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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011558, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cholangiohydatidosis (CH) is an evolutionary complication of hepatic cystic echinococcosis, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the available evidence regarding clinical characteristics of CH, postoperative complications and hospital mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Systematic review. Studies related to CH with no language or publication restriction were included. Sensitive searches were performed in Trip Database, SciELO, BIREME-BVS, WoS, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS. MeSH and free terms were used, including articles up to April 2023. The main outcome variables were postoperative complications and hospital mortality; the secondary ones were publication year, origin and design of primary studies, main clinical manifestation, anatomical location and type of cysts, hospital stay, surgical procedure performed, reinterventions; and methodological quality of primary studies, which was assessed using MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales. Descriptive statistics, calculation of weighted averages and their comparison by least squares logistic regression were applied. 446 studies were retrieved from the searches performed, 102 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies analyzed represent 1241 patients. The highest proportion of articles was published in the last decade (39.2%). Reports are mainly from Turkey (28.4%), Greece (9.8%), Morocco and Spain (8.8% each). With a weighted mean of 14.3 days of hospital stance; it was verified that 26.2% of patients developed postoperative complications (74,3% Clavien y Dindo III y IV), 6.7% needed re-interventions, and 3.7% died. When comparing the variables age, postoperative complications, hospital mortality, and reinterventions in two periods of time (1982-2006 vs. 2007-2023), no statistically significant differences were found. When applying the MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales, the methodological quality of the primary studies was 9.6±1.1 and 14.5±4.3 points, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CH is associated with severe postoperative complications and significant hospital mortality, independent of the development of therapeutic support associated with the passage of time.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Postoperative Complications , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Morbidity
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1240-1253, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514343

ABSTRACT

La expansión y consolidación de la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia ha llevado entre otras, a la necesidad de realizar una variedad cada vez mayor de tipos de revisión de la literatura científica; lo que permite avanzar en el conocimiento y comprender la amplitud de la investigación sobre un tema de interés, teniendo en cuenta que una de las propiedades del conocimiento es su carácter acumulativo. Sin embargo, la diversidad de la terminología utilizada genera confusión de términos y conceptos. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar un listado de los tipos de revisiones de la literatura más frecuentemente utilizados con sus características y algunos ejemplos de ellas. Revisión cualitativa. Se examinaron de forma dirigida las bases de datos PubMed, WoS y Scopus, en búsqueda de términos asociados a tipos de revisiones y síntesis de la literatura científica. Se encontraron 21 tipos de revisión; y 29 variantes y sinonimias asociadas; las que ilustran los procesos de cada una de ellas. Se da una descripción general de las características de cada cual, junto con las fortalezas y debilidades percibidas. No obstante, se verificó que sólo algunos tipos de revisión poseen metodologías propias y explícitas. Este enfoque, proporciona un punto de referencia para quienes realizan o interpretan revisiones en el ámbito sanitario, y sugiere dos tipos de propuestas de clasificación.


SUMMARY: The expansion and consolidation of evidence-based clinical practice has led, among other things, to the need to carry out an increasing variety of types of literature reviews, which allows advancing in knowledge and understanding the breadth of research on a topic of interest. However, the diversity of the terminology used generates confusion of terms and concepts. The aim of this manuscript was to provide a list of the most frequently used review types with their characteristics and some examples. Qualitative review. PubMed, WoS and Scopus databases were examined in a directed way, searching for terms associated with types of reviews and syntheses of the scientific literature. Twenty-one types of review, and 29 variants and associated synonymies were found; those that illustrate the processes of each of them. An overview of the characteristics of each is given, along with perceived strengths and weaknesses. However, it was verified that only some types of review have their own explicit methodologies. This approach, provides a point of reference for those who perform or interpret reviews in the health field and suggests two classification proposals.


