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1.
Sao paulo; APH; abr. 2020. 46 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: biblio-1088074

ABSTRACT

A infecção humana causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), diagnosticada como pneumonia de causa desconhecida originalmente na cidade de Wuhan (China), foi considerada como pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Sua transmissibilidade parece ser bastante elevada, tendo afetado quase dois milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e provocado mais de 130 mil mortes. Surgiu no Brasil em fevereiro de 2020, inicialmente na cidade de São Paulo. Afeta de forma mais grave os idosos e portadores de algumas comorbidades (tais como doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, câncer, DPOC e doenças cerebrovasculares, entre outras), tendo uma sintomatologia variável e tratamentos empíricos que estão sendo testados de forma mais rigorosa desde o seu aparecimento. Na ausência de vacina para proteção dos sadios, tem sido adotada a estratégia de isolamento social e tratamento com medidas de suporte geral e/ou avançado. Neste contexto, cabe investigar a contribuição da terapêutica homeopática no enfrentamento da doença, notadamente no alívio dos sintomas desconfortáveis por ela provocados em sua fase inicial, com acompanhamento e registro dos resultados obtidos pelos médicos homeopatas. Este estudo nacional pretende coletar, durante o período em que durar a pandemia da COVID-19 no Brasil, informações de pacientes diagnosticados com a doença, tratados com medicamentos homeopáticos escolhidos de acordo com a sintomatologia apresentada pelo paciente, por experientes médicos homeopatas. Todos os medicamentos homeopáticos estão descritos na Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, não envolvendo qualquer medicamento que não tenha sido anteriormente aprovado para uso homeopático. Serão avaliados os efeitos no estado de saúde do paciente, por meio de escores e escalas clínicas, bem como aspectos relacionados à segurança do medicamento, variação na duração da doença e medicamentos mais associados a eventuais sucessos terapêuticos. Questionário padronizado e específico para a COVID-19 foi elaborado e disponibilizado em formulários google para preenchimento dos médicos colaboradores do estudo durante o acompanhamento dos pacientes. Os dados serão armazenados em planilhas eletrônicas e serão analisados com técnicas estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Todos os dados dos pacientes serão coletados de forma totalmente anonimizada para proteger a privacidade dos pacientes, que serão identificados no formulário eletrônico, única e exclusivamente, por um código alfanumérico, escolhido pelo seu médico homeopata e registrado no seu prontuário médico. Dada a situação pandêmica, nos casos em que não for possível o atendimento presencial será enviado uma folha de informações sobre o estudo e TCLE para preenchimento pelo paciente, bem como feitas as teleconsultas de seguimento para acompanhamento do caso. Além de gerar o desenvolvimento de novas aplicações da telemedicina na área homeopática, o projeto visa também a coleta de informações úteis que poderão ser utilizadas em futuros estudos multicêntricos randomizados e controlados para tratamento com medicamentos homeopáticos de quadros epidêmicos, podendo servir também de modelo para novos estudos clínicos de avaliação dos benefícios do tratamento homeopático em outras doenças ou agravos à saúde. (AU)


