morphological breadth of M. tuberculata in the polluted sites. The favored phenotypes in the polluted sites have moderate whorl section, moderate ovate aperture, less-prominent radial ornament, and overall moderate-spired shells. Lack of morphological variations and dominance of intermediate phenotypes in the polluted sites indicate that stabilizing selection is driving the morphological pattern of this species. Moreover, analysis by using the partial least square model confirmed that metal pollution is the major predictor of the observed shape variations, whereas other biotic/abiotic traits are a minor predictor.


Subject(s)
Ecotoxicology/methods , Selection, Genetic , Snails/physiology , Animals , Egypt , Geologic Sediments/analysis , Lakes , Metals/analysis , Metals/toxicity , Phenotype , Snails/anatomy & histology , Snails/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
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