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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249424, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypoxia is a prominent feature of head and neck cancer. However, the oxygen element characteristics of proteins and how they adapt to hypoxia microenvironments of head and neck cancer are still unknown. Human genome sequences and proteins expressed data of head and neck cancer were retrieved from pathology atlas of Human Protein Atlas project. Then compared the oxygen and carbon element contents between proteomes of head and neck cancer and normal oral mucosa-squamous epithelial cells, genome locations, pathways, and functional dissection associated with head and neck cancer were also studied. A total of 902 differentially expressed proteins were observed where the average oxygen content is higher than that of the lowly expressed proteins in head and neck cancer proteins. Further, the average oxygen content of the up regulated proteins was 2.54% higher than other. None of their coding genes were distributed on the Y chromosome. The up regulated proteins were enriched in endocytosis, apoptosis and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. The increased oxygen contents of the highly expressed and the up regulated proteins might be caused by frequent activity of cytoskeleton and adapted to the rapid growth and fast division of the head and neck cancer cells. The oxygen usage bias and key proteins may help us to understand the mechanisms behind head and neck cancer in targeted therapy, which lays a foundation for the application of stoichioproteomics in targeted therapy and provides promise for potential treatments for head and neck cancer.


Resumo A hipóxia é uma característica proeminente do câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, as características do elemento oxigênio das proteínas e como elas se adaptam aos microambientes de hipóxia do câncer de cabeça e pescoço ainda são desconhecidas. Sequências do genoma humano e dados expressos de proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço foram recuperados do atlas de patologia do projeto Human Protein Atlas. Em seguida, comparou o conteúdo do elemento de oxigênio e carbono entre proteomas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço, e células epiteliais escamosas da mucosa oral normal, localizações do genoma, vias e dissecção funcional associada ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço também foram estudadas. Um total de 902 proteínas expressas diferencialmente foi observado onde o conteúdo médio de oxigênio é maior do que as proteínas expressas de forma humilde em proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Além disso, o conteúdo médio de oxigênio das proteínas reguladas positivamente foi 2,54% maior do que das outras. Nenhum de seus genes codificadores foi distribuído no cromossomo Y. As proteínas reguladas positivamente foram enriquecidas em endocitose, apoptose e regulação do citoesqueleto de actina. O conteúdo aumentado de oxigênio das proteínas altamente expressas e reguladas pode ser causado pela atividade frequente do citoesqueleto e adaptado ao rápido crescimento e divisão das células cancerosas de cabeça e pescoço. O viés do uso de oxigênio e as proteínas-chave podem nos ajudar a entender os mecanismos por trás do câncer de cabeça e pescoço na terapia direcionada, o que estabelece uma base para a aplicação da estequioproteômica na terapia direcionada e oferece uma promessa para potenciais tratamentos para o câncer de cabeça e pescoço.


Subject(s)
Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Oxygen , Carbon , Proteome/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247604, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339370

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Resumo No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente aquoso. As propriedades ADME e a análise de previsão de toxicidade da axilarina também a recomendaram como um candidato a medicamento seguro. Além disso, as investigações in vivo e in vitro são essenciais para garantir a atividade anti-SARS-CoV-2 de todos os compostos bioativos, particularmente a axilarina, para encorajar o uso preventivo de Centaurea jacea contra infecções por Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Centaurea , COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251004, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339339