Infection in humans caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19), diagnosed as pneumonia of unknown cause originally in the city of Wuhan (China) in December 2019, was considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Its transmissibility seems to be quite high, affecting almost two million people worldwide and causing more than 130 thousand deaths. It appeared in Brazil in February 2020, initially in the city of São Paulo. It affects more severely the elderly and people with some comorbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cerebrovascular disease, among others), with a rich clinical symptomatology. Empirical treatments are being tested in more rigorous clinical trials. In the absence of a vaccine to protect the healthy, the strategy of social isolation and treatment with general and / or advanced support measures has been adopted. In this context, it is worth investigating the potential contribution of homeopathy for relieving the distressing symptoms caused by coronavirus in its initial phase, together with monitoring and recording outcomes collected by homeopathic doctors. This national study intends to collect information from suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 patients, during the current pandemic in Brazil. The patients will be attended by experienced homeopathic doctors with the prescription of remedies according to the symptoms presented by the patient in the pandemic. All homeopathic medicines are described in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. The effects on patients' health status will be evaluated by means of scores and clinical scales, together with measures on safety, duration of the disease and medicines better related with good results. A standardized and specific questionnaire for COVID-19 had been designed and will be available on google forms to be filled out by doctors during the study. The data will be stored in electronic spreadsheets and will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. All patient data will be collected in a completely anonymous way to protect patients' privacy. Patients will be identified exclusively by an alphanumeric code, to be registered in doctors' medical records. Given the pandemic situation, in cases in which face-to-face health care is not obligatory, an information sheet about the study will be sent to the patient in order to get the informed consent. Teleconsultations will take place in some cases for follow-up of patients. In addition to enlarge telemedicine applications for homeopathy, this project also aims to collect useful information that could be used in future randomized and controlled multicenter trials to evaluate the role of homeopathy in epidemic or transmissible diseases. It could also be helpful for designing clinical studies using homeopathic medicines in other diseases or health problems. (AU)


La infección en humanos causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), diagnosticada como neumonía de causa desconocida originalmente en la ciudad de Wuhan (China) en diciembre de 2019, fue considerada una pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Su transmisibilidad parece ser bastante alta, afectando a casi dos millones de personas en todo el mundo y causando más de 130 mil muertes. Apareció en Brasil en febrero de 2020, inicialmente en la ciudad de São Paulo. Afecta más severamente a los ancianos y personas con algunas comorbilidades (como enfermedades cardiovasculares, presión arterial alta, diabetes, malignidad, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y enfermedad cerebrovascular, entre otros), con una rica sintomatología clínica. Los tratamientos empíricos se están probando en ensayos clínicos más rigurosos. En ausencia de una vacuna para proteger a los sanos, se ha adoptado la estrategia de aislamiento social y tratamiento con medidas de apoyo generales y / o avanzadas. En este contexto, se puede investigar la contribución potencial de la homeopatía para aliviar los síntomas causados por el coronavirus en su fase inicial, junto con el monitoreo y registro de los resultados recopilados por los médicos homeópatas. Este estudio nacional tiene la intención de recopilar información de casos sospechosos o confirmados de pacientes con COVID-19, durante la pandemia actual en Brasil. Los pacientes serán atendidos por médicos homeópatas experimentados con la prescripción de remedios de acuerdo con los síntomas presentados por el paciente en la pandemia. Todos los medicamentos homeopáticos se describen en la Farmacopea Homeopática Brasileña. Los efectos sobre el estado de salud de los pacientes se evaluarán mediante puntajes de síntomas y escalas clínicas, junto con medidas de seguridad, duración de la enfermedad y revelación de medicamentos más asociados con buenas respuestas clínicas. Se diseñó un cuestionario estandarizado y específico para COVID-19, que estará disponible en los formularios de Google para que los médicos lo completen durante el estudio. Los datos se almacenarán en hojas de cálculo electrónicas y se analizarán mediante técnicas estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Todos los datos del paciente se recopilarán de forma completamente anónima para proteger la privacidad de los pacientes. Los pacientes serán identificados exclusivamente por un código alfanumérico, que se registrará en los registros médicos de los médicos. Dada la situación de pandemia, en los casos en que la atención médica presencial no es obligatoria, se enviará una hoja de información sobre el estudio al paciente para obtener el consentimiento informado. Se realizarán teleconsultas en algunos casos para el seguimiento de los pacientes. Además de ampliar las aplicaciones de telemedicina para la homeopatía, este protocolo también tiene como objetivo recopilar información útil que podría utilizarse en futuros ensayos multicéntricos controlados y aleatorizados para evaluar el papel de la homeopatía en enfermedades epidémicas o transmisibles. También podría ser útil para diseñar estudios clínicos con medicamentos homeopáticos en otras enfermedades o problemas de salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Data Collection , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Coronaviridae Infections/therapy , SARS Virus , Homeopathy , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology
2.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 82(3/4): 18-23, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: biblio-1049886

