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1.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The optimal treatment for underlying intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) in patients with emergent large-vessel occlusion (ELVO) remains unclear. Reocclusion during endovascular treatment (EVT) occurs frequently (57.1%-77.3%) after initial recanalization with stent retriever (SR) thrombectomy in ICAS-related ELVO. This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes of the strategy of first stenting without retrieval (FRESH) using the Solitaire FR versus SR thrombectomy in patients with ICAS-related ELVO. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and intracranial ELVO of the anterior circulation who underwent EVT between January 2017 and December 2019 at Yeungnam University Medical Center. Large-vessel occlusion (LVO) of the anterior circulation was classified by etiology as follows: 1) no significant stenosis after recanalization (embolic group) and 2) remnant stenosis > 70% or lesser degree of stenosis with a tendency toward reocclusion and/or flow impairment during EVT (ICAS group). The ICAS group was divided into the SR thrombectomy group (SR thrombectomy) and the FRESH group. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients (62 men and 43 women; median age 71 years, IQR 62.5-79 years) were included. The embolic, SR thrombectomy, and FRESH groups comprised 66 (62.9%), 26 (24.7%), and 13 (12.4%) patients, respectively. There were no significant differences between the SR thrombectomy and FRESH groups in symptom onset-to-door time, but puncture-to-recanalization time was significantly shorter in the latter group (39 vs 54 minutes, p = 0.032). There were fewer stent retrieval passes but more first-pass recanalizations in the FRESH group (p < 0.001). Favorable functional outcomes were significantly more frequent in the FRESH group (84.6% vs 42.3%, p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings suggest that FRESH, rather than rescue stenting, could be a treatment option for ICAS-related ELVO.

2.
Dysphagia ; 36(1): 73-82, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279120

ABSTRACT

Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is generally used to diagnose dysphagia and oropharyngeal aspiration during swallowing movement. Patients and bolus-feeding operators (such as occupational therapist and speech language pathologist) may undergo multiple VFSS procedure, placing them at risk for more radiation exposure due to increased scan time. The present study investigated the dose-area product, effective dose of various protocols, and summarized dose reports from various studies of VFSS. The PubMed database searched for relevant publications reporting radiation dose in the VFSS procedure. 13 articles were selected to be reviewed. This systematic review involved 13 peer-reviewed articles that reported the specific dose of the VFSS procedure. The articles were categorized into three types: operator radiation dose, adult patient radiation dose, and pediatric radiation dose. The operator dose reports showed that the operators' scattering exposure, equivalent dose (across the whole body, eyes, and hands), and annual effective dose were significantly lower than the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Both adult and pediatric patient dose reports showed that the effective dose, which was estimated from recorded dose-area product, was significantly lower than the annual background exposure of 2.4 mSv in various protocols. The present literature review suggested that the radiation dose of VFSS by modified barium swallowing is acceptable in both operators and patients. However, various radiation protection strategies should be conducted during the procedure to reduce the risk of stochastic effect.

4.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 30(7): 1527-1536, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fractures of the anteromedial facet of the coronoid in posteromedial rotatory instability of the elbow are classified into 3 subtypes based on their location. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fracture morphology of anteromedial facet fractures in their 3 subtypes (anteromedial rim, anteromedial rim + tip, and anteromedial rim + sublime tubercle [±tip]). METHODS: Three-dimensional computed tomography remodeling was used to evaluate anteromedial facet fractures in a consecutive series of 40 patients, all of whom were affected by posteromedial rotatory instability of the elbow. Characteristics of the fractures, including the number of fragments, size of fragments, plane of the fracture line, and involvement of the sublime tubercle and radial notch, were measured for each subtype of the anteromedial facet fractures. RESULTS: Each subtype had a typical fracture pattern and distinct size. The fracture subtype 1 showed a single-fragment fracture, subtype 2 showed either a single- or dual-fragment fracture, and subtype 3 showed either a dual- or triple-fragment fracture. The angle between the fracture line and the coronal plane was greatest in subtype 3 fractures. The surface area of the fragment was largest in subtype 3 fractures. The percentages of articular involvement of the sublime tubercle were 0% in subtype 1, 47% in subtype 2, and 79% in subtype 3. The percentages of articular involvement of the radial notch were 0% in subtype 1, 7% in subtype 2, and 8% in subtype 3. CONCLUSION: Analysis with quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography showed the characteristic morphology of each subtype of anteromedial facet fracture. Subtype 1 comprised 1 fragment with the smallest fragment size. Subtype 2 was a single- or dual-fragment fracture, the size of which should be considered in the treatment plan. Subtype 3 was a large fragment comprising the sublime tubercle. Our findings are significant because they highlight unique fracture morphology that may help surgeons to distinguish one fracture subtype from another in clinical practice.

