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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
2.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 128(6): 1548-1558, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574082

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), endothelin-1 and angiotensin II are responsible for extracellular matrix accumulation within the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of adding Gum Arabic (GA) and insulin on serum glucose, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II in rats with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into; normal, normal plus GA, diabetic rats (DM), DM plus insulin, DM plus GA, and DM plus insulin plus GA groups. Levels of glucose and creatinine in serum, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 in renal homogenate and HbA1c were measured. RESULTS: Serum creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 were increased in diabetic rats. GA decreased serum glucose, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. GA and insulin decreased serum glucose, creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of GA with insulin to rats with diabetic nephropathy improved the glycemic state, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II.


Subject(s)
Acacia , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies , Insulins , Male , Rats , Animals , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Creatinine , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Endothelin-1 , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Senegal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney , Glucose/pharmacology , Insulins/pharmacology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 895-901, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405264

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This research was to examine the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of prepuce samples, as well as vimentin and S100 protein localization and statistical analysis. Urologists have long struggled with the prepuce, which is used to treat a variety of urethral problems. Skin biopsies were collected from the prepuce at the moment of circumcision and processed for light microscopy, electron microscope examination, immunohistochemical techniques, and statistical analysis in a total of six boys. Histologically, the prepuce epidermis displayed focal spiky ridges, which are saw-toothed interspersed with sulci, slight hyperpigmentation, looser connective tissue and plentiful vascular components. Immunohistochemically, the existence of melanocytes and Langerhans cells in the epidermis, as well as smooth muscles in the dermis, was stained positively for vimentin. Also, there was a positive reactivity of the Langerhans cells in the epidermis and around Meissner's corpuscles in the dermis for S100 protein staining. Ultrastructurally, the prepuce's intercellular gaps were widened, melanocytes rested on a folded basement membrane, and desmosomal content was reduced, with a prominent active euchromatic nucleus. Cytoplasmic projections were distended and elongated, and the interstitial blood vessels were surrounded by endothelial cells and rested on a basement membrane. There were also minimal collagen fibers in the interstitium. The prepuce's histological and ultrastructural features, as well as immunohistological studies using vimentin and S100 protein as intermediate filaments and statistical analysis, all demonstrated that it is a useful scientific resource.


RESUMEN: El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó para examinar las características histológicas y ultraestructurales de las muestras de prepucio, así como la localización y el análisis estadístico de la vimentina y la proteína S100. Los urólogos han intentado trabajar durante mucho tiempo con el prepucio, que se usa para tratar una variedad de problemas uretrales. Se recolectaron biopsias de piel del prepucio de seis niños en el momento de la circuncisión y se procesaron para microscopía óptica, examen con microscopio electrónico, técnicas inmunohistoquímicas y análisis estadístico. Histológicamente, la epidermis del prepucio mostraba crestas puntiagudas focales, intercaladas con surcos, hiperpigmentación leve, tejido conectivo más laxo y abundantes componentes vasculares. Inmunohistoquímicamente, la existencia de melanocitos y células dendríticas epidérmicas (células de Langerhans), así como músculo liso en la dermis, se tiñeron positivamente para vimentina. Además, hubo una reactividad positiva de las células dendríticas epidérmicas en la epidermis y alrededor de los corpúsculos del tacto (de Meissner) en la dermis para la tinción de la proteína S100. Ultraestructuralmente, los espacios intercelulares del prepucio se ensancharon, los melanocitos descansaban sobre una membrana basal plegada y el contenido desmosómico se redujo, con un núcleo eucromático activo prominente. Las proyecciones citoplasmáticas estaban distendidas y alargadas, y los vasos sanguíneos intersticiales estaban rodeados por células endoteliales y descansaban sobre una membrana basal. También había fibras de colágeno mínimas en el intersticio. Las características histológicas y ultraestructurales del prepucio, así como los estudios inmunohistológicos utilizando vimentina y proteína S100 como filamentos intermedios y el análisis estadístico, demostraron que es un recurso científico útil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Foreskin/anatomy & histology , Vimentin , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , S100 Proteins , Foreskin/metabolism , Foreskin/ultrastructure
4.
Platelets ; 32(4): 469-478, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379559