ABSTRACT

A formação de recursos humanos de elevada qualificação na área homeopática deve ser encarada como uma das prioridades para uma sólida e definitiva consolidação da homeopatia em território brasileiro. A questão da estruturação da homeopatia no Brasil, por sua vez não pode ser convenientemente entendida sem uma análise dos sistemas formadores e captadores de recursos humanos homeopáticos. Ou seja, a análise deve recair tanto sobre o ensino homeopático de graduação e pós-graduação quanto sobre as condições do mercado de trabalho para o médico homeopata.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Education, Medical, Graduate , Homeopathy/education , Brazil , Homeopathy/trends
3.
Homeopathy ; 106(4): 194-202, 2017 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The comprehensive systematic review of randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in homeopathy requires examination of a study's model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT) as well as its risk of bias (extent of reliable evidence). OBJECTIVE: To appraise MVHT in those RCTs of non-individualised homeopathy that an associated investigation had judged as 'not at high risk of bias'. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: An assessment of MVHT was ascribed to each of 26 eligible RCTs. Another 49 RCTs were ineligible due to their high risk of bias. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MVHT and the prior risk of bias rating per trial were merged to obtain a single overall quality designation ('high', 'moderate', 'low'), based on the GRADE principle of downgrading. RESULTS: The trials were rated as 'acceptable MVHT' (N = 9), 'uncertain MVHT' (N = 10) and 'inadequate MVHT' (N = 7); and, previously, as 'reliable evidence' (N = 3) and 'non-reliable evidence' (N = 23). The 26 trials were designated overall as: 'high quality' (N = 1); 'moderate quality' (N = 18); 'low quality' (N = 7). CONCLUSION: Of the 26 RCTs of non-individualised homeopathy that were judged 'not at high risk of bias', nine have been rated 'acceptable MVHT'. One of those nine studies was designated 'high quality' overall ('acceptable MVHT' and 'reliable evidence'), and is thus currently the only reported RCT that represents best therapeutic practice as well as unbiased evidence in non-individualised homeopathy. As well as minimising risk of bias, new RCTs in this area must aim to maximise MVHT and clarity of reporting.


Subject(s)
Ethics, Research , Homeopathy/standards , Research Design/standards , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 80(1/2,supl): 109-122, 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-973265

ABSTRACT

Os ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos buscam descobrir sintomas específicos e característicos que se manifestam em indivíduos aparentemente sadios, expostos a medicamentos homeopáticos, para que possam ser utilizados na comparação com os sintomas dos pacientes. Ao definir as diretrizes metodológicas para sua realização, Hahnemann deixou claro que deveriam ser o produto de estudos rigorosos para evitar qualquer conjectura em seus resultados. Com o avanço nos métodos científicos, também têm sido propostas novas diretrizes para sua realização, que são incorporadas aos estudos atuais. Autores brasileiros têm oferecido valiosas contribuições científicas para o desenvolvimento dos ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos, com realização de estudos originais ou inovações na área metodológica. A validade e a confiabilidade das informações produzidas a partir de ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos são fundamentais para o êxito da prática clínica em homeopatia.


Homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPTs) are designed to identify specificand characteristic symptoms in apparently health individuals, afterhaving been exposed to homeopathic medicines, so that the lattermight be indicated following comparison to the patient’s symptoms.The original methodological guidelines for HPTs were defined byHahnemann, who advocated rigorous methods likely to lead to conclusionsfree from any conjecture. With the advances in scientific methods,new guidelines were also proposed to improve the methodologicalquality of HPTs. Relevant scientific contributions were made byBrazilian researchers to develop this field, resulting in the publicationof original studies or innovations on its methods. The validity and reliabilityof the clinical information acquired from HPTs are fundamentalfor the success of homeopathic clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Pathogenetic Symptoms , Materia Medica , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Experiment of Substances
5.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 80(3/4): 142-150, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973277