5.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg ; 23(1): 1-5, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: If the size of an intracranial aneurysm is below 3 mm, clinicians rarely treat them because of the low risk of rupture. But subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of very small intracranial aneurysm (VSIA) (saccular aneurysm sized less than 3 mm) may lead to many critical neurological complications. So we analyzed the characteristics and differences between the ruptured VSIA group and the ruptured non-VSIA group. METHODS: 421 saccular aneurysms from patients with SAH between January 2016 and December 2019 were included. Patient information including age, sex, and medical history and information about the aneurysm including location, size, aspect ratio, inflow angle, and height-width ratio were collected. And we compared the VSIA group with non-VSIA group about these characteristics. RESULTS: 12.1% (51/421) of the aneurysms were included in the VSIA group, while the non-VSIA group consisted of 87.9% of the aneurysms (370/421). The female predominance was significantly higher in the VSIA group than that in the non-VSIA group (p=0.011). No significant difference was observed in location, medical history, height-width ratio between the groups. The mean value of the inflow angle in the VSIA group was much lower than that in the non-VSIA group, but no statistically significant association between rupture risk and the inflow angle was observed. The average aspect ratio was significantly lower than that in the non-VSIA group. CONCLUSIONS: Ruptured VSIA group has higher percentage of females and lower aspect ratio than ruptured non-VSIA group. Further studies regarding the characteristics of ruptured and unruptured VSIA patients is required for assistance in clinical decision related to treatment of VSIA group before the aneurysmal sac rupture.

6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that suprahyoid muscle exercise using kinesiology taping (KT) increases the activation of the suprahyoid muscle in healthy adults, suggesting a potential therapeutic clinical exercise for dysphagia rehabilitation. This study investigated the effect of dysphagia rehabilitation using KT in stroke patients with dysphagia. METHODS: Thirty subjects in South Korea were enrolled in this prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and sham groups. In the experimental group, the tape was attached to the hyolaryngeal complex, pulled downward with approximately 70% tension, and then attached to the sternum and the clavicle bilaterally. In the sham group, the tape was applied similarly but without the tension. Both groups performed voluntary swallowing 50 times (10 times swallowing per set, times 5 sets) a day for 4 weeks with KT applied. Outcome measures were assessed using portable ultrasound equipment. The parameter measured was the change in thickness of the tongue muscle, mylohyoid muscle, and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. RESULTS: The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in the thickness of the tongue muscle, mylohyoid muscle, and anterior belly of the digastric muscle than the sham group (p = 0.007, 0.002, and 0.001). CONCLUSION: Dysphagia rehabilitation using KT is a technique that may promote oropharyngeal muscle thickness in patients with dysphagia after stroke.

7.
Elife ; 92020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955434

ABSTRACT

Most therapeutic candidates for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on modulating the dopaminergic neurotransmission system with neurotrophic factors. Regulation of this system by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could contribute to the recovery of cognitive symptoms observed in patients with ADHD. Here, male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were subjected to consecutive high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) (20 min, 50 µA, current density 63.7 A/m2, charge density 76.4 kC/m2) over the prefrontal cortex. This treatment alleviated cognitive deficits, with an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter two and significantly decreased plasma membrane reuptake transporter (DAT). HD-tDCS application increased the expression of several neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activated hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results suggest that anodal HD-tDCS over the prefrontal cortex may ameliorate cognitive dysfunction via regulation of DAT and BDNF in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways, and therefore represents a potential adjuvant therapy for ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Nerve Growth Factors/metabolism , Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/chemistry , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22136, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957335