Subject(s)
Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
J Clin Med ; 12(10)2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37240496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is reported that patients with obesity are more frequently hospitalized for COVID-19, and evidence exists that obesity is a risk factor, regardless of other comorbidities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of obesity with changes in laboratory biomarkers in hospitalized Chilean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 202 hospitalized patients (71 with obesity and 131 without obesity) with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory (days 1, 3, 7, 15) data were obtained. We performed a statistical analysis, assuming significance with a value of p < 0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences in chronic respiratory pathology are observed between patients with and without obesity. The inflammatory markers CPR, ferritin, NLR, and PLR are elevated during the evaluated period, while changes in leukocyte populations are present on day 1 (eosinophils) and day 3 (lymphocytes). Finally, a persistent elevation of D-dimer level is observed, presenting significant differences on day 7 between patients with and without obesity. Obesity had a positive correlation with admission to the critical patient unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity hospitalized for COVID-19 present marked elevations of inflammatory and hemostasis parameters, with a correlation between obesity, changes in laboratory biomarkers, and the risk of adverse clinical outcomes also observed.

4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(12)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947009

ABSTRACT

Neofusicoccum parvum belongs to the Botryosphaeriaceae family, which contains endophytes and pathogens of woody plants. In this study, we isolated 11 strains from diseased tissue of Liquidambar styraciflua. Testing with Koch's postulates-followed by a molecular approach-revealed that N. parvum was the most pathogenic strain. We established an in vitro pathosystem (L. styraciflua foliar tissue-N. parvum) in order to characterize the infection process during the first 16 days. New CysRPs were identified for both organisms using public transcriptomic and genomic databases, while mRNA expression of CysRPs was analyzed by RT-qPCR. The results showed that N. parvum caused disease symptoms after 24 h that intensified over time. Through in silico analysis, 5 CysRPs were identified for each organism, revealing that all of the proteins are potentially secreted and novel, including two of N. parvum proteins containing the CFEM domain. Interestingly, the levels of the CysRPs mRNAs change during the interaction. This study reports N. parvum as a pathogen of L. styraciflua for the first time and highlights the potential involvement of CysRPs in both organisms during this interaction.

5.
Rev Gastroenterol Peru ; 37(2): 187-189, 2017.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732003

ABSTRACT

We report a rare case of diffuse type of gastric cancer with signet ring cells in 10 years old boy who was admitted with a 12 months history with weight loss, dysphagia to solids first and to liquids later, anorexia, fatigue, dizziness, vomiting and later, with pain in the left upper quadrant. On examination, he appeared pale, malnourished, with café-au- lait spots over the trunk and extremities. Laboratory tests showed; Hb 7.5 g, albumin 2.62 g, Thevenon positive on stools. Abdominal ultrasound examination showed periaortic masses and diffuse space occupying lesions in the liver. Endoscopic examination of the stomach showed multiple elevated tumor lesions. One located at 3 cm on the subcardial region presented irregular borders, partially eroded, that bleed easily when rubbing its surface. Multiple biopsy samples were taken. They showed a diffuse gastric signet cell type carcinoma of the stomach. Immunohistochemistry was positive to CK 8. The patient died a year later with wide spread metastasis. The boy was born through a normal delivery after a normal pregnancy to a primipara mother. His family history recorded a grandmother aunt dying of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/pathology , Child , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 37(2): 187-189, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991250

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue presentar un caso extremadamente raro de adenocarcinoma gástrico difuso con células en anillo de sello en un niño de 10 años. Se presenta un niño de 10 años, con un tiempo de enfermedad de 12 meses con sintomatología de disfagia a sólidos, luego a líquidos, pérdida de peso, anorexia, astenia, mareos, vómitos y dolor en el hipocondrio izquierdo. Presenta desnutrición crónica, marcada palidez y máculas "café con leche" en tronco y extremidades. Los exámenes de laboratorio evidenciaron 7,5 gr de hemoglobina, albúmina 2,62 gr, thevenon en heces positivo. Una ecografía abdominal mostró masas periaórticas y lesiones difusas a nivel hepático. A la endoscopía se observó lesión elevada esófago-gástrica que obstruye la luz. A nivel subcardial tumoración de 3 cm de bordes irregulares, superficie erosionada y sangrante al roce. Se realizó biopsia múltiple. Murió un año después por metástasis generalizada. Nació de parto normal, de madre primigesta, con 3 500 gr de peso. Antecedentes familiares: tía abuela materna falleció de cáncer gástrico. La biopsia mostró un adenocarcinoma difuso con presencia de células en anillo de sello, PAS positivo y a la inmunohistoquímica fue positiva a la CK 8.