ABSTRACT

Critical appraisal of the safety of homeopathic medicines developed recently. This matter is relevant for decision making by doctors, patients and drug regulatory agencies. Despite the apparent implausibility of the action of homeopathic medicines due to the pharmacotechnical processes of dilution and agitation used for their preparation, there are reports in the conventional medical literature on the toxicity of homeopathic medicines, including apparently life-threatening events. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials show that homeopathic medicines cause more adverse effects than placebo, albeit mild and transient. Establishing an online monitoring system for collection of data on the adverse effects of homeopathic, herbal or conventional medicines is relevant for non-biased assessment of the information gathered from consumers and health care providers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Aggravation in Homeopathy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Patient Safety
6.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 80(3/4): 151-171, 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973278

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPT) are designed to identify specific and characteristic symptoms in apparently health individuals exposed to homeopathic medicines, so that the latter might be indicated following comparison to the patient’s symptoms. The original methodological guidelines for HPTs were established by Hahnemann, who advocated rigorous methods likely to lead to conclusions free from any conjecture. With the advances in scientific methods, new guidelines were formulated to improve the methodological quality of HPT. Relevant scientific contributions were made by Brazilian researchers in this field, resulting in original studies or innovations in methods. The validity and reliability of the clinical information acquired from HPT are fundamental for the success of homeopathic clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Pathogenetic Symptoms , Materia Medica , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Experiment of Substances
7.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 80(1/2): 174-182, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-11977

ABSTRACT

A apreciação crítica sobre a segurança do medicamento homeopático tem sido desenvolvida recentemente, sendo muito importante para a tomada de decisões por parte de médicos, pacientes e agências reguladoras de medicamentos. Apesar da aparente implausibilidade arguida sobre a possibilidade dos medicamentos homeopáticos serem ativos, em função dos procedimentos farmacotécnicos de diluição e agitação a que são submetidos, observa-se na literatura médica relatos de casos atribuindo efeitos tóxicos aos mesmos, até com sérios riscos à vida. Revisões sistemáticas sobre os efeitos adversos de medicamentos homeopáticos indicam que os medicamentos homeopáticos produzem mais efeitos adversos do que o placebo em estudos randomizados controlados, embora os mesmos sejam leves e transitórios. A implantação de um sistema eficiente online de monitoramento de efeitos adversos dos medicamentos – homeopáticos, convencionais ou fitoterápicos – pode ser de grande importância, facilitando a coleta de dados e a avaliação imparcial das informações geradas por consumidores ou profissionais da saúde. (AU)


Critical appraisal of the safety of homeopathic medicines developed recently. This is an important matter for decision making by doctors, patients and medicines regulatory authorities. Despite the apparent implausibility of the action of homeopathic medicines due to the pharmacotechnical processes of dilution and agitation involved in their preparation, there are reports in the conventional medical literature on the toxicity of homeopathic medicines, including apparently life-threatening events. Systematic reviews on adverse effects of homeopathy show that homeopathic medicines provoke more adverse effects than placebo in randomized controlled trials, albeit mild and transient. It would be very important to establish an online monitoring system for collection of data on the adverse effects of homeopathic, herbal or conventional medicines to attain an impartial evaluation of the information gathered from consumers or health professionals. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Aggravation in Homeopathy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Patient Safety
8.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 80(1/2): 183-206, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-11978

ABSTRACT

Os ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos buscam descobrir sintomas específicos e característicos que se manifestam em indivíduos aparentemente sadios, expostos a medicamentos homeopáticos, para que possam ser utilizados na comparação com os sintomas dos pacientes. Ao definir as diretrizes metodológicas para sua realização, Hahnemann deixou claro que deveriam ser o produto de estudos rigorosos para evitar qualquer conjectura em seus resultados. Com o avanço nos métodos científicos, também têm sido propostas novas diretrizes para sua realização, que são incorporadas aos estudos atuais. Autores brasileiros têm oferecido valiosas contribuições científicas para o desenvolvimento dos ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos, com realização de estudos originais ou inovações na área metodológica. A validade e a confiabilidade das informações produzidas a partir de ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos são fundamentais para o êxito da prática clínica em homeopatia. (AU)


Homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPTs) are designed to identify specific and characteristic symptoms in apparently health individuals, after having been exposed to homeopathic medicines, so that the latter might be indicated following comparison to the patient’s symptoms. The original methodological guidelines for HPTs were defined by Hahnemann, who advocated rigorous methods likely to lead to conclusions free from any conjecture. With the advances in scientific methods, new guidelines were also proposed to improve the methodological quality of HPTs. Relevant scientific contributions were made by Brazilian researchers to develop this field, resulting in the publication of original studies or innovations on its methods. The validity and reliability of the clinical information acquired from HPTs are fundamental for the success of homeopathic clinical practice. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Pathogenetic Symptoms , Materia Medica , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Experiment of Substances
9.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 80(3/4): 142-150, 2017. tab
Article in English | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-12041

ABSTRACT

Critical appraisal of the safety of homeopathic medicines developed recently. Thismatter is relevant for decision making by doctors, patients and drug regulatoryagencies. Despite the apparent implausibility of the action of homeopathic medicinesdue to the pharmacotechnical processes of dilution and agitation used for theirpreparation, there are reports in the conventional medical literature on the toxicity ofhomeopathic medicines, including apparently life-threatening events. Systematicreviews of randomized controlled trials show that homeopathic medicines cause moreadverse effects than placebo, albeit mild and transient. Establishing an onlinemonitoring system for collection of data on the adverse effects of homeopathic, herbalor conventional medicines is relevant for non-biased assessment of the informationgathered from consumers and health care providers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Aggravation in Homeopathy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Patient Safety
10.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 80(3/4): 151-171, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-12042

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPT) are designed to identify specific andcharacteristic symptoms in apparently health individuals exposed to homeopathicmedicines, so that the latter might be indicated following comparison to the patient’ssymptoms. The original methodological guidelines for HPTs were established byHahnemann, who advocated rigorous methods likely to lead to conclusions free fromany conjecture. With the advances in scientific methods, new guidelines wereformulated to improve the methodological quality of HPT. Relevant scientificcontributions were made by Brazilian researchers in this field, resulting in originalstudies or innovations in methods. The validity and reliability of the clinicalinformation acquired from HPT are fundamental for the success of homeopathicclinical practice. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Pathogenetic Symptoms , Materia Medica , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Experiment of Substances
11.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 80(1/2,supl): 103-108, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-12053

ABSTRACT

A apreciação crítica sobre a segurança do medicamento homeopático tem sido desenvolvida recentemente, sendo muito importante para a tomada de decisões por parte de médicos, pacientes e agências reguladoras de medicamentos. Apesar da aparente implausibilidade arguida sobre a possibilidade dos medicamentos homeopáticos serem ativos, em função dos procedimentos farmacotécnicos de diluição e agitação a que são submetidos, observa-se na literatura médica relatos de casos atribuindo efeitos tóxicos aos mesmos, até com sérios riscos à vida. Revisões sistemáticas sobre os efeitos adversos de medicamentos homeopáticos indicam que os medicamentos homeopáticos produzem mais efeitos adversos do que o placebo em estudos randomizados controlados, embora os mesmos sejam leves e transitórios. A implantação de um sistema eficiente online de monitoramento de efeitos adversos dos medicamentos – homeopáticos, convencionais ou fitoterápicos – pode ser de grande importância, facilitando a coleta de dados e a avaliação imparcial das informações geradas por consumidores ou profissionais da saúde. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Aggravation in Homeopathy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Patient Safety
12.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 80(1/2,supl): 109-122, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-12054