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the antiplatelet effect of the plant carotenoid, astaxanthin (ASTX) in rats fed either control or high cholesterol plus cholic acid diet (HCCD) and possible underlying mechanisms. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/each), namely, control (fed normal diet), control + ASTX (10 mg/kg/day), HCCD-fed rats, and HCCD + ASTX-treated rats. Diets and treatments were orally administered daily for 30 days. In both control and HCCD-fed rats, ASTX significantly increased fecal levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, reduced platelet count, prolonged bleeding time, and inhibited platelet aggregation. It also reduced platelet levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Bcl-2; thromboxane B2 (TXB2) release; and the expression of P2Y12, P-selectin, and CD36 receptors. Moreover, the activity NF-κB p65 and Akt was inhibited. Concomitantly, it increased the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP) as well as intracellular levels of cAMP. However, in HCCD-fed rats, the effects of ASTX were associated with reduced serum levels of ox-LDL-c and fasting plasma glucose levels. In conclusion, antiplatelet effects of ASTX involve ROS scavenging, inhibiting NF-κB activity, down-regulating P2Y12 expression, and increasing intracellular levels of cAMP that are attributed to its antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and anti-inflammatory effects.


Subject(s)
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12/metabolism , Animals , Down-Regulation , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Xanthophylls/pharmacology , Xanthophylls/therapeutic use
5.
J Food Biochem ; : e13407, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725659

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Astaxanthin (ASTX) on levels and activities of the clotting factors in control rats. Untreated or ASTX-treated rats (10 mg/kg, dissolved in DMSO) were used in this study. ASTX treatment was conducted for 10 days daily. ASTX significantly decreased the platelet count and prolonged values of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (PT and aPTT, respectively). Besides, it significantly reduced serum levels of vitamin K and the plasma activities and hepatic expression of vitamin K-dependent factors (FII, FVII, FIX, and FX) without altering the activities or levels of all other clotting factors nor plasma levels of fibrinogen or von Willebrand Factor. These effects were associated with a reduction in serum and fecal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and lower serum levels of LDL-c. In conclusion, ASTX exerts an in vivo hypocoagulant effects mediated by the inhibition of vitamin K-dependent factors. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings presented here are the first that show the ability of Astaxanthin (ASTX) to inhibit coagulation in rats by suppressing the circulatory levels of Vitamin K and decrease the synthesis and release of all Vitamin-K dependent factor (FII, FVII, FIX, and FX). Since some synthetic anti-coagulants had side effects, these findings may illustrate ASTX as a natural anti-coagulant with fewer side effects that require further investigation in more clinical trials. Besides, awareness should be established for those individuals with some bleeding disorders who are being treated with ASTX for other beneficial effects.

6.
J Physiol Biochem ; 76(3): 393-406, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488539

ABSTRACT

The increase in osteopontin (OPN) levels after stroke induces neural protection by activating Akt signaling and inhibiting GS3Kß, iNOS, and NF-κB. This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet rich in corn oil (CO-HFD) on infarct size and memory function in rats after induction of cerebral ischemia in rats and investigated its effect on the expression of OPN/Akt/iNOS/NF-κB signaling pathways. Rats were initially fed a standard diet (STD, 3.82 kcal/g; 9.4%, from fat) or a CO-HFD (5.4 kcal/g, 40% from fat) for 12 weeks. Then, both groups were further subdivided into either sham group or group exposed to cerebral ischemia by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) protocol. Compared with sham-operated rats fed STD diet, neurological scores and both short- and long-term memory functions were significantly impaired in sham-operated CO-HFD-fed rats. In addition, brains collected from CO-HFD-fed rats showed lower protein levels of OPN, p-Akt (Thr308), p-GS3Kß (Ser9), and Bcl-2 and had higher protein levels of iNOS, cleaved caspase-3, nuclear NF-κB p65, and cytoplasmic cytochrome C. However, once exposed to MCAO surgery, similar but more profound alterations of all these biochemical parameters with more severe impairment in short- and long-term memory functions and larger infarct size were noticed in the brains of CO-HFD-fed rats as compared with STD-fed rats exposed to MCAO. In conclusion, chronic consumption of CO-HFD induces memory impairments and worsens memory function recovery and infarct size after cerebral ischemia in rats by reducing levels of OPN, inhibiting the activation of Akt and activating iNOS and NF-κB.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/pathology , Corn Oil/adverse effects , Diet, High-Fat , Memory Disorders/pathology , Signal Transduction , Animals , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Male , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Osteopontin/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function
7.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(6): 1092-1102, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072679