We report a rare case of diffuse type of gastric cancer with signet ring cells in 10 years old boy who was admitted with a 12 months history with weight loss, dysphagia to solids first and to liquids later, anorexia, fatigue, dizziness, vomiting and later, with pain in the left upper quadrant. On examination, he appeared pale, malnourished, with café-au-lait spots over the trunk and extremities. Laboratory tests showed; Hb 7.5 g, albumin 2.62 g, Thevenon positive on stools. Abdominal ultrasound examination showed periaortic masses and diffuse space occupying lesions in the liver. Endoscopic examination of the stomach showed multiple elevated tumor lesions. One located at 3 cm on the subcardial region presented irregular borders, partially eroded, that bleed easily when rubbing its surface. Multiple biopsy samples were taken. They showed a diffuse gastric signet cell type carcinoma of the stomach. Immunohistochemistry was positive to CK 8. The patient died a year later with wide spread metastasis. The boy was born through a normal delivery after a normal pregnancy to a primipara mother. His family history recorded a grandmother aunt dying of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/pathology
7.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 17(2): 14-21, abr.-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989904

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir las condiciones y características del procedimiento de traqueotomía en una unidad de tercer nivel de atención y analizar su asociación con el desenlace registrado. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo, que incluyó a los pacientes intervenidos por el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Centro Médico Nacional del Noroeste, Sonora, durante el período de un año agosto de 2014 al 2015. Revisión de expedientes clínicos de casos, incluyéndose 52 por considerarse completos. 57% hombres; edad promedio: 56.2 años. Se empleó estadística descriptiva para caracterizar la distribución y las diferencias se evaluaron mediante prueba de ji cuadrado y T de Student. Resultados: 71% se intervino en quirófano y 29% en la UCI, siendo esta unidad quien indicó la operación en más de la mitad de los casos (51.92%). La intubación prolongada fue la primera causa de traqueotomía (51%). En 34,61% se presentaron complicaciones y fueron en orden descendente: oclusión de cánula, enfisema periestomal, hemorragia, neumotórax bilateral, decanulación y fístula traqueoinnominada. Estas se hallaron significativamente asociadas con obesidad, intubación orotraqueal prolongada y uso de anestesia general. La mortalidad se presentó en 7,69%. Conclusiones: No se encontró diferencia significativa entre las complicaciones entre los pacientes de sala quirúrgica y cama de UCI. La ventilación mecánica prolongada fue la principal indicación para traqueotomía. La decanulación fue la principal causa de complicación; asimismo el IMC es un factor de riesgo de complicaciones. La tasa de mortalidad fue elevada con 7.69% respecto a otros estudios


Objective: To describe the conditions and characteristics of the tracheostomy procedure in a tertiary health care unit and analyze its association with the recorded outcome. Materials and methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study that included patients operated in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of the Northwest National Medical Center, Sonora, from August 2014 to August 2015. Fifty-two (52) complete clinical records of consecutive series of cases were reviewed, out of which 57% were men with an average age of 56.2 years old. Descriptive statistics was used to characterize the distribution, and the differences were evaluated by chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: Seventy-one percent (71%) of the patients underwent surgery in an operating room and 29% in the ICU. In the latter, more than half of the cases had a tracheostomy (51.92%). Prolonged intubation was the main cause of 51% of the tracheostomy procedures. Complications reached 34.61% of the cases and included the following disorders in descending order: cannula occlusion, peristomal emphysema, hemorrhage, bilateral pneumothorax, decanulation and innominate fistula. These complications were significantly associated with obesity, prolonged endotracheal intubation and general anesthesia. Mortality occurred in 7.69% of the patients. Conclusions: No significant difference was found between complications occurred in an operating room and the ICU. Prolonged mechanical ventilation was the primary indication for tracheotomy. Decannulation was the main cause of complication. Moreover, BMI was a risk factor for complications. The mortality rate was 7.69%, which was more elevated compared to other studies

8.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 67(11): 883-9, 2014 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25443812

