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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , Incidence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242703, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Resumo As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados ​​no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados ​​na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothpastes , Fluorides , Pakistan , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Porcupines , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Animals, Wild
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669800

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524374

ABSTRACT

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Subject(s)
Porcupines , Agriculture , Animals , Animals, Wild , Crops, Agricultural , Humans , Pakistan
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320048

ABSTRACT

Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Subject(s)
Fluorides , Toothpastes , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Female , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pakistan , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
9.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(4): 675-679, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have observed an increasing number of patients referred to the Scottish Photobiology Service (SPS), who were later diagnosed with actinic folliculitis (AF) and had positive phototesting results. Treatment options for AF are limited, with only a few reports in the literature. The use of prophylactic narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy for AF has not previously been described, and we report on this for the first time. AIM: To analyse the clinical characteristics, phototesting results and responses to treatment for patients with AF diagnosed by the SPS. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective review over 10 years of all case notes of patients who were assessed and diagnosed with AF through the SPS, based at the Photobiology Unit, Dundee, UK. RESULTS: All 10 patients were women. Mean age of onset was 25 years and mean time to referral for investigation was 7 years. The commonest site involved was the face, with the main clinical feature being monomorphic pustules appearing after sunlight exposure. The eruption could be provoked with iterative doses of broadband UVA irradiation in five patients. All patients were offered photoprotective advice and prophylactic NB-UVB phototherapy. Five patients proceeded with phototherapy; four of these completed the desensitization course and all four reported either a delay in symptom onset or total prevention of rash induction, with complete efficacy of desensitization maintained for 3 years in one patient. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the successful use of UVA provocation testing as a diagnostic tool in AF. Additionally, we recommend the use of prophylactic NB-UVB phototherapy in AF as an effective and well-tolerated approach.


Subject(s)
Folliculitis/radiotherapy , Photosensitivity Disorders/radiotherapy , Ultraviolet Therapy/methods , Adult , Female , Folliculitis/diagnosis , Humans , Photosensitivity Disorders/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 27(4): 1274-1284, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on septal perfusion and thickening at 6 months post implantation assessed on Tc99m-MIBI Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS).We also studied the association of change in septal perfusion and thickening with primary outcome defined as at least one [improvement in ≥1NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by ≥ 5%, reduction of end-systolic volume (ESV) by ≥ 15%, and improvement ≥ 5 points in Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire (MLHFQ)]. METHOD: One hundred and five patients underwent clinical and GMPS evaluation before and at 6 months post CRT. RESULT: Post CRT there was significant improvement in mean normalized septal perfusion uptake and in septal thickening (P value = 0.001, both). There was no significant relation between improvement in septal perfusion and primary outcome. However, improvement in septal thickening was statistically significant with favorable primary outcome (P = 0.001).There was no significant correlation between improvement of septal perfusion and improvement in LVEF, reduction in End diastolic volume (EDV), ESV, and Left ventricular Dyssynchrony (LVD). But, there was significant correlation between improvement of septal thickening and these parameters. CONCLUSION: Improvement in septal thickening was associated with reverse remodeling, improvement in LVEF, and reduction of LVD.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Heart Septum/pathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Prospective Studies , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Young Adult
12.
Virus Genes ; 55(4): 479-489, 2019 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976951