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the jaw opening exercise (JOE) on the thickness of the suprahyoid muscle and hyoid bone movement compared with the head lift exercise (HLE) in patients with dysphagia after strokeThis study recruited 30 patients with dysphagia after stroke. The JOE group performed a JOE using a resistance bar. The HLE group performed the traditional HLE. The total intervention duration was 6 weeks. We measured the thickness of the digastric and mylohyoid muscles using ultrasound. Two-dimensional motion analysis of the hyoid bone was performed using Image J software. The Borg rating of the perceived exertion scale was used to assess the intensity level of physical activity during the 2 exercises.Both groups showed a significant increase in the thickness of the digastric and mylohyoid muscles (P < .05). Hyoid bone motion was significantly increased in the anterior and superior movement in both groups (P < .05). After the intervention, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for the JOE group was significantly lower than that of the HLE group (P < .05).In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the JOE and the HLE had similar effects with respect to increasing suprahyoid muscle thickness and improving hyoid bone movement. However, the JOE required less perceived exertion than the HLE.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Stroke/complications , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hyoid Bone/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Muscles/physiology , Pilot Projects , Republic of Korea
9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932997

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality-based cognitive-motor rehabilitation (VRCMR) on the rehabilitation motivation and cognitive function in older adults. This study enrolled 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), living in the community. The subjects were randomly assigned to a VRCMR group (n = 20) or a conventional cognitive rehabilitation (CCR) group (n = 20). The VRCMR group underwent VRCMR using MOTOcog, a computer recognition program, whereas the CCR group underwent conventional cognitive rehabilitation, which included puzzles, wood blocks, card play, stick construction activity, and maze activity. Both interventions were performed 30 min per day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. This study performed a cognitive assessment using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A/B), and Digit Span Test forward and backward (DST-forward/backward). In addition, a 0-to-10 numeric rating self-report scale was used to assess interest and motivation during the rehabilitation training. After the intervention, the VRCMR group showed a significantly greater improvement in the MoCA (p = 0.045), TMT-A (p = 0.039), TMT-B (p = 0.040), and DST-forward (p = 0.011) scores compared to the CCR group, but not in the DST-backward score (p = 0.424). In addition, subjects in the experimental group had significantly higher interest (p = 0.03) and motivation (p = 0.03) than those in the control group. Cohen's d effect size was 0.4, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, and 0.5 for the MoCA, TMT-A, TMT-B, DST-forward, and DST-backward tests, respectively. This study demonstrates that VRCMR enhances motivation for rehabilitation and cognitive function in older adults with MCI better than CCR.

10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977651

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Occupational therapy (OT) practice has a unique perspective that addresses the complex needs of cancer survivors. Despite the expanded research and application of OT services using telehealth (TH) to promote clients' health and well-being, studies on OT services using TH for cancer survivors are rare. This study aimed to review the TH approaches in the scope of OT and the outcome of factors affecting occupational engagement in adult cancer survivors. (2) Materials and Methods: This systematic review performed a literature search of five databases (Medline Complete, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science) using a combination of keywords and cross-referencing. Studies were included if they described a TH intervention within the scope of OT practice to improve occupational engagement. (3) Results: Fifteen studies (12 randomized controlled trials, three quasiexperimental studies) were reviewed. Physical activity had a positive effect on physical and cognitive function. Symptom self-management showed positive effects on the relief of symptom burden. Psychosocial interventions, which included cognitive behavioral therapy, problem-solving, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, mind-body training, reduced sleep disturbance, and improved physical activity. Lifestyle behavior change interventions improved participation in moderate-intensity physical activity and diet quality. In addition, these interventions reduced cancer-related symptoms such as pain, depression, fatigue, distress, and improved quality of life. There were no direct outcomes of occupational engagement, excluding sleep, that could be confirmed through this review. (4) Conclusion: This review explored and confirmed the usefulness of TH approaches in the scope of OT practice in adult cancer survivors. It also supports the notion that OT-specific research using TH interventions for cancer survivors will be needed in the future.