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with improved quality of life and reduced morbidity and mortality in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction and wide QRS. However, its role in the reduction of ventricular arrhythmias is more controversial. METHODS: We compared the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients who were undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in terms of the degree of echocardiographic response to resynchronization. Patients were classified in 3 subgroups;super-responders, responders, and nonresponders. RESULTS: We included 196 patients who were followed up for a median 30.1 months [interquartile range, 18.0-55.1 months]. We recorded the presence of ventricular arrhythmias in 37 patients (18.8%); 3 patients (5.9%) in the super-responder group had ventricular arrhythmias vs 14 (22.2%) among the responders and 20 (24.4%) in the group of nonresponders (P = .025). In multivariate analysis, the only independent predictors of the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias were secondary-prevention device implantation (odds ratio = 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-10.75; P=.005), absence of echocardiographic super-response (odds ratio=3.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-13.93; P=043), QRS >160 ms (odds ratio=2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35; P=.049) and treatment with amiodarone (odds ratio=2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-5.91; P=.041). CONCLUSIONS: The patients classified as super-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy had a significant reduction in incidence of ventricular arrhythmias by comparison with the other patients. Despite this, arrhythmic episodes do not completely disappear in this subgroup.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(11): 883-889, nov. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-128930

ABSTRACT

Introducción y objetivos La terapia de resincronización cardiaca se asocia a mejora de la calidad de vida y reducción de la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con disfunción ventricular grave y QRS ancho. Sobre su papel en la reducción de arritmias ventriculares, hay más discusión. Métodos Se comparó la incidencia de arritmias ventriculares en pacientes portadores de desfibrilador automático implantable con función de resincronización cardiaca, según el grado de respuesta ecocardiográfica a la resincronización. Se clasificó a los pacientes en tres subgrupos: superrespondedores, respondedores y no respondedores. Resultados Se incluyó a 196 pacientes seguidos durante una mediana de 30,1 [intervalo intercuartílico, 18,0-55,1] meses. Se documentó presencia de arritmias ventriculares en 37 pacientes (18,8%); 3 pacientes (5,9%) del grupo de superrespondedores presentaron arritmias ventriculares, en comparación con 14 (22,2%) del grupo de respondedores y 20 (24,4%) del grupo de no respondedores (p = 0,025). En el análisis multivariable, el implante del dispositivo en prevención secundaria (odds ratio = 4,04; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,52-10,75; p = 0,005), la ausencia de superrespuesta ecocardiográfica (odds ratio = 3,81; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,04-13,93; p = 0,043), un QRS > 160ms (odds ratio = 2,39; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,00-1,35; p = 0,049) y el tratamiento con amiodarona (odds ratio = 2,47; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,03-5,91; p = 0,041) fueron los únicos predictores independientes de aparición de arritmias ventriculares. Conclusiones: Los pacientes superrespondedores a la terapia de resincronización cardiaca presentan una disminución significativa en la incidencia de arritmias ventriculares respecto a los demás pacientes. Pese a ello, los episodios arrítmicos no llegan a desaparecer por completo en este subgrupo


Introduction and objectives: Cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with improved quality of life and reduced morbidity and mortality in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction and wide QRS. However, its role in the reduction of ventricular arrhythmias is more controversial. Methods: We compared the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients who were undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in terms of the degree of echocardiographic response to resynchronization. Patients were classified in 3 subgroups; superresponders, responders, and non responders. Results: We included 196 patients who were followed up for a median 30.1 months [interquartile range,18.0-55.1 months]. We recorded the presence of ventricular arrhythmias in 37 patients (18.8%);3 patients (5.9%) in the super-responder group had ventricular arrhythmias vs 14 (22.2%) among the responders and 20 (24.4%) in the group of non responders (P = .025). In multivariate analysis, the only independent predictors of the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias were secondary-prevention device implantation (odds ratio = 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-10.75; P=.005), absence of echocardiographic super-response (odds ratio=3.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-13.93; P = 043), QRS >160ms (odds ratio=2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35; P=.049) and treatment with amiodarone (odds ratio=2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-5.91; P = .041). Conclusions: The patients classified as super-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy had a significant reduction in incidence of ventricular arrhythmias by comparison with the other patients. Despite this, arrhythmic episodes do not completely disappear in this subgroup