ABSTRACT

Virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) have been present in Mexico since 1946, and recently, multiple outbreaks have been reported in the country. Here, we characterized eleven NDV isolated from apparently healthy wild birds and backyard chickens in three different locations of Jalisco, Mexico in 2017. Total RNA from NDV was reverse-transcribed, and 1285 nucleotides, which includes 3/4 of the fusion gene, was amplified and sequenced using a long-read MinION sequencing method. The sequences were 99.99-100% identical to the corresponding region obtained using the Illumina MiSeq. Phylogenetic analysis using MinION sequences demonstrated that nine virulent NDV from wild birds belonged to sub-genotypes Vc and VIn, and two backyard chicken isolates were of sub-genotype Vc. The sub-genotype Vc viruses had nucleotide sequence identity that ranged from 97.7 to 98% to a virus of the same sub-genotype isolated from a chicken in Mexico in 2010. Three viruses from pigeons had 96.3-98.7% nucleotide identity to sub-genotype VIn pigeon viruses, commonly referred to as pigeon paramyxovirus, isolated in the USA during 2000-2016. This study demonstrates that viruses of sub-genotype Vc are still present in Mexico, and the detection of this sub-genotype in both chickens and wild birds suggests that transmission among these species may represent a biosecurity risk. This is the first detection and complete genome sequencing of genotype VI NDV from Mexico. In addition, the utilization of an optimized long-read sequencing method for rapid virulence and genotype identification using the Oxford nanopore MinION system is demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Birds/virology , Chickens/virology , Newcastle disease virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Columbidae/virology , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Mexico , Newcastle disease virus/classification , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Whole Genome Sequencing
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(6): 325, 2018 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728864

ABSTRACT

The health of a marine ecosystem can effectively be monitored by studying the levels of biomarkers in a representative species. A change in background level of a biomarker indicates exposure to a specific type of pollutants. It also identifies bioavailability and the organism response to the causative agent among the compounds present in the surrounding water body. Yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus), a local variety of fish, was examined for parent PAHs in the liver, its metabolites in bile by the GC-MS method as exposure biomarkers and cytochrome P4501A1 by assay of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) in the liver as an effect biomarker. A comparison was made between fish collected in 2015 with the fish collected in 2005-2006 and stored at - 80 °C in the fish bank. The objective was to examine the extent of changes in the environmental quality of the Kuwait marine area and the status of fish health concerning oil-related pollutants since Arabian Gulf is surrounded by oil-producing countries. Interestingly, insignificant differences between the liver PAH content and EROD activity were observed in fish over the sampling periods. The fish efficiently metabolized PAHs and excreted hydroxy-metabolites in bile. The study suggested that environmental quality of the Kuwait marine area was not deteriorated to any serious extent in the last decade and biomarkers can be used effectively in assessing the thrust of sub-optimal levels of various contaminants present in the marine area on the resident biota.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fishes/physiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Animals , Bile/chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Kuwait , Liver/metabolism , Perciformes/metabolism , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/toxicity , Sea Bream/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
14.
Eur Spine J ; 27(5): 994, 2018 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480408

ABSTRACT

Unfortunately, the legend of Fig. 5 was incorrectly published in original publication. The corrected legend is given below.

16.
Eur Spine J ; 27(5): 987-993, 2018 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936611

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the established technique for evaluating the spine. Unfortunately, the supine position of the patient during conventional MRI scanning does not truly reflect the physiological forces experienced by the discoligamentous structures during normal upright posture and ambulation. Upright MRI is a relatively new technique that allows the patient to be scanned in several different weight-bearing positions, which may potentially demonstrate occult pathology not visualised in the supine position. The imaging technique and current clinical indications of upright spinal MRI would be discussed.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Posture/physiology , Humans , Standing Position , Weight-Bearing
17.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 28(3): 376-83, 2016 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is characterized by dilatation of the bowel lumen and abnormal motility. In this study, we aimed to quantify small bowel dysmotility in CIPO using a validated pan-intestinal motility assessment technique based on motion capture magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to normal controls. In addition, we explored if motility responses of CIPO patients to neostigmine challenge differed from healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age 28, range 22-48) and 11 CIPO patients (mean age 47, range 19-90) underwent MRI enterography to capture global small bowel motility. Eleven controls and seven CIPO patients further underwent a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study of either intravenous neostigmine (0.5 mg) or saline with motility MRI repeated at a mean of 3 weeks. Motility was quantified in regions of interest placed to encompass the whole small bowel volume using a validated, postprocessing technique to give a global motility index in arbitrary units (AU). Baseline and stimulated motility was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum paired T-tests. KEY RESULTS: Baseline global small bowel motility was significantly lower in CIPO patients compared to controls (mean 0.25 AU vs 0.35 AU, p < 0.001). Motility in both groups increased significantly after neostigmine (0.06 AU increase, p = 0.016 in CIPO and 0.06 AU increase, p = 0.002 in controls). Three patients with scleroderma had a reduced response to neostigmine. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Global small bowel motility in CIPO patients is significantly lower than controls and response to the pro-kinetic agent neostigmine may differ according to disease phenotype. Software-quantified bowel motility using cine MRI has potential as a future tool to investigate enteric dysmotility.


