Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
Scand J Pain ; 21(2): 283-295, 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is a common complaint in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). MSK pain in IBD has previously demonstrated association with symptoms of central sensitization; however it is uncertain whether these symptoms are influenced simply by the presence of MSK pain and/or IBD. Primary aim of this study was to investigate whether symptoms of central sensitization differed across three groups: IBD patients with and without MSK pain and healthy controls. Secondary aim was to investigate between-group differences for measures of somatosensory functioning. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was performed on adults with IBD. Assessments included: central sensitization inventory (CSI), pressure pain threshold, temporal summation, conditioned pain modulation, perceived stress, affect style, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing. One-way analyses of variance and covariance were used to investigate between-group differences for measures of central sensitization and potential confounding by psychological factors. RESULTS: Study participants (n=66) were age/gender matched across three study groups. Between-group differences were solely demonstrated for CSI scores [F(2,63)=19.835, p<0.001, r=0.62], with IBD patients with MSK pain demonstrating the highest CSI scores and healthy controls the lowest. After controlling for individual psychological features, post hoc comparisons indicated that CSI scores were significantly different between-groups (p≤0.025) after controlling for most psychological variables, with the exception of perceived stress (p=0.063) and pain catastrophizing (p=0.593). CONCLUSIONS: IBD patients as a whole demonstrated significantly greater symptoms of central sensitization compared to healthy controls. However, IBD patients with persistent MSK pain demonstrated the greatest symptoms of central sensitization compared to patients without MSK pain and healthy controls. Between-group differences for CSI in IBD patients with MSK were not confounded by psychological features. IMPLICATIONS: Study results indicate that persistent MSK pain in IBD represents patients with greater central sensitization symptomology. This increased symptomology is suggestive of underlying mechanisms related to central sensitization, highlighting patient potentially at risk for worse pain experiences.

2.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther ; 44(5): 420-431, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the neuroendocrine response after a thoracic spinal manipulation in people with Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS: This was a randomized 2-sequence, 2-period crossover trial. A total of 24 participants, mean (standard deviation) age of 48 (7) years, with a diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy (>3 mo) were randomly assigned into sequence 1 (sham intervention and then thoracic spinal manipulation) or sequence 2 (thoracic spinal manipulation and then sham intervention). The trial was conducted at a university laboratory with a washout period of 1 week. The primary outcome measure was the testosterone/cortisol (T/C) ratio (salivary samples). The secondary outcome measures included heart rate variability (measured with electrocardiography) and total oxygenation index (nmol/L) of calf muscle and Achilles tendon (measured with near-infrared spectroscopy). A 2-way mixed-model analysis of variance was performed. The statistic of interest was the condition by time interaction. RESULTS: A statistically significant condition by time interaction was found for the T/C ratio (mean difference: -0.16; confidence interval: -0.33 to 0.006; interaction: P < .05) and the total oxygenation index (mean difference: 1.35; confidence interval: -1.3 to 4.1; interaction: P < .05) of calf muscle but not for Achilles tendon (P = .6); however, no difference was found for heart rate variability (P = .5). CONCLUSION: In people with Achilles tendinopathy, thoracic spinal manipulation resulted in immediate increase in the total oxygenation index in the calf muscle followed by an increase in the T/C ratio 6 hours post-intervention.


Subject(s)
Achilles Tendon , Manipulation, Spinal , Tendinopathy , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal , Tendinopathy/therapy
3.
Scand J Pain ; 21(3): 577-585, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Increased symptoms related to central sensitization have previously been reported in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, identified by the original central sensitization inventory (CSI-25). However, the recently developed CSI short form (CSI-9) may be more clinically useful. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CSI-9 compared to the original CSI-25 in individuals with IBD. Study objectives were to investigate the criterion validity of the CSI-9 to the CSI-25, assess individual association of the CSI measures with clinical features of IBD and pain presentations, and to establish disease-specific CSI-9 and CSI-25 cut-off scores for discriminating the presence of self-reported pain in individuals with IBD. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey was performed on adults with IBD exploring self-reported demographics, comorbidity, and clinical IBD and pain features. Criterion validity of the CSI-9 was investigated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)3,1. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) analysis was conducted to investigate the discriminative ability of both versions of CSI. RESULTS: Of the 320 participants, 260 reported the presence of abdominal and/or musculoskeletal pain. CSI-9 and CSI-25 demonstrated substantial agreement (ICC3,1=0.64, 95% CI [0.58, 0.69]). AUC (95% CI) indicated that CSI-9 (0.788 (0.725, 0.851), p<0.001) and CSI-25 (0.808 (0.750, 0.867), p<0.001) were able to adequately discriminate the presence of pain using cut-offs scores of ≥17 (CSI-9) and ≥40 (CSI-25). Abdominal pain severity was the only feature to differ in significant association to CSI-25 (p=0.002) compared to CSI-9 (p=0.236). All other features demonstrated significant associations to both CSI versions, except age (p=0.291 and 0.643) and IBD subtype (p=0.115 and 0.675). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to explore and validate the use of CSI-9 in IBD patients. Results demonstrated concurrent validity of the CSI-9 to CSI-25, with similar significant association to multiple patient features, and a suggested cut-off value of 17 on CSI-9 to screen for individuals with pain experiences. Study findings suggest that CSI-9 is suitable to use as a brief tool in IBD patients.