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Pacemaker, Artificial , Electric Countershock , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Follow-Up Studies
10.
Diversitas perspectiv. psicol ; 8(2): 249-265, jun.-dic. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-669122

ABSTRACT

Los comportamientos contraproducentes (CCP) son acciones voluntarias y discrecionales que violan las normas organizacionales. Se describen los pasos seguidos para el desarrollo y validación de una escala para medirlos. A partir de la revisión bibliográfica, entrevistas focales y consultas con expertos se elaboró una escala preliminar que fue aplicada a 336 empleados argentinos. Del análisis factorial exploratorio emergió una estructura trifactorial, la que fue corroborada a través de un análisis factorial confirmatorio. La consistencia interna de los factores fue superior a .80. La validez discriminante se examinó mediante correlaciones con medidas de satisfacción, estrés laboral, percepciones de justicia, afectividad y deseabilidad social. Se discute la importancia de contar con instrumentos de medición que reflejen la cultura organizacional de las empresas latinoamericanas.


Counterproductive organizational behaviors (COB) are voluntary and discretionary actions that violate significant organizational norms. This article describes the steps followed for the development and validation of a scale to measure them. From the literature review, focus group, and expert opinion, a preliminary scale with 37 items was designed, which was applied to 336 Argentine employees. An exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor structure, which was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency of the factors was greater than .80. The discriminant validity was examined through correlations with measures of justice perceptions, affectivity, satisfaction, job stress, and social desirability. We discuss the importance to have measurement instruments that reflect the organizational culture of Latin American companies.

11.
Psicol. estud ; 16(2): 269-277, abr.-jun. 2011.
Article in Spanish | Index Psychology - journals | ID: psi-50285

ABSTRACT

La resiliencia ha sido definida como la capacidad para superar y salir fortalecido de las adversidades. Esta capacidad es evolutiva y es influenciada por factores protectivos, tanto personales como ambientales. Si bien muchos de estos factores han sido identificados, poco se sabe acerca de las complejas interacciones entre ellos y la forma que contribuyen al desarrollo de la resiliencia. Con base en la evidencia científica más reciente, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar un modelo explicativo de la resiliencia en jóvenes y adolescentes. Cada variable introducida en el modelo asienta sus bases en la evidencia teórica o empírica publicada. Por la naturaleza de las variables incluidas (optimismo, sentido del humor, emociones positivas, bienestar, inteligencia emocional), el modelo propuesto se enmarca dentro de los lineamientos de la Psicología Positiva. Se ofrecen sugerencias teóricas, metodológicas y epistemológicas para poner a prueba el modelo..(AU)


Resilience has been defined as the ability to overcome and emerge stronger from adversity. This capability is evolutionary and is influenced by protective factors, both personal and environmental. Although many of these factors have been identified, little is known about the complex interactions between them and the way that they contribute to the development of resilience. Based on the latest scientific evidence, the objective of this work was to develop an explanatory model of resilience in youth and adolescents. Each variable introduced in the model is rooted in theoretical or empirical evidence published. By the nature of the variables included (optimism, sense of humor, positive emotions, well-being, emotional intelligence), the proposed model fits within the guidelines of Positive Psychology. Theoretical, methodological, and epistemological suggestions are offered to test the model.(AU)


Tem-se definido resiliência como a capacidade de superar as adversidades e sair delas mais fortalecido. Esta capacidade é evolutiva e é influenciada por fatores de proteção tanto pessoal como ambiental. Embora muitos desses fatores tenham sido identificados, pouco se sabe sobre as complexas interações entre eles e a maneira como contribuem para o desenvolvimento da resiliência. O bjetivo destes trabalho foi desenvolver, com base nos últimos dados científicos, um modelo explicativo da resiliência em jovens e adolescentes. Cada variável introduzida no modelo está enraizada na prova teórica ou empírica publicada. Pela natureza das variáveis incluídas (otimismo, senso de humor, emoções positivas, bem-estar e inteligência emocional), o modelo proposto enquadra-se nas diretrizes da Psicologia Positiva. Sugestões teóricas, metodológicas e epistemológicas são oferecidas para testar o modelo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Resilience, Psychological
12.
Psicol. estud ; 16(2): 269-277, abr.-jun. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608165