Subject(s)
Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Neostigmine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chronic Disease , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Neuroscience ; 316: 41-52, 2016 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26705739

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have indicated that sodium salicylate (SS) can cause hearing abnormalities through affecting the central auditory system. In order to understand central effects of the drug, we examined how a single intraperitoneal injection of the drug changed the level of subunits of the type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB receptor) in the rat's inferior colliculus (IC). Immunohistochemical and western blotting experiments were conducted three hours following a drug injection, as previous studies indicated that a tinnitus-like behavior could be reliably induced in rats within this time period. Results revealed that both subunits of the receptor, GABABR1 and GABABR2, reduced their level over the entire area of the IC. Such a reduction was observed in both cell body and neuropil regions. In contrast, no changes were observed in other brain structures such as the cerebellum. Thus, a coincidence existed between a structure-specific reduction in the level of GABAB receptor subunits in the IC and the presence of a tinnitus-like behavior. This coincidence likely suggests that a reduction in the level of GABAB receptor subunits was involved in the generation of a tinnitus-like behavior and/or used by the nervous system to restore normal hearing following application of SS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Inferior Colliculi/drug effects , Receptors, GABA-B/metabolism , Sodium Salicylate/pharmacology , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tubulin/metabolism
19.
Clin Genet ; 89(2): 235-43, 2016 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26032340

ABSTRACT

Basic knowledge of genetics is essential for understanding genetic testing and counseling. The lack of a written, English language, validated, published measure has limited our ability to evaluate genetic knowledge of patients and families. Here, we begin the psychometric analysis of a true/false genetic knowledge measure. The 18-item measure was completed by parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) (n = 465) and adolescents and young adults with CHD (age: 15-25, n = 196) with a mean total correct score of 12.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.5, range: 0-18]. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis, we determined that one to three correlated factors, or abilities, were captured by our measure. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we determined that the two factor model was the best fit. Although it was necessary to remove two items, the remaining items exhibited adequate psychometric properties in a multidimensional item response theory analysis. Scores for each factor were computed, and a sum-score conversion table was derived. We conclude that this genetic knowledge measure discriminates best at low knowledge levels and is therefore well suited to determine a minimum adequate amount of genetic knowledge. However, further reliability testing and validation in diverse research and clinical settings is needed.


Subject(s)
Genetics , Knowledge , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Calibration , Demography , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 100(2): 673-80, 2015 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26409815

ABSTRACT

The aquatic biota of the Arabian Gulf deals with exposure to chronic oil pollution, several constituents of which cause induction of Cytochrome P450 1A that serves as a biomarker of AhR ligand exposure. In this study, fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity were determined as a measure of exposure biomarkers in two fish species, yellow fin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) captured from Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay area. FACs in fish bile determined by using fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF) showed high fluorescence ratios between FF290/335 and FF380/430 indicating predominant exposure to low molecular weight, naphthalene-rich petroleum products (375±91.0 pg ml(-1)). Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene-type high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from burnt fuel were also present in appreciable concentration in the bile. The ratio of petrogenic to pyrogenic hydrocarbon was twofold higher in winter compared to summer months in both species. Seasonal effect on EROD was significant in tonguesole in Auha site (P<0.05); whereas seabream resisted seasonal change. Tonguesole is considered to be a suitable bioindicator of oil pollution in Kuwait Bay area.


Subject(s)
Ecotoxicology/methods , Flatfishes/metabolism , Petroleum/adverse effects , Sea Bream/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects , Animals , Bile/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Fluorescence , Kuwait , Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/adverse effects , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry , Seasons
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