Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
Add more filters










Database
Language
Publication year range
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 452-459, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a human pathogenic arenavirus, is distributed worldwide. However, no human cases have been reported in Africa. This study aimed to investigate the current situation and potential risks of LCMV infection in Gabon, Central Africa. METHODS: A total of 492 human samples were screened to detect LCMV genome RNA and anti-LCMV IgG antibodies using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ELISA-positive samples were further examined using a neutralization assay. Viral RNAs and antibodies were also analyzed in 326 animal samples, including rodents, shrews, and bushmeat. RESULTS: While no LCMV RNA was detected in human samples, the overall seroprevalence was 21.5% and was significantly higher in male and adult populations. The neutralization assay identified seven samples with neutralizing activity. LCMV RNA was detected in one species of rodent (Lophuromys sikapusi) and a porcupine, and anti-LCMV IgG antibodies were detected in four rodents and three shrews. CONCLUSIONS: This study determined for the first time the seroprevalence of LCMV in Gabon, and revealed that local rodents, shrews, and porcupines in areas surrounding semi-urban cities posed an infection risk. Hence, LCMV infection should be considered a significant public health concern in Africa.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hookworms cause substantial morbidity in children and women of reproductive age. The control strategy of mass drug administration is suboptimal, hence the need for a vaccine. Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1) and N americanus glutathione S-transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) are involved in the digestion and detoxification of haemoglobin in the hookworm digestive tract. In animal models, vaccination against these antigens resulted in protection from challenge infection. Both vaccine candidates were shown to be safe and well tolerated when administered separately to healthy adults. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of co-administered Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 (M74) vaccines in healthy Gabonese adults. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, double-blind, phase 1, dose-escalation trial was done at the Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, in a region of Gabon where N americanus and other helminths are prevalent. Healthy adults aged 18-50 years and living in Lambaréné or the surrounding areas were recruited to the study. Participants were enrolled consecutively into two dose cohorts (30 µg or 100 µg of the experimental vaccines) and randomly assigned in blocks (block size four) to receive three doses of either co-administered Na-GST-1 plus Na-APR-1 (M74; 30 µg or 100 µg of each), adjuvanted with Alhydrogel (aluminium hydroxide gel suspension) together with an aqueous formulation of glucopyranosyl lipid A, or hepatitis B vaccine plus saline (control group). Vaccines were administered intramuscularly on days 0, 28, and 180. The primary endpoint was safety, with immunogenicity a secondary endpoint. The intention-to-treat population was used for safety analyses, whereas for immunogenicity analyses, the per-protocol population was used (participants who received all scheduled vaccinations). Control vaccine recipients for both dose cohorts were combined for the analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02126462. FINDINGS: Between Oct 27, 2014, and Jan 31, 2015, 56 individuals were screened for eligibility, of whom 32 were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the three study groups (12 each in the 30 µg and 100 µg experimental vaccine groups and eight in the control group). Both study vaccines were well tolerated in both dose groups. The most common adverse events were mild-to-moderate injection-site pain, headache, myalgia, and nausea. No severe or serious adverse events related to the vaccines were recorded. 52 unsolicited vaccine-related adverse events occurred during the study, but there was no difference in frequency between vaccine groups. IgG antibodies were induced to each of the vaccine antigens, with mean IgG levels increasing after each vaccination. Vaccination with 100 µg of each vaccine antigen consistently induced IgG seroconversion (IgG levels above the reactivity threshold). Peak IgG responses were observed 2 weeks after the third vaccine dose for both antigens, with all participants who received the 100 µg doses seroconverting at that timepoint. IgG levels steadily declined until the final study visit 6 months after the third vaccination, although they remained significantly higher than baseline in the 100 µg dose group. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination with recombinant Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 (M74) in healthy adults living in N americanus-endemic areas of Gabon was safe and induced IgG to each antigen. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report results of Na-APR-1 (M74) co-administered with Alhydrogel in participants from an N americanus-endemic area. Further clinical development of these vaccines should involve efficacy studies. FUNDING: European Union Seventh Framework Programme.