ABSTRACT

La resiliencia ha sido definida como la capacidad para superar y salir fortalecido de las adversidades. Esta capacidad es evolutiva y es influenciada por factores protectivos, tanto personales como ambientales. Si bien muchos de estos factores han sido identificados, poco se sabe acerca de las complejas interacciones entre ellos y la forma que contribuyen al desarrollo de la resiliencia. Con base en la evidencia científica más reciente, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar un modelo explicativo de la resiliencia en jóvenes y adolescentes. Cada variable introducida en el modelo asienta sus bases en la evidencia teórica o empírica publicada. Por la naturaleza de las variables incluidas (optimismo, sentido del humor, emociones positivas, bienestar, inteligencia emocional), el modelo propuesto se enmarca dentro de los lineamientos de la Psicología Positiva. Se ofrecen sugerencias teóricas, metodológicas y epistemológicas para poner a prueba el modelo...


Resilience has been defined as the ability to overcome and emerge stronger from adversity. This capability is evolutionary and is influenced by protective factors, both personal and environmental. Although many of these factors have been identified, little is known about the complex interactions between them and the way that they contribute to the development of resilience. Based on the latest scientific evidence, the objective of this work was to develop an explanatory model of resilience in youth and adolescents. Each variable introduced in the model is rooted in theoretical or empirical evidence published. By the nature of the variables included (optimism, sense of humor, positive emotions, well-being, emotional intelligence), the proposed model fits within the guidelines of Positive Psychology. Theoretical, methodological, and epistemological suggestions are offered to test the model.


Tem-se definido resiliência como a capacidade de superar as adversidades e sair delas mais fortalecido. Esta capacidade é evolutiva e é influenciada por fatores de proteção tanto pessoal como ambiental. Embora muitos desses fatores tenham sido identificados, pouco se sabe sobre as complexas interações entre eles e a maneira como contribuem para o desenvolvimento da resiliência. O bjetivo destes trabalho foi desenvolver, com base nos últimos dados científicos, um modelo explicativo da resiliência em jovens e adolescentes. Cada variável introduzida no modelo está enraizada na prova teórica ou empírica publicada. Pela natureza das variáveis incluídas (otimismo, senso de humor, emoções positivas, bem-estar e inteligência emocional), o modelo proposto enquadra-se nas diretrizes da Psicologia Positiva. Sugestões teóricas, metodológicas e epistemológicas são oferecidas para testar o modelo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Resilience, Psychological
13.
Interam. j. psychol ; 40(1): 9-20, Jan.-Apr. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | Index Psychology - journals | ID: psi-32133

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos das percepções de justiça no comprometimento afetivo e normativo, assim como o papel moderador do individualismo em tais relações. A amostra foi composta por 203 trabalhadores argentinos, 411 brasileiros e 383 mexicanos pertencentes a empresas públicas e privadas. Foi observado que a justiça processual e a distributiva relacionaram-se positivamente com o comprometimento afetivo e normativo, embora a justiça processual tenha apresentado maior poder preditivo. O individualismo não atuou como moderador em nenhuma das relações estudadas. Um resultado inesperado foi o efeito positivo do coletivismo no comprometimento afetivo. Os dados obtidos foram interpretados à luz dos modelos de dois fatores e sistema-agente de justiça organizacional. À guisa de conclusão, são discutidas implicações para a pesquisa e a prática na área (AU)


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Organization and Administration , Organizational Culture , Latin America
14.
Interam. j. psychol ; 40(1): 9-20, Jan.-Apr. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-439108