ABSTRACT

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Resumo A suplementação de probióticos enriquecidos com selênio é eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e na manutenção da estabilidade da qualidade da carne em frangos de corte, especialmente sob estresse por calor. Um estudo experimental foi conduzido para realizar uma análise comparativa da levedura selênio com o Se inorgânico em frangos de corte sob estresse térmico. Um total de 120 pintos de um dia foi dividido em 4 grupos, cada um consistindo de 30 pintos alimentados com a mesma dieta basal, mas com diferentes fontes de selênio. A dieta basal do grupo D1 não foi suplementada com fonte de Se (controle negativo), a dieta basal do grupo D2 foi suplementada com selênio inorgânico (selenito de sódio 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora), a dieta basal do grupo D3 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico disponível comercialmente (fase inicial de seleno-metionina 0,22 mg / kg e fase finalizadora de 0,15 mg / kg) e a dieta basal do grupo D4 foi suplementada com selênio orgânico autodesenvolvido (fermento enriquecido com Se 0,22 mg / kg fase inicial e 0,15 mg / kg fase finalizadora). Os parâmetros de desempenho, ou seja, consumo de ração (FI), peso corporal vivo (PC) e FCR não foram significativamente (p > 0,05) afetados pela suplementação de selênio na fase inicial, mas foram significativamente (p < 0,05) afetados na fase final. A suplementação de selênio afetou significativamente (p < 0,05) o nível de Se sérico em diferentes grupos suplementados. O maior valor de Se sérico (58,20 ± 0,06) foi registrado no grupo D4. Da mesma forma, valor de selênio significativamente menor foi registrado para D4 e maior foi registrado para D1 (11,36 ± 0,08). No entanto, um valor mais baixo de Paraoxonase (PON) sérica foi registrado para D4 (13,24 ± 0,01) e mais alto para D1 (13,33 ± 0,03). A levedura enriquecida com Se comparativamente autodesenvolvida aumentou o acúmulo de Se e melhorou o sistema antioxidante. A glutationa peroxidase (GPx) foi encontrada maior em D4 (12,333 ± 0,03) seguido por D3, D2 e ​​D1 respectivamente. Enquanto a superóxido dismutase (SOD) foi significativamente menor (p < 0,05) em D4 (0,1437 ± 0,003) seguido por D3 (0,1457 ± 0,002). A suplementação de selênio aumentou a taxa de sobrevivência da ave. Aves alimentadas com levedura enriquecida com Se apresentaram maior deposição de Se e melhor capacidade antioxidante em comparação com outras fontes de selênio. A levedura enriquecida com Se apresentou um resultado melhorado na deposição de Se nos tecidos, capacidade oxidativa, maciez da carne e nível de resposta imune em comparação com outras fontes de selênio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Selenium , Chickens , Heat-Shock Response , Antioxidants
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475989

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Benzoquinones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Nigella sativa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Poult Sci ; 101(3): 101667, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131639

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to assess the growth performance, morphometric traits, muscle chemical composition and cholesterol content in four phenotypes of naked neck chicken (black, white-black, light brown and dark brown). A total of 320-day-old chicks, 80 from each phenotype, were randomly stratified into 20 replicates (16/replicate), according to a completely randomized design. The results showed higher final body weight, weight gain, and better FCR in both light brown and dark brown phenotypes whereas time of gains was found to be greater in dark brown phenotype. Keel length and shank circumference were greater in dark brown whereas wing spread was found to be higher in light brown phenotype. Drumstick circumference and body length did not show any significant differences (P > 0.05) across the phenotypes. Dry matter was found to be higher in white black, crude protein in black, white black and dark brown, moisture in light brown, and cholesterol content in black whereas ether extract and ash content were found to be greater in black and white black phenotypes. In conclusion, both light brown and dark brown phenotypes showed superior growth performance and morphometric traits. Similarly, from a health point of view, the dark brown and light brown phenotypes seem superior because their cholesterol content was low. Thus, it is strongly recommended that there should be a conscious effort to improve economically important traits of the light and dark brown birds to be used as dual-purpose slow growing chicken, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Meat , Animals , Chickens/physiology , Cholesterol , Meat/analysis , Phenotype , Weight Gain
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730606

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is a prominent feature of head and neck cancer. However, the oxygen element characteristics of proteins and how they adapt to hypoxia microenvironments of head and neck cancer are still unknown. Human genome sequences and proteins expressed data of head and neck cancer were retrieved from pathology atlas of Human Protein Atlas project. Then compared the oxygen and carbon element contents between proteomes of head and neck cancer and normal oral mucosa-squamous epithelial cells, genome locations, pathways, and functional dissection associated with head and neck cancer were also studied. A total of 902 differentially expressed proteins were observed where the average oxygen content is higher than that of the lowly expressed proteins in head and neck cancer proteins. Further, the average oxygen content of the up regulated proteins was 2.54% higher than other. None of their coding genes were distributed on the Y chromosome. The up regulated proteins were enriched in endocytosis, apoptosis and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. The increased oxygen contents of the highly expressed and the up regulated proteins might be caused by frequent activity of cytoskeleton and adapted to the rapid growth and fast division of the head and neck cancer cells. The oxygen usage bias and key proteins may help us to understand the mechanisms behind head and neck cancer in targeted therapy, which lays a foundation for the application of stoichioproteomics in targeted therapy and provides promise for potential treatments for head and neck cancer.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Carbon , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Oxygen , Proteome/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614126

ABSTRACT

The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird's survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.