11.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 54(4): 372-377, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to radiologically assess the relationship between the tilt angle of the bipolar radial head prostheses and radiocapitellar instability. METHODS: In this radiological study, 28 consecutive patients (13 females and 15 males: mean age=47 years and age range=23-77 years) who underwent cemented bipolar radial head arthroplasty (Judet CRF II) because of comminuted radial head fracture with elbow instability were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: There was excellent intra- and interobserver reliability for the measurements of the tilt angle and the radiocapitellar distance. ICC for interobserver reliability of the tilt angle was 0.93, and ICC for intraobserver reliability for the 2 observers was 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. ICC for interobserver reliability of the radiocapitellar distance was 0.87, and ICC for intraobserver reliability for the 2 observers was 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. The mean tilt angle was 17.6° (range=1°-35°), and the mean radiocapitellar distance was 8 mm (range=1-17 mm). Pearson's correlation revealed a strong significant positive correlation between the tilt angle and the radiocapitellar distance (r=0.77 and p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Evidence from this study has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between the tilt angle of bipolar radial head prostheses and radiocapitellar instability. The tilt angle can be used as an indicator of radiocapitellar joint instability following bipolar radial head prostheses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Diagnostic study.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Elbow Prosthesis/adverse effects , Joint Instability , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Radiography/methods , Radius Fractures/surgery , Radius , Arthroplasty/adverse effects , Arthroplasty/instrumentation , Arthroplasty/methods , Bipolar Disorder/surgery , Elbow Joint/physiopathology , Elbow Joint/surgery , Female , Fractures, Comminuted/surgery , Humans , Joint Instability/diagnosis , Joint Instability/etiology , Joint Instability/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Radius/diagnostic imaging , Radius/injuries , Radius/surgery , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646041

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at investigating the effects of synchronized neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and chewing exercises on bite force and the masseter muscle thickness in community-dwelling older adults. Material and methods: Forty older adults were enrolled in South Korea and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group performed chewing exercises using the No-Sick Exerciser equipment synchronized with NMES applied to the bilateral masseter muscles, while the control group performed only chewing exercises. Both groups received interventions for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. Bite force was measured using the OCCLUZER device, and masseter muscle thickness was measured using a portable ultrasound. Results: Both groups showed a significant increase in bite force and masseter muscle thickness compared to baseline measurements (p < 0.05). The experimental group showed a significantly higher increase in bite force and masseter muscle thickness than the control group after combined intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that NMES synchronized with chewing exercises is more efficient in increasing bite force and masseter muscle thickness than chewing exercises alone in community-dwelling older adults.


Subject(s)
Bite Force , Electric Stimulation , Masseter Muscle , Mastication/physiology , Masticatory Muscles/physiopathology , Aged , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Masseter Muscle/anatomy & histology , Masseter Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Republic of Korea , Ultrasonography
13.
Brain Sci ; 10(8)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726991

ABSTRACT

In daily living, people are challenged to focus on their goal while eliminating interferences. Specifically, this study investigated the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) activity while attention control was tested using the self-made color-word interference test (CWIT) with a functional near-infrared spectroscopy device (fNIRS). Among 11 healthy Korean university students, overall the highest scores were obtained in the congruent Korean condition 1 (CKC-1) and had the least vascular response (VR) as opposed to the incongruent Korean condition 2 (IKC-2). The individual's automatic reading response caused less brain activation while IKC-2 involves color suppression. Across the three trials per each condition, no significant differences (SD) in scores and in VR since there was no intervention did. Meanwhile, SD was observed between CKC-1 and English Congruent Condition 3 (ECC-3) across trials. However, SD was only observed on the third trial of VR. In the connectivity analysis, right and left PFC are activated on ECC-3. In CKC-1 and IKC-2, encompassing dorsomedial and dorsolateral although CKC-1 has less connection and connectivity due to less brain activation as compared. Therefore, aside from VR, brain connectivity could be identified non-invasively using fNIRS without ionizing radiation and at low-cost.