ABSTRACT

Os ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos buscam descobrir sintomas específicos e característicos que se manifestam em indivíduos aparentemente sadios, expostos a medicamentos homeopáticos, para que possam ser utilizados na comparação com os sintomas dos pacientes. Ao definir as diretrizes metodológicas para sua realização, Hahnemann deixou claro que deveriam ser o produto de estudos rigorosos para evitar qualquer conjectura em seus resultados. Com o avanço nos métodos científicos, também têm sido propostas novas diretrizes para sua realização, que são incorporadas aos estudos atuais. Autores brasileiros têm oferecido valiosas contribuições científicas para o desenvolvimento dos ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos, com realização de estudos originais ou inovações na área metodológica. A validade e a confiabilidade das informações produzidas a partir de ensaios patogenéticos homeopáticos são fundamentais para o êxito da prática clínica em homeopatia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeopathy , Pathogenetic Symptoms , Materia Medica , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Experiment of Substances
13.
Complement Ther Med ; 25: 120-5, 2016 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27062959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, our programme of systematic reviews has assessed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of individualised homeopathy separately for risk of bias (RoB) and for model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present paper was to bring together our published RoB and MVHT findings and, using an approach based on GRADE methods, to merge the quality appraisals of these same RCTs, examining the impact on meta-analysis results. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: As previously, 31 papers (reporting a total of 32 RCTs) were eligible for systematic review and were the subject of study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each trial, the separate ratings for RoB and MVHT were merged to obtain a single overall quality designation ('high', 'moderate, "low", 'very low'), based on the GRADE principle of 'downgrading'. RESULTS: Merging the assessment of MVHT and RoB identified three trials of 'high quality', eight of 'moderate quality', 18 of 'low quality' and three of 'very low quality'. There was no association between a trial's MVHT and its RoB or its direction of treatment effect (P>0.05). The three 'high quality' trials were those already labelled 'reliable evidence' based on RoB, and so no change was found in meta-analysis based on best-quality evidence: a small, statistically significant, effect favouring homeopathy. CONCLUSION: Accommodating MVHT in overall quality designation of RCTs has not modified our pre-existing conclusion that the medicines prescribed in individualised homeopathy may have small, specific, treatment effects.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Placebos , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Bias , Homeopathy/methods , Homeopathy/standards , Homeopathy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Risk
14.
Homeopathy ; 104(3): 164-9, 2015 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26143448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though potentially an important limitation in the literature of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of homeopathy, the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT) has not previously been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVE: As an integral part of a programme of systematic reviews, to assess MVHT of eligible RCTs of individualised homeopathic treatment. METHODS: From 46 previously identified papers in the category, 31 papers (reporting a total of 32 RCTs) were eligible for systematic review and were thus the subject of the study. For each of six domains of assessment per trial, MVHT was judged independently by three randomly allocated assessors from our group, who reached a final verdict by consensus discussion as necessary. RESULTS: Nineteen trials were judged overall as 'acceptable' MVHT, nine as 'uncertain' MVHT, and four as 'inadequate' MVHT. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support concern that deficient MVHT has frequently undermined the published findings of RCTs of individualised homeopathy. However, the 13 trials with 'uncertain' or 'inadequate' MVHT will be a focus of attention in supplementary meta-analysis. New RCTs of individualised homeopathy must aim to maximise MVHT and to enable its assessment through clear reporting.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy/methods , Models, Theoretical , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Consensus , Humans , Placebos/standards , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Review Literature as Topic
15.
Homeopatia Méx ; 84(694): 12-19, ene.-feb. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762163

ABSTRACT

Ciertamente, un medicamento debe ser administrado en un cuerpo sano sin ninguna sustancia extraña; cuando el olor y el sabor hayan sido examinados debe tomarse una pequeña dosis y llevar un registro de cada uno de los cambios que se pudieran presentar, tanto en el pulso, la temperatura, la respiración y las secreciones.Una vez analizados los síntomas encontrados en una persona se puede entonces proceder a probarse en el cuerpo de una persona enferma.