Subject(s)
Selenium , Animals , Antioxidants , Chickens , Heat-Shock Response
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495156

ABSTRACT

In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Centaurea , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747099

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of wind speed and air pollution on COVID-19 from March 10, 2020, to October 04, 2020, in Pakistan. Wind speed and COVID-19 had positive correlation in Pakistan and its provinces. The inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was found for wind speed and COVID-19 in Punjab. Initially, the dose-response curve showed a positive link between wind speed and COVID-19 in Pakistan, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Islamabad Capital Territory. Later, it becomes downward sloped in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Islamabad Capital Territory. The expected log count of COVID-19 was increased by 0.113 times (Pakistan), 0.074 times (Punjab), 0.042 times (Sindh), and 0.082 times (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) for a 1 km/h increase in the wind speed. The correlation between particulate matter and COVID-19 was positive (Pakistan, Punjab, and Islamabad Capital Territory) and negative (Sindh). The dose-response curve for particulate matter and COVID-19 had inverted U-shaped (Pakistan, Punjab, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) positively sloped (Islamabad Capital Territory), and negatively sloped (Sindh). The inverted U-shaped association shows that the COVID-19 initially increased due to a rise in the particulate matter but reduced when the particulate matter was above the threshold level. The particulate matter was also responsible to wear face masks and restricted mobility. The expected log count of COVID-19 cases was reduced by 0.005 times in Sindh for 1 unit increase in particulate matter. It is recommended to reduce particulate matter to control respiratory problems. The government should use media (print, electronic, social) and educational syllabus to create awareness about precautionary measures.

10.
Br J Dermatol ; 182(3): e89-e114, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107777

ABSTRACT

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a complex rare condition that affects the skin and many parts of the body. Those born with EB have skin so fragile they are called 'butterfly children', their skin is quite simply as fragile as the wing of a butterfly. In the UK it is estimated that there are more than 5,000 people living with EB and 500,000 worldwide. Little clinical guidance for care existed until DEBRA International started a programme to develop clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). There were no previous guidelines and few published studies on foot care in EB so treatment decisions were largely based on individual opinion and experience. The panel - made up of clinical experts and people living with EB representing Australia, the UK, and the USA - aimed to describe foot problems in people of all ages with EB, and summarise current evidence and management. The authors used a logical podiatric (foot) care literature review focussed on patients with EB. The authors found that the evidence in this area was limited but several interventions (treatments) currently practised by podiatrists show positive outcomes. The study allowed the group to make recommendations on how to treat foot and nail disorders in patients with EB. Furthermore, the authors concluded that further research is needed. This is a summary of the study: Foot care in epidermolysis bullosa: evidence-based guideline.


Subject(s)
Epidermolysis Bullosa , Australia , Child , Humans , Skin
11.
Br J Dermatol ; 182(3): 593-604, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397882

ABSTRACT

This guideline was designed to provide service providers and users with an evidence-based set of current best practice guidelines for people and their families and carers, living with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). A systematic literature review relating to the podiatric care of patients with EB was undertaken. Search terms were used, for which the most recent articles relating to podiatric treatment were identified from as early as 1979 to the present day, across seven electronic search engines: MEDLINE, Wiley Online Library, Google Scholar, Athens, ResearchGate, Net and PubFacts.com. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology was used. The first guideline draft was analysed and discussed by clinical experts, methodologists and patients and their representatives at four panel meetings. The resulting document went through an external review process by a panel of experts, other healthcare professionals, patient representatives and lay reviewers. The final document will be piloted in three different centres in the U.K. and Australia. Following an EB community international survey the outcomes indicated six main areas that the community indicated as a priority to foot management. These include blistering and wound management, exploring the most suitable footwear and hosiery for EB, management of dystrophic nails, hyperkeratosis (callus), maintaining mobility and fusion of toes (pseudosyndactyly). The evidence here is limited but several interventions currently practised by podiatrists show positive outcomes.


Subject(s)
Epidermolysis Bullosa , Australia , Epidermolysis Bullosa/therapy , Humans
12.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 32(3): 705-709, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921403

ABSTRACT

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key first-line antibiotic used for the short-course treatment of drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of tuberculosis. PZA exhibits potent action against semi-dormant bacilli in acidic environments. However, mutations that occur in target genes may cause technical difficulties in the diagnosis of PZA resistance during drug susceptibility testing. The objective of the current study is to identify mutations in pncAWT rpsA and rpsAWT panD genes among PZA-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) circulating in the Pashtun dominant region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. We selected 18 PZA-resistant pncAWT strains from the Provincial Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory (PTRL) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to investigate mutations in the coding region of rpsA and panD genes. The experiments were repeated for drug susceptibility testing using MGIT 960 automated system. In addition, eighteen PZA-resistant rpsA genes along with 5 susceptible strains and one H37Rv strain were sequenced. All 18 isolates were PZA-resistant. The majority of these isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) (13/18). We identified 14 non-synonymous and one synonymous mutation in the coding region of rpsA in 11 strains. All mutations were scattered throughout the gene and not reported previously. Further, we did not identify any mutation in 7 rpsAWT panD genes. Mutations in rpsA but not in panD occur in PZA-resistant pncAWT MTB isolates circulating in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Amidohydrolases/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Humans , Pakistan
13.
Poult Sci ; 97(3): 725-732, 2018 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253274