ABSTRACT

This study investigated if EX-527 has an anti-tumour effect in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines and if this effect involves the SIRT1/NF-κB axis. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of EX-527, a selective SIRT-1 inhibitor. Exendin-4 significantly induced cell death in both cell lines and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Also, it decreased protein levels of Bcl-2, MMP-9, and ICAM-1 and increased those of Bax, cyclin D1 and cleaved caspase-3. Mechanistically, Exendin-4 increased the activity and nuclear accumulation of SIRT1 and decreased nuclear levels of NF-κB p65; acetylated levels of NF-κB p65, and cytoplasmic levels of p-IKKα and p-IκBα. EX-527 partially ameliorated the effect of Exendin-4 on cell death, migration, and invasion, as well as on the expression of Bcl-2, MMP-9, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and ICAM-1. In addition, EX-527 did not affect the levels of nuclear p65 and p-p65 (Ser536); p-IκBα (Ser32) and p-IKKαß. In conclusion, Exendin-4 can suppress OC by inhibiting NF-kB through SIRT1 dependent and independent mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Exenatide/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Acetylation , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Enzyme Activation , Female , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Ovarian Neoplasms/enzymology , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction
8.
Neurol Res ; 41(7): 594-608, 2019 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973085

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence has suggested that cadmium (Cd) ions-induced neurotoxicity is associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate if rutin hydrate (RH), a well-reported neuroprotective and an antioxidant flavonoid, can ameliorate cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting the resultant ER stress. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 16/group) of control, control + RH (100 mg/kg), CdCl2 (5 mg/kg), and CdCl2 + RH. All treatments were administered orally for 30 days, on daily basis. Brain homogenates from CdCl2-treated rats showed increased oxidative stress and induced activation of ER stress characterized by increasing mRNA and protein levels of GRP78, ATF-6, CHOP and Xbp-1 and protein levels of p-elF2α, p-JNK1/2 and cleaved caspase-12. Also, CdCl2 significantly reduced Bcl-2, enhanced Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane, increased cytoplasmic levels of cytochrome-C and caspase-3, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) (increased Vmax and reduced time to Vmax). In contrast, RH significantly enhanced levels GSH and activities of SOD, GSH-Px, decreased levels of MDA and inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) in the brains of both control and CdCl2-treated rats. Interestingly, in brain homogenates of CdCl2-treated rats only, RH reduced all markers of ER stress, increased Bcl-2, reduced mitochondrial Bax translocation and improved mitochondrial coupling. It also reduced cytosolic levels of cytochrome-C, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-12. Overall, these findings support the efficiency of RH to inhibit ER stress in brains CdCl2-treated rats which is added to its existing mechanisms of neuroprotection. Abbreviations: ATF-6: activating transcription factor-6; Bax: Bcl-associated x; BBB: blood-brain barrier; Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2; BiP: immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein; [Ca2+]i: intracellular free Ca2+ concentration; Cd: cadmium; CdCl2: cadmium chloride; CHOP: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein; CMC: carboxymethyl cellulose; Δψm: mitochondrial membrane potential; elF2α: phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated protein degradation; ERK1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2; GADD 153: growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 153; GRP78, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; GSSG: glutathione disulfide (oxidized glutathione); IRE-1: inositol-requiring enzyme-1; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MDA: malondialdehyde; mTOR: Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin; mtPTP: mitochondrial permeability transition pore; ONOO-: peroxynitrite; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PERK: protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase; p-JNK: phospho-JNK; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RCR: respiratory control ratio; RH: rutin hydrate; RHoGDI: Rho-GDP-dissociation inhibitor; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD: superoxide dismutase; UPR: unfolded protein response; VDAC: voltage-dependent anion channel; Vmax: maximal rate of pore opening; Xbp-1: X-box binding protein 1.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/physiology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Rutin/pharmacology , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Cadmium Chloride/antagonists & inhibitors , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Male , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
9.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 46(6): 545-555, 2019 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773673

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance (IR). Resveratrol (RES) a potent hypolipidemic dietary polyphenol has been identified for its ability to prevent hepatic steatosis and hepatic IR in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed murine models of NAFLD. In the present study, we have carried an in vivo animal experiment to identify a novel mechanism for RES protective action. Sub-chronic (45 days) RES pretreatment in 3 days HFD-fed adult Wistar rats prevented early hepatic IR through inhibiting PKC/JNK activation; decreasing p-IRS (Ser307 ) and increasing p-IRS(Tyr612 ), p-Akt(Ser473 ) and p-GSK3(Ser9 ). These effects of RES were associated with reduced expression of acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT-1) and diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase (DGAT2), two critical enzymes in the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway for de novo triglycerides synthesis. These data indicate that RES protects against NAFLD, initially, by inhibiting the early development of hepatic IR.


Subject(s)
Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase/metabolism , Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Liver/drug effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Protein Transport/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/drug effects
10.
Nutr J ; 11: 111, 2012 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23241359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. METHODS: A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. RESULTS: Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. CONCLUSIONS: GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Body Composition/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Obesity/drug therapy , Weight Loss/drug effects , Young Adult
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