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos das percepções de justiça no comprometimento afetivo e normativo, assim como o papel moderador do individualismo em tais relações. A amostra foi composta por 203 trabalhadores argentinos, 411 brasileiros e 383 mexicanos pertencentes a empresas públicas e privadas. Foi observado que a justiça processual e a distributiva relacionaram-se positivamente com o comprometimento afetivo e normativo, embora a justiça processual tenha apresentado maior poder preditivo. O individualismo não atuou como moderador em nenhuma das relações estudadas. Um resultado inesperado foi o efeito positivo do coletivismo no comprometimento afetivo. Os dados obtidos foram interpretados à luz dos modelos de dois fatores e sistema-agente de justiça organizacional. À guisa de conclusão, são discutidas implicações para a pesquisa e a prática na área


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Organizational Culture , Latin America
15.
Estud. Psicol. (Natal) ; 10(2): 157-166, mai.-ago. 2005. tab
Article in Portuguese | Index Psychology - journals | ID: psi-36217

ABSTRACT

O comportamento de cidadania organizacional (CCO) se refere às condutas benéficas para a organização que não são contratualmente estipuladas, nem formalmente recompensadas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi explorar o conjunto de dimensões de personalidade como preditores dos CCO de ajuda e de voz. A amostra foi constituída por 335 empregados argentinos, que preencheram uma folha de dados sociodemográficos, o questionário de Personalidade de Eysenck e as escalas de CCO de ajuda e de voz desenvolvidas por Van Dyne e seus colaboradores. Análises de regressão stepwise indicaram que a tendência a extroversão constitui o melhor preditor dos CCO de voz, enquanto que os CCO de ajuda foram melhor explicados pela estabilidade emocional. Os resultados proporcionaram apoio parcial às relações hipotetizadas entre psicoticismo e CCO de voz, uma vez que as tendências não-psicóticas se revelaram bons preditores dos CCO de voz somente entre as mulheres. Os resultados dão base para elaboração de uma agenda para futuras investigações na área (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Organizational Culture , Helping Behavior , Personality Tests
16.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 10(2): 157-166, maio-ago. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-435563

ABSTRACT

O comportamento de cidadania organizacional (CCO) se refere às condutas benéficas para a organização que não são contratualmente estipuladas, nem formalmente recompensadas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi explorar o conjunto de dimensões de personalidade como preditores dos CCO de ajuda e de voz. A amostra foi constituída por 335 empregados argentinos, que preencheram uma folha de dados sociodemográficos, o questionário de Personalidade de Eysenck e as escalas de CCO de ajuda e de voz desenvolvidas por Van Dyne e seus colaboradores. Análises de regressão stepwise indicaram que a tendência a extroversão constitui o melhor preditor dos CCO de voz, enquanto que os CCO de ajuda foram melhor explicados pela estabilidade emocional. Os resultados proporcionaram apoio parcial às relações hipotetizadas entre psicoticismo e CCO de voz, uma vez que as tendências não-psicóticas se revelaram bons preditores dos CCO de voz somente entre as mulheres. Os resultados dão base para elaboração de uma agenda para futuras investigações na área.


Citizenship Behavior (OCB) involves discretionary behavior, not required or formally rewarded, that has positive consequences for the organization. The main goal of this study was to examine the role of personality dimensions as predictors of employee's engagement in help and voice OCB. Sample was integrated by 335 Argentinean employees, which were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires including demographic items, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Help and Voice OCB scales developed by Van Dyne and his colleagues. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that extraversion was the best predictor of the voice behavior, and emotional stability was the best predictor when help behavior was the criterion. Results partially supported the hypothetical relationship between psicoticism and voice behavior, since non psychotic tendencies only emerged as predictors of voice among females. New research agenda designed to further our understanding of personality-OCB linkages is proposed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Helping Behavior , Organizational Culture , Personality Tests
17.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 15(3): 515-527, set. 2002. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | Index Psychology - journals | ID: psi-25311