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to explore the effects of free-range (FR), part-time free-range (PTFR), and cage system (CS) on behavioral repertoire in Lakha (LK), Mushki (MS), Peshawari (PW), and Sindhi (SN) varieties of Aseel chicken during the growing phase (9 to 18 wk of age). In total, 144 Aseel pullets were allotted to 12 treatment groups in a 3 × 4 (rearing system × Aseel variety) factorial arrangement, according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment group was replicated 3 times with 4 birds in each replicate (12 birds per treatment group). The pullets were randomly marked weekly for identification, and their behavior was observed through the focal animal sampling method. Time spent on different behavioral activities was recorded and converted to a percentage. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA under a factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1, and the behavioral parameters were evaluated. The results indicated greater (P < 0.05) sitting, standing, drinking, preening, and aggressiveness in CS; walking, running, and jumping in PTFR; and foraging and dustbathing in both FR and PTFR, whereas feather pecking was found to be reduced in FR compared with PTFR and CS. Among varieties, PW showed the least feeding/foraging and feather pecking behavior, and greater standing, running, and jumping behavior (P < 0.05). However, SN spent less time in walking and preening, and more time in sitting, drinking, and aggressiveness. Dustbathing was found to be similar in all Aseel varieties (P = 0.135). In conclusion, the PTFR system could be suggested as a substitute for conventional housing systems because it better accommodates normal behavior in Aseel pullets.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry/methods , Animal Welfare , Chickens/physiology , Housing, Animal , Motor Activity , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Chickens/genetics , Female , Pakistan , Pilot Projects , Random Allocation
14.
Poult Sci ; 96(1): 226-233, 2017 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591273

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of 3 different rearing systems [free range ( FR: ), semi-intensive ( SI: ), and confinement ( CF: )] on blood biochemical profile and immune response in 4 varieties of Aseel chicken [Lakha ( LK: ), Mushki ( MS: ), Peshawari ( PW: ) and Sindhi ( SN: )] for 10 wk duration (7 to 16 wk). At the age of 6 wk, in total, 180 cockerels were assigned to 12 treatment groups, 3 (rearing system) × 4 (Aseel chicken variety) factorial arrangement in 7 randomized complete blocks, replicated 3 times with 5 birds in each replicate (45 birds of each variety; 60 birds in each rearing system; 36 total replicates). Blood samples were collected through brachial vein at the end of wk 16. After laboratory analysis, the recorded data for blood biochemical profile and immune response were analyzed by using 2-way ANOVA under factorial arrangement. The results showed higher (P < 0.05) plasma glucose and total protein in birds under CF. Titer against Newcastle disease virus ( NDV: ) and infectious bronchitis virus ( IBV: ) was found to be greater (P < 0.05) in SI and FR, respectively. Peshawari birds indicated higher (P < 0.05) concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, uric acid, creatinine, and titers to NDV and IBV. Birds of LK and SN varieties also indicated maximum antibody titer against NDV and IBV, respectively. Cholesterol level was found to be greater (P < 0.05) in birds of LK and SN. Interaction of SN with FR revealed maximum (P < 0.05) cholesterol whereas interaction of PW with SI indicated maximum antibody titer against NDV. The results highlight that CF rearing system expediently affects glucose and total protein levels in birds; SI and FR confer maximum antibody titers to NDV and IBV. Birds of PW variety indicated higher glucose, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and creatinine, the lowest cholesterol under FR and the enhanced antibody titer against NDV and IBV.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry/methods , Chickens/blood , Chickens/immunology , Housing, Animal , Immunity, Innate , Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis/veterinary , Chickens/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Random Allocation , Salmonella/immunology
15.
Poult Sci ; 96(5): 1466-1472, 2017 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837113