4.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(11): 1234-1242, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564517

ABSTRACT

Although a high seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been estimated in Central Africa, the current status of both HAV infections and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies remains unclear due to a paucity of surveillance data available. We conducted a serological survey during 2015-2017 in Gabon, Central Africa, and confirmed a high seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in all age groups. To identify the currently circulating HAV strains and to reveal the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of the virus, we conducted molecular surveillance in a total of 1007 patients presenting febrile illness. Through HAV detection and sequencing, we identified subgenotype IIA (HAV-IIA) infections in the country throughout the year. A significant prevalence trend emerged in the young child population, presenting several infection peaks which appeared to be unrelated to dry or rainy seasons. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed local HAV-IIA evolutionary events in Central Africa, indicating the circulation of HAV-IIA strains of a region-specific lineage. Recombination analysis of complete genome sequences revealed potential recombination events in Gabonese HAV strains. Interestingly, Gabonese HAV-IIA possibly acquired the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the rare subgenotype HAV-IIB in recent years, suggesting the present existence of HAV-IIB in Central Africa. These findings indicate a currently stable HAV-IIA circulation in Gabon, with a high risk of infections in children aged under 5 years. Our findings will enhance the understanding of the current status of HAV infections in Central Africa and provide new insight into the molecular epidemiology and evolution of HAV genotype II.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 91: 129-136, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Dengue outbreaks, mainly caused by dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2), occurred in 2007 and in 2010 in Gabon, Central Africa. However, information on DENV infections has been insufficient since 2010. The aim of this study was to investigate the current DENV infection scenario and the risk of repeated infections in Gabon. METHODS: During 2015-2017, serum samples were collected from enrolled febrile participants and were tested for DENV infection using RT-qPCR. DENV-positive samples were analyzed for a history of previous DENV infection(s) using ELISA. The complete DENV genome was sequenced to analyze the phylogeny of Gabonese DENV strains. RESULTS: DENV-3 was exclusively detected, with a high rate of anti-DENV IgG seropositivity among DENV-3-positive participants. DENV-3 showed higher infection rates in adults and the infection was seasonal with peaks in the rainy seasons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gabonese DENV-3 originated from West African strains and has been circulating continuously in Gabon since at least 2010, when the first DENV-3 case was reported. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate stable DENV-3 circulation and the risk of repeated DENV infections in Gabon, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring to control DENV infections.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serogroup , Young Adult
6.
J Med Virol ; 92(2): 251-256, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538666

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be a major public health issue worldwide, although there is currently a safe vaccine and effective antiviral treatments. In surveillance of infectious diseases in Gabon, HBV viremia was detected in patients with febrile. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted to characterize the HBV strains currently circulating in Gabon and to investigate HBV genome diversity during viremia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of former subgenotype A5, which exhibits a particular pattern of distribution from several West and Central African countries to Haiti. Furthermore, sequencing analysis identified two similar HBV strains mixed in one sample, and a very rare 1-base pair insertion in the viral precore region. This insertion caused a frameshift mutation, indicating the production of an aberrant fusion protein of the HBV x and e antigens. Our data showed that the detected HBV strain was possibly in an "evolving" state during viremia, a phase of active replication.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006832, 2018 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human oncoretrovirus that infects at least 5 to 10 million people worldwide and is associated with severe diseases. Africa appears as the largest HTLV-1 endemic area. However, the risk factors for the acquisition of HTLV-1 remain poorly understood in Central Africa. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological survey between 2013 and 2017, in rural areas of 6 provinces of Gabon, in a rainforest environment. Epidemiological data were obtained and blood samples were collected after informed consent. Plasma were screened for HTLV-1 antibodies by ELISA and the positive samples were then tested by Western blot (WB). Genomic DNA derived from buffy-coat was subjected to two semi-nested PCRs amplifying either HTLV-1 env gene or LTR region fragments. RESULTS: We recruited 2,060 individuals over 15 years old, including 1,205 men and 855 women (mean age: 49 years). Of these, 299 were found to be ELISA HTLV-1/2 seropositive. According to WB criteria, 136 were HTLV-1 (6.6%), 25 HTLV-1/2 (1.2%) and 9 HTLV seroreactive (0.4%). PCR results showed that 146 individuals were positive for at least one PCR: 104 for the env gene and 131 for the LTR region. Based on both serological and molecular results, 179 individuals were considered infected with HTLV-1, leading to an overall prevalence of 8.7%. The distribution of HTLV-1 infection was heterogeneous across the country. Based on multivariable analyses, female gender, increasing age, ethnicity (Pygmy) and multiple hospitalizations (more than 5 times) were found to be independent risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. Furthermore, a non-human primate bite appeared to be marginally associated with a higher risk of HTLV-1 infection. CONCLUSION: Based on state-of-the-art serological and molecular methods, we have demonstrated that rural adult populations in Gabon are highly endemic for HTLV-1. Our results regarding risk factors should lead to public health actions aiming to reduce HTLV-1 transmission.


Subject(s)
Endemic Diseases , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blotting, Western , DNA, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...