ABSTRACT

O estudo comparou os mecanismos atribuicionais utilizados por alunos brasileiros, argentinos e mexicanos, ao explicarem o sucesso e fracasso escolar. A amostra compôs-se de 1.594 estudantes de bom ou mau rendimento escolar, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 20 anos e pertencentes a escolas públicas e particulares de ensino médio, que responderam a um questionário sobre as causas de seu próprio desempenho, do de seus colegas, de alunos de outro tipo de escola e de outras nacionalidades. Os três grupos nacionais adotaram prioritariamente o esforço como causa explicativa do próprio sucesso e fracasso escolar e do de outros alunos, embora tenham ocorrido diferenças entre os padrões atribuicionais, em função da nacionalidade, sexo e tipo de escola. Tais resultados são discutidos com base nos vieses atribuicionais associados à tendência auto-servidora e ao erro fundamental de atribuição e nas peculiaridades culturais que caracterizam os três países (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Psychology, Educational , Underachievement , Causality , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Argentina , Brazil , Mexico
18.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 15(3): 515-527, 2002. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-347402

ABSTRACT

O estudo comparou os mecanismos atribuicionais utilizados por alunos brasileiros, argentinos e mexicanos, ao explicarem o sucesso e fracasso escolar. A amostra compôs-se de 1594 estudantes de bom ou mau rendimento escolar, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 20 anos e pertencentes a escolas públicas e particulares de ensino médio, que responderam a um questionário sobre as causas de seu próprio desempenho, do de seus colegas, de alunos de outro tipo de escola e de outras nacionalidades. Os três grupos nacionais adotaram prioritariamente o esforço como causa explicativa do próprio sucesso e fracasso escolar e do de outros alunos, embora tenham ocorrido diferenças entre os padröes atribuicionais, em função da nacionalidade, sexo e tipo de escola. Tais resultados são discutidos com base nos vieses atribuicionais associados à tendência auto-servidora e ao erro fundamental de atribuiçäo e nas peculiaridades culturais que caracterizam os três países


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Causality , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Psychology, Educational , Underachievement , Argentina , Brazil , Mexico
19.
In. México. Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres. (CENAPRED); México. Secretaría de Gobernación; México. Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM) Instituto de Geofísica. Las cenizas volcánicas del Popocatépetl y sus efectos para la aeronavegación e infraestructura aeroportuaria. México, D.F., México. Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres. (CENAPRED);México. Secretaría de Gobernación(SEGOB);México. Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM) Instituto de Geofísica, dic. 2001. p.133-145, ilus.
Monography in Es | Desastres -Disasters- | ID: des-14131
20.
Acta psiquiátr. psicol. Am. Lat ; 46(1): 67-73, mar. 2000. tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS | ID: bin-13266

ABSTRACT

La motivación al falseamiento, a partir de las respuestas a los cuestionarios autodescriptivos de personalidad, ha constituído una preocupación constante en el ámbito de la psicología. Sobre todo, cuando los puntajes de los tests de personalidad son usados con propósitos diagnóticos, de selección, de promoción o similares. en el presente estudio, mediante la manipulación de las instrucciones, se inducen experimentalmente las respuestas del Cuestionario de Personalidad de Eysenck(Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, EPQ). Los diferentes tipos de instrucciones tienden a aumentar y/o disminuir tanto la motivación al falseamiento(MF), como el temor a ser descubierto(TD). Se opta por un diseño factorial 2x2 en el que las dimensiones de personalidad-extraversión(E), neuroticismo(N), psicoticismo(P) y escala de mentira(L)-, constituyen las variables dependientes y la MF y la TD, las independientes. La experiencia se realiza con un grupo de 142 estudiantes universitarios argentinos, de primer año de la carrera de Derecho, asignados aleatoriamente a uno de los cuatro grupos experimentales: 1) alta MF-alto TD; 2) alta MF-bajo TD; 3) baja MF-alto TD y 4) baja MF-bajo TD. Los resultados obtenidos indican, que a pesar de las diferentes instruccuiones recibidas, se mantiene la normalidad de la distribución de las escalas del EPQ en los cuatro grupos experimentales. A su vez, los grupos con alta MF aumentan los puntajes L, conduciendo a altas correlaciones negativas entre P-L. No se registran modificaciones en las correlaciones entre N-L. Se demuestra el rol del temor a ser descubierto como un freno a la motivación al falseamiento o al disimulo. Se sugiere el empleo de "instrucciones honestas"(que generan temor a ser descubierto) sólo en aquellos casos en que se presupone una alta motivación al disimulo


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Surveys and Questionnaires , Psychology, Experimental/instrumentation , Control Groups
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