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) sources (organic and inorganic Se at 0.30 ppm and basal diet at 0 ppm level of supplemented Se) on hatching traits in four varieties of Aseel chicken, Lakha, Mushki, Peshawari, and Mianwali. In total, 84 adult molted hens (50 wk old), 21 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups in a 3 (Se diets) × 4 (Aseel varieties) factorial arrangement under a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated 7 times with individual hens in each. Settable egg, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, A-grade chick, and embryonic mortality parameters were evaluated. The results indicated that the birds fed an organic Se supplemented diet had greater (P < 0.05) settable eggs, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks and reduced embryonic mortality than those fed inorganic or no Se. Among varieties, Mushki had lower (P < 0.05) fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks than rest of three varieties. Interaction of Se sources and varieties indicated that dietary organic Se supplementation improved (P < 0.05) hatch of fertile eggs in Peshawari and Mianwali, whereas hatchability only in Peshawari variety and reduced embryonic mortality in Mianwali. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of organic Se could be used to improve hatching traits as well as reduce embryonic mortality in native Aseel chicken.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Chickens/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Sodium Selenite/pharmacology , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Chick Embryo , Diet/veterinary , Dietary Supplements , Female , Fertility/drug effects , Organoselenium Compounds/administration & dosage , Oviposition/drug effects , Selenium Compounds , Sodium Selenite/administration & dosage
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 729357, 2014.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24790578

ABSTRACT

This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Disasters , Tsunamis , Models, Theoretical
17.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 721357, 2014.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24701186

ABSTRACT

Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.


Subject(s)
Rain , Water Quality , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Water Supply
18.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 12(6): 515-33, 2012 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22587766

ABSTRACT

In the present paper 25 known thermolysin inhibitors were docked into thermolysin using the Internal Coordinate Mechanics (ICM) software. Pharmacophore models based on thermolysin binding modes and activity profiles were generated using the LigandScout program. The docking studies indicated that all 25 inhibitors coordinated the catalytic zinc in bidentate or monodentate geometry. A 'three-point' pharmacophore model was proposed which consisted of a hydrophobic group, a negative ionizable group and a hydrogen bond acceptor group. Finally the pharmacophore model has been tested against a small compound library containing 18 highly, moderately, less active as well as inactive compounds. The screening indicated that the pharmacophore model could, identify highly active compounds in front of inactive or less active ones.


Subject(s)
Thermolysin/antagonists & inhibitors , Binding Sites
19.
Curr Med Chem ; 19(14): 2262-72, 2012.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22414108

ABSTRACT

Tyrosinase is a multi-copper enzyme widely distributed in different organisms, including plants & mammals, etc., which is responsible for pigmentations, undesired browning of fruits and vegetables. This is the key enzyme in the melanogenesis in human and molting process of insects. Therefore the inhibitors of the enzyme may lead to novel skin whitening agents, anti-browning substances or compounds for insect control. A large numbers of moderate to potent tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported during the last decade. From our group, we reported a number of potent inhibitors from synthetic, semi-synthetic and natural origins. The compounds are from several chemical classes, like phenolics, terpenes, steroids, chalcones, flavonoids, alkaloids, long-chain fatty acids, coumarins, sildenafil analogs, bipiperidines, biscoumarins, oxadiazole, tetraketones, etc. More recently, the crystal structure of mushroom and couple of other tyrosinases has been published and more recently the crystal structure of mushroom tyrosinase complexes with a highly potent inhibitor tropolone has been reported. Yet there is a lack of information of inhibitor-tyrosinase intermolecular interactions. To overcome such issues, some researchers started utilizing in silico tools, like molecular docking simulations, for such purposes. There are also few papers published about the successful utilization of computational tools like QSAR-based and ligand-based virtual screening to identify novel and potent inhibitors of the enzyme. In our group, we are using all possible computational tools, like ligand-based as well structure-based approaches, to identify new inhibitors. In this review, some of such examples are briefly described.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Humans , Models, Molecular , Monophenol Monooxygenase/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Phytomedicine ; 13(4): 255-60, 2006 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16492528

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of Vitex negundo afforded eight lignans; negundin A 1, negundin B 2, 6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2-naphthaledehyde 3, vitrofolal E 4, (+)-lyoniresinol 5, (+)-lyoniresinol-3alpha-O-beta-d-glucoside 6, (+)-(-)-pinoresinol 7, and (+)-diasyringaresinol 8. The structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR analysis and also by comparing experimental data with literature data. The tyrosinase inhibitory potency of these compounds has been evaluated and attempts to justify their structure-activity relationships have been made in the present work. The compound 5 was found to be the most potent (IC(50)=3.21 microM) while other compounds demonstrated moderate to potent inhibitions. It was found that the substitution of functional group(s) at C-2 and C-3 positions and the presence of the -CH(2)OH group plays a vital role in the potency of the compounds. The compound 5 can act as a potential lead molecule to develop new drugs for the treatment of hyperpigmentation associated with the high production of melanocytes.


Subject(s)
Lignin/chemistry , Lignin/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Vitex/chemistry , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Lignin/isolation & purification , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Medicine, Traditional , Methanol/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
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