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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(8): e0011548, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37566639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the pillars of a combination prevention strategy for reducing the risk of new infections caused by HIV. The daily use of antiretroviral drugs by individuals who are not infected with HIV is required to prevent infection. Although its efficacy has been well established in the literature, in recent years, the decreased supply of antiretroviral drugs has been associated with an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and changes in the social determinants of health. An ecological study was conducted covering a five-year period (2018-2022), starting from the year of initiation of PrEP administration in Brazilian state capitals. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Descriptive analysis was performed, and the spatial distribution of study data was taken into account. Correlation analysis was used to assess the association between PrEP administration, the incidence and detection rate of STI, and socioeconomic data. The southern region showed the highest incidence rates of STI, but the northern and northeastern regions demonstrated the worst socioeconomic indicators, especially those related to illiteracy and basic sanitation. PrEP administration was significantly correlated with illiteracy (ρ = -0.658), per capita income (ρ = 0.622), public garbage collection (ρ = 0.612), syphilis (ρ = 0.628) and viral hepatitis (ρ = 0.419) incidences. Further, all STI were significantly associated with illiteracy and per capita income. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings highlight the need to continue exploring PrEP use and rising syphilis rates. In terms of policy, PrEP administration appears to be inversely associated with regions of greater social vulnerability. Further efforts should focus on the social determinants and health needs of this population to improve access to PrEP and reduce social disparities.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Male , Humans , Incidence , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , HIV , Homosexuality, Male , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 11882, 2023 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37482558

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection became a global public health concern, causing an epidemic in Latin America from 2015 to 2016, when a sudden increase in cases of microcephaly and other congenital anomalies was observed. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization defined congenital Zika-associated syndrome (CZS) as a set of congenital anomalies seen in children born to mothers with a history of gestational Zika fever, who have microcephaly as the most prevalent clinical sign. In order to describe the magnitude of CZS in Brazil, this study estimated the burden of disease due to CZS in Brazil using the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) indicator and other frequency measures, such as incidence and mortality rate, during the years 2015-2020. The association of these indicators with socioeconomic variables was also evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Choropleth maps were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the indicators evaluated and the spatial autocorrelation was verified by the Bivariate Moran Local Index. From 2015 to 2020, 3,591 cases of CZS were confirmed in Brazil, with an incidence of 44.03 cases per 1000 live births, and a specific mortality of 12.35 deaths per 1000 live births. A global loss of 30,027.44 DALYs was estimated from 2015 to 2020. The Northeast region had the highest values for all health indicators assessed. Spatial correlation and autocorrelation analyses showed significant associations between health and socioeconomic indicators, such as per capita income, Gini index, illiteracy rate and basic sanitation. The study allowed us to have access to all reported cases of CZS, showing us the possible situation of the disease in Brazil; therefore, we believe that our results can help in the understanding of future studies.


Subject(s)
Microcephaly , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 38(2): 1-6, abr.jun.2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451796

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant epidermal keratinocyte tumor closely related to sun exposure. When diagnosed, through biopsy, its staging, tumor resection with oncological safety margins must be performed, and lymph node dissection and treatment of metastases, if present, may be performed. Case Report: Skin traction is reported as a complement to the parascapular flap, used reconstructively after the excision of a large SCC in the left shoulder. Conclusion: The technique used proved effective for the satisfactory correction of large dehiscence in the postoperative period of the parascapular flap, promoting partial closure of the defect, reduced time to perform, and correction of the residual defect in a single step.


Introdução: O carcinoma espinocelular (CEC) é um tumor maligno dos queratinócitos epidérmicos e está intimamente relacionado à exposição solar. Quando diagnosticado, por meio de biópsia, deve ser realizado seu estadiamento, ressecção tumoral com margens de segurança oncológica, podendo ser feito esvaziamento ganglionar e tratamento de metástases, caso presentes. Relato de Caso: Reporta-se a utilização da tração cutânea como complemento ao retalho paraescapular, utilizado reconstrutivamente pós excisão de CEC de grande dimensão em ombro esquerdo. Conclusão: A técnica utilizada mostrou-se eficaz para correção satisfatória de grandes deiscências em pós-operatório de retalho paraescapular, promovendo fechamento parcial do defeito, tempo reduzido para realização e correção do defeito residual em tempo único.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2069, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies are associated with several clinical and epidemiological complications. Following the Zika epidemic onset in Latin America, the incidence of congenital anomalies increased in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the frequency of congenital anomalies in one Brazilian state and assess potential factors associated with them. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on data concerning congenital anomalies recorded in the Brazilian Live-Born Information System during the Zika epidemic in Mato Grosso do Sul state from 2015 to 2018. Congenital anomalies were stratified according to year of birth and classified using ICD-10 categories. RESULTS: In total, 1,473 (0.85%) anomalies were registered. Within the number of cases recorded, microcephaly showed the greatest frequency and variations, with a 420% increase observed in the number of cases from 2015 to 2016. We identified an increase in the incidence of central nervous system anomalies, with the highest peak observed in 2016 followed by a subsequent decrease. Musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular system anomalies, and eye, ear, face, and neck anomalies represented 73.9% of all recorded anomalies. There was an increased chance of congenital anomalies in uneducated (odds ratio [OR] 5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.61-11.84) and Indigenous (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.69) women, as well as among premature births (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.39-3.13). CONCLUSIONS: We estimated the incidence of congenital anomalies during the Zika epidemic. Our findings could help to support future research and intervention strategies in health facilities to better identify and assist children born with congenital anomalies.


Subject(s)
Microcephaly , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology
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