14.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2208-2218, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), an adjuvant tool for stroke, induces long-term changes in cortical excitability, for example, the secretion of activity-dependent growth factors. We assessed the proper therapeutic configuration of high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) in the subacute stage of ischemic stroke and its underlying expression profiling of growth factors to propose a new method for ensuring better therapeutic effects. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, after which repetitive HD-tDCS (20 minutes, 55 µA/mm2, charge density 66 000 C/m2) was applied from subacute phases of their ischemic insult. Behavioral tests assessing motor and cognitive functions were used to determine suitable conditions and HD-tDCS stimulation sites. Gene expression profiling of growth factors and their secretion and activation were analyzed to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Anodal HD-tDCS application over the contralesional cortex, especially the motor cortex, was more effective than ipsilesional stimulation in attenuating motor and cognitive deficits. In the HD-tDCS application over the contralesional motor cortex, positive changes in Bmp8b, Gdf5, Il4, Pdgfa, Pgf, and Vegfb were observed in the ipsilesional site. The expression of GDF5 (growth/differentiation factor 5) and PDGFA (platelet-derived growth factor subunit A) tended to similarly increase in both ipsi- and contralesional striata. However, higher expression levels of GDF5 and PDGFA and their receptors were observed in the peri-infarct regions of the striatum after HD-tDCS, especially in PDGFA expression. A higher number of proliferating or newly formed neuronal cells was detected in ipsilesional sites such as the subventricular zone. CONCLUSIONS: Application of anodal HD-tDCS over the contralesional cortex may enhance beneficial recovery through the expression of growth factors, such as GDF5 and PDGFA, in the ipsilesional site. Therefore, this therapeutic configuration may be applied in the subacute stage of ischemic stroke to ameliorate neurological impairments.


Subject(s)
Functional Laterality/physiology , Recovery of Function/physiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Animals , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Growth Differentiation Factor 5/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/biosynthesis , Stroke/metabolism
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481740

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used medical imaging modality for diagnosing various diseases. Among CT techniques, 4-dimensional CT perfusion (4D-CTP) of the brain is established in most centers for diagnosing strokes and is considered the gold standard for hyperacute stroke diagnosis. However, because the detrimental effects of high radiation doses from 4D-CTP may cause serious health risks in stroke survivors, our research team aimed to introduce a novel image-processing technique. Our singular value decomposition (SVD)-based image-processing technique can improve image quality, first, by separating several image components using SVD and, second, by reconstructing signal component images to remove noise, thereby improving image quality. For the demonstration in this study, 20 4D-CTP dynamic images of suspected acute stroke patients were collected. Both the images that were and were not processed via the proposed method were compared. Each acquired image was objectively evaluated using contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise ratios. The scores of the parameters assessed for the qualitative evaluation of image quality improved to an excellent rating (p < 0.05). Therefore, our SVD-based image-denoising technique improved the diagnostic value of images by improving their quality. The denoising technique and statistical evaluation can be utilized in various clinical applications to provide advanced medical services.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Stroke , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Algorithms , Brain/pathology , Humans , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
16.
Technol Health Care ; 28(S1): 311-319, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can help modulate cortical excitability by transmitting direct current (DC) between a pair of scalp electrodes. To date, most studies on tDCS have been relatively short-lived, and the DC stimulations only lasted a few minutes. Conventional tDCS devices usually have some problems such as needing a lot of patches and lead lines. OBJECTIVE: Since conventional tDCS devices are unsuitable for use in long-term stimulations, we developed a new tDCS which can easily be used by unskilled persons. METHODS: We developed a new tDCS device that does not have lead lines for tDCS electrodes and has a simple structure. RESULT: This device can achieve stimulation with polarity interchangeable DC without physically swapping the anode and cathode. The performance of the proposed device was verified through an experiment. CONCLUSION: The developed tDCS device can contribute to long-term research as it uses neuroelectric stimulation.


Subject(s)
Electrodes , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/instrumentation , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Humans
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466588

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force among healthy community-dwelling elderly persons older than 65 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. In the experimental group, NMES was applied to both masseter muscles, and electrical signals were gradually increased until the participants felt a grabbing sensation (range 6.0-7.5 mA) in the masseter muscle. The placebo group, in contrast, underwent NMES in the same manner and procedure as the experimental group with less electrical intensity (0.5 mA). All interventions were administered five times a week for six weeks, 20 min per day. The outcomes were masseter muscle thickness assessed using ultrasound and maximal bite force using a bite force meter. The level of significance was set as p < 0.05. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significant increase in both masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.002 and 0.019, respectively). Moreover, the degree of change in the masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force significantly increased in the experimental and placebo groups (p < 0.001, both). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that NMES could be an effective modality for increasing masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force in healthy older adults.