Certainly, a drug must be administered in a healthy body without any foreign substance; when the smell and taste have been examined must take a small dose and keep a record of each of the changes that may arise, both the pulse, temperature, breathing and secreciones.Una after analyzing the symptoms found in a person can then proceed to try on in the body of a sick person.


Subject(s)
Experiment of Substances/methods , Homeopathy , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Human Experimentation , Materia Medica, Pure
16.
Homeopatia Méx ; 84(694): 12-19, ene.-feb. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-11092

ABSTRACT

Ciertamente, un medicamento debe ser administrado en un cuerpo sano sin ninguna sustancia extraña; cuando el olor y el sabor hayan sido examinados debe tomarse una pequeña dosis y llevar un registro de cada uno de los cambios que se pudieran presentar, tanto en el pulso, la temperatura, la respiración y las secreciones.Una vez analizados los síntomas encontrados en una persona se puede entonces proceder a probarse en el cuerpo de una persona enferma. (AU)


Certainly, a drug must be administered in a healthy body without any foreign substance; when the smell and taste have been examined must take a small dose and keep a record of each of the changes that may arise, both the pulse, temperature, breathing and secreciones.Una after analyzing the symptoms found in a person can then proceed to try on in the body of a sick person. (AU)


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Experiment of Substances/methods , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Human Experimentation , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Materia Medica, Pure , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods
17.
Homeopatia Méx ; 82(687): 22-30, nov.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733389

ABSTRACT

La filosofía de la medicina homeopática está plasmada en la obra que nos legóSamuel Hahneman. De allí se deriva, intrínsecamente, la ética con la que debeactuar un médico al instante de interrogar y auscultar a cada uno de sus pacientes. Sin embargo, y aunque puede pensarse que la ética guarda gran concordancia con la moral (y así es), en este trabajo se establece que el especialista médico debe conocer a profundidad las áreas semiológicas, diagnósticas, terapéuticas y educacionales para brindar una ayuda integral a las personas que depositan suconfianza en él. Los aspectos legales son el gran marco de referencia al que deben ajustarse los especialistas médicos, quienes tienen una gran responsabilidad con la sociedad en las áreas civil, penal y administrativa. Es tal el compromiso del médico con sus pacientes que no puede permitirse actuar con negligencia, ni practicar suprofesión sin estar debidamente actualizado.


The philosophy of homeopathic medicine is embodied in the work bequeathed to us by Samuel Hahnemann . Thence derives intrinsically (bassiclly) ethics with which a physician must act immediately to question and listening to each of their patients.However, although it may be thought that ethics keeps close agreement with the moral (and it is) , this paper establishes that the medical specialist must learn in depth the semiotic , diagnostic , therapeutic and educational areas to provide comprehensive assistance to people who put their trust in him.The legal aspects are the large frame of reference to which must satisfymedical specialists , who have a great responsibility to society in civil , criminal and administrative areas. Such is the commitment of the doctor with patients who can not afford negligent act or practice their profession without being properly updated.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Continuing , Ethics, Medical , Homeopathy
18.
Homeopatia Méx ; 82(687): 22-30, nov.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: hom-10980

ABSTRACT

La filosofía de la medicina homeopática está plasmada en la obra que nos legóSamuel Hahneman. De allí se deriva, intrínsecamente, la ética con la que debeactuar un médico al instante de interrogar y auscultar a cada uno de sus pacientes. Sin embargo, y aunque puede pensarse que la ética guarda gran concordancia con la moral (y así es), en este trabajo se establece que el especialista médico debe conocer a profundidad las áreas semiológicas, diagnósticas, terapéuticas y educacionales para brindar una ayuda integral a las personas que depositan suconfianza en él. Los aspectos legales son el gran marco de referencia al que deben ajustarse los especialistas médicos, quienes tienen una gran responsabilidad con la sociedad en las áreas civil, penal y administrativa. Es tal el compromiso del médico con sus pacientes que no puede permitirse actuar con negligencia, ni practicar suprofesión sin estar debidamente actualizado.(AU)