Subject(s)
Bite Force , Independent Living , Masseter Muscle , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Electric Stimulation , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Male , Masseter Muscle/physiology
18.
Technol Health Care ; 28(S1): 123-130, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) measured during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can help understand the accurate impact of tDCS on the brain, but this has been hindered due to significant inflow of tDCS-induced electrical artifacts. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we introduce a novel tDCS device developed based on current limiter, which can prevent the generation of significant electrical artifacts. METHODS: To verify the feasibility of our developed tDCS device, we performed simultaneous measurement of EEG during tDCS application with five different current intensities (0, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 µA). Changes in EEG power spectral density (PSD) and correlation between the PSD of non-stimulation and tDCS condition were investigated to see whether our tDCS device can be used for simultaneous EEG recording without significant inflow of tDCS-induced electrical artifacts. RESUTLS: The mean EEG-PSD differences between non-stimulation and tDCS condition were not significant for all stimulation current intensities. Furthermore, EEG-PSDs estimated during non-stimulation and tDCS application showed statistically high correlation for all comparison cases. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, we could demonstrate the feasibility of our tDCS device based on current limiter for simultaneous EEG measurement, which could potentially provide a way to investigate the impact of tDCS on the brain more accurately.


Subject(s)
Electroencephalography/instrumentation , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/instrumentation , Artifacts , Brain/physiology , Electroencephalography/methods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods
19.
Dysphagia ; 35(6): 985-992, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040613

ABSTRACT

We investigated the predictive value of the corticobulbar tract (CBT) for dysphagia using diffusion tensor tractography in the early stage of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) for dysphagia. Forty-two patients with spontaneous ICH ± intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and 22 control subjects were recruited. The patients were classified into three groups: group A-could remove nasogastric tube (NGT) in the acute stage of ICH, group B-could remove NGT within 6 months after onset, and group C-could not remove NGT until 6 months after onset. The CBT were reconstructed, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and tract volume (TV) values were determined. The FA of the CBT in the affected hemisphere in group A was lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). The FA and TV of the CBT in the affected hemisphere in group B were lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In group C, the FA and TV in the affected hemisphere and unaffected hemispheres were lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). The TV of the CBT in the affected hemisphere in group B showed a moderate negative correlation with the length of time until NGT removal (r = 0.430, p < 0.05). We found that patients with CBT injuries in both hemispheres were not able to remove the NGT until 6 months after onset, whereas patients who were injured only in the affected hemisphere were able to remove NGT within 6 months of onset. The severity of injury to the CBT in the affected hemisphere appeared to be related to the length of time until NGT removal.

20.
Dysphagia ; 35(4): 636-642, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620860

ABSTRACT

The suprahyoid muscles play a major role in safe swallowing in the pharyngeal phase. Therefore, it is clinically important to design a therapeutic approach for strengthening the suprahyoid muscles for safe and normal swallowing. This study aimed to investigate the activation of suprahyoid muscles by resistance training using kinesiology taping (KT). We enrolled 23 healthy adults. All participants performed saliva swallowing five times at 5 s intervals in three conditions (without KT, 50% stretch with KT, and 80% stretch with KT). KT in the I and reverse V shapes was pulled vertically from the hyolaryngeal complex to the sternum and medially from the superior surface of the clavicle, respectively. Another KT horizontally covered the hyolaryngeal complex to enhance the movement restriction of the hyolaryngeal complex during swallowing. Activation of the suprahyoid muscles during swallowing in the two conditions was measured using surface electromyography. In addition, a 0-10 numerical rating self-report scale was used to evaluate the required effort and the resistance felt during swallowing. Both KT 50% and 80% were significantly higher in surface electromyography (sEMG) mean value, peak value, required effort, and resistance felt during swallowing compared to normal swallowing (p < 0.05). In addition, KT 80% was significantly higher in sEMG value, peak value, required effort, and resistance felt during swallowing than KT 50% (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that KT applied to the area under the hyolaryngeal complex improves activation of the suprahyoid muscle during swallowing. Therefore, KT applied as resistance during swallowing is considered to have therapeutic potential in dysphagia rehabilitation.

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