The philosophy of homeopathic medicine is embodied in the work bequeathed to us by Samuel Hahnemann . Thence derives intrinsically (bassiclly) ethics with which a physician must act immediately to question and listening to each of their patients.However, although it may be thought that ethics keeps close agreement with the moral (and it is) , this paper establishes that the medical specialist must learn in depth the semiotic , diagnostic , therapeutic and educational areas to provide comprehensive assistance to people who put their trust in him.The legal aspects are the large frame of reference to which must satisfymedical specialists , who have a great responsibility to society in civil , criminal and administrative areas. Such is the commitment of the doctor with patients who can not afford negligent act or practice their profession without being properly updated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Continuing , Ethics, Medical , Homeopathy
19.
Molecules ; 17(11): 12974-83, 2012 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23117436

ABSTRACT

Radiopharmaceuticals are employed in patient diagnostics and disease treatments. Concerning the diagnosis aspect, technetium-99m (99mTc) is utilized to label radiopharmaceuticals for single photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) due to its physical and chemical characteristics. 99mTc fixation on pharmaceuticals depends on a reducing agent, stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) being the most widely-utilized. The genotoxic, clastogenic and anegenic properties of the 99mTc-MDP(methylene diphosphonate used for bone SPECT) and SnCl(2) were evaluated in Wistar rat blood cells using the Comet assay and micronucleus test. The experimental approach was to endovenously administer NaCl 0.9% (negative control), cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg b.w. (positive control), SnCl(2) 500 μg/mL or 99mTc-MDP to animals and blood samples taken immediately before the injection, 3, and 24 h after (in the Comet assay) and 36 h after, for micronucleus test. The data showed that both SnCl(2) and 99mTc-MDP-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in rat total blood cells, suggesting genotoxic potential. The 99mTc-MDP was not able to induce a significant DNA strand breaks increase in in vivo assays. Taken together, the data presented here points to the formation of a complex between SnCl(2) in the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MDP, responsible for the decrease in cell damage, compared to both isolated chemical agents. These findings are important for the practice of nuclear medicine.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , Radiopharmaceuticals/toxicity , Technetium Tc 99m Medronate/toxicity , Tin Compounds/toxicity , Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Male , Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective/chemically induced , Micronucleus Tests , Rats , Rats, Wistar
20.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 12: 49, 2012 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22510227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A method for assessing the model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy is needed. To date, only conventional standards for assessing intrinsic bias (internal validity) of trials have been invoked, with little recognition of the special characteristics of homeopathy. We aimed to identify relevant judgmental domains to use in assessing the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). We define MVHT as the extent to which a homeopathic intervention and the main measure of its outcome, as implemented in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reflect 'state-of-the-art' homeopathic practice. METHODS: Using an iterative process, an international group of experts developed a set of six judgmental domains, with associated descriptive criteria. The domains address: (I) the rationale for the choice of the particular homeopathic intervention; (II) the homeopathic principles reflected in the intervention; (III) the extent of homeopathic practitioner input; (IV) the nature of the main outcome measure; (V) the capability of the main outcome measure to detect change; (VI) the length of follow-up to the endpoint of the study. Six papers reporting RCTs of homeopathy of varying design were randomly selected from the literature. A standard form was used to record each assessor's independent response per domain, using the optional verdicts 'Yes', 'Unclear', 'No'. Concordance among the eight verdicts per domain, across all six papers, was evaluated using the kappa (κ) statistic. RESULTS: The six judgmental domains enabled MVHT to be assessed with 'fair' to 'almost perfect' concordance in each case. For the six RCTs examined, the method allowed MVHT to be classified overall as 'acceptable' in three, 'unclear' in two, and 'inadequate' in one. CONCLUSION: Future systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy should adopt the MVHT method as part of a complete appraisal of trial validity.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Reproducibility of Results , Humans
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