4.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(3): 618-622, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Towards developing an instrument to measure knee and hip osteoarthritis (KHOA) flare, the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Flares in OA Working Group first sought to identify and define relevant domains of flare in KHOA. METHODS: Guided by OMERACT Filter 2.1, candidate domains were identified from data generated in interviews, in English or French, with persons with KHOA and health professionals (HPs) who treat OA. The first and second rounds of an online Delphi process with patients and HPs, including researchers, selected relevant domains. The third round provided agreement on the selected domains and their definitions. At the virtual OMERACT 2020 workshop, the proposed domains and their definitions were discussed in facilitated breakout groups with patients and HPs. Participants then voted, with consensus set at ≥70%. RESULTS: Qualitative interviews characterizing OA flare were completed with 29 persons with KHOA and 16 HPs. Content was analyzed and grouped into nine clusters. These candidate domains were included in two Delphi rounds, completed by 91 patients and 165 HPs then 50 patients and 116 HPs, per round, respectively. This resulted in selecting five relevant domains. A final Delphi round, completed by 38 patients and 89 HPs, provided agreement on these domains and their definitions. The OMERACT virtual vote included 27 patients and 106 HPs. The domains and their definitions were endorsed with ≥98% agreement. Domains include: Pain, Swelling, Stiffness, Psychological aspects, and Impact of symptoms, all defined "during flare". CONCLUSION: Using OMERACT methodology, we have developed five domains of KHOA flare that were highly endorsed by patients and HPs.


Subject(s)
Osteoarthritis, Hip , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Rheumatology , Consensus , Humans , Knee Joint
5.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535831

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stroke can cause lifelong disability and participatory limitations. Stroke survivors thus manage their recovery long term. Health professionals can support self-management, tailoring this support to be culturally appropriate. This study explored the unique culture and ethnicity specific experiences of Indian people living in New Zealand with stroke, focussing on self-management and facilitators and challenges to recovery. METHODS: Eight individuals with stroke took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the General Inductive Approach. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: (1) helping myself, in any way that I can, (2) family and support, (3) social connections, and (4) ethnicity was not a barrier. CONCLUSION: All participants felt well looked after within the New Zealand healthcare context but highlighted the need for long term support. Self-management strategies participants considered important included changes to their diet, acceptance by oneself and society, returning to work, the role of family, and the use of technology and social media. Health professionals should consider these factors when providing self-management support to individuals of Indian ethnicity.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAdvice and help around diet, lifestyle, and return to work were important priorities identified by our Indian stroke survivor participants.Our Indian stroke survivor participants requested more long-term specialist support and stroke information.Although the family willingly take increased responsibility for the wellbeing of the individual with stroke, it is not a substitute for professional input which needs to be tailored and offered proactively.

6.
Pain Pract ; 21(2): 226-261, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alteration in somatosensory function has been linked to pain experience in individuals with joint pain. In this systematic review we aimed to establish the level of evidence of associations between psychological, social, physical activity, and sleep measures and somatosensory function that were assessed via quantitative sensory testing (QST) among individuals with joint pain. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 6 electronic databases from their inception to July 2019. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality using a modified Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool and supplemented with recommendations from the Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Review of Prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS) checklist and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. The level of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) system. Data were pooled to evaluate the strength of the relationships of interest. RESULTS: Seventeen studies related to joint pain were included. Pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, and physical activity level have been shown to have a significant (small to fair) association with several QST measures. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is the only measure that was found to be consistently correlated with all the domains. The overall quality of evidence for all factors ranged from very low to moderate. Subgroup analysis revealed a stronger association for depression and pain catastrophizing and PPT and temporal pain summation in individuals with shoulder pain. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors and physical activity levels are associated with somatosensory function in people with joint pain. These factors need to be adjusted when establishing predictive relationships between somatosensory function and pain outcomes in individuals with joint pain.

7.
Scand J Pain ; 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108342

ABSTRACT

Objectives Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is a common complaint in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). MSK pain in IBD has previously demonstrated association with symptoms of central sensitization; however it is uncertain whether these symptoms are influenced simply by the presence of MSK pain and/or IBD. Primary aim of this study was to investigate whether symptoms of central sensitization differed across three groups: IBD patients with and without MSK pain and healthy controls. Secondary aim was to investigate between-group differences for measures of somatosensory functioning. Methods Cross-sectional study was performed on adults with IBD. Assessments included: central sensitization inventory (CSI), pressure pain threshold, temporal summation, conditioned pain modulation, perceived stress, affect style, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing. One-way analyses of variance and covariance were used to investigate between-group differences for measures of central sensitization and potential confounding by psychological factors. Results Study participants (n=66) were age/gender matched across three study groups. Between-group differences were solely demonstrated for CSI scores [F(2,63)=19.835, p<0.001, r=0.62], with IBD patients with MSK pain demonstrating the highest CSI scores and healthy controls the lowest. After controlling for individual psychological features, post hoc comparisons indicated that CSI scores were significantly different between-groups (p≤0.025) after controlling for most psychological variables, with the exception of perceived stress (p=0.063) and pain catastrophizing (p=0.593). Conclusions IBD patients as a whole demonstrated significantly greater symptoms of central sensitization compared to healthy controls. However, IBD patients with persistent MSK pain demonstrated the greatest symptoms of central sensitization compared to patients without MSK pain and healthy controls. Between-group differences for CSI in IBD patients with MSK were not confounded by psychological features. Implications Study results indicate that persistent MSK pain in IBD represents patients with greater central sensitization symptomology. This increased symptomology is suggestive of underlying mechanisms related to central sensitization, highlighting patient potentially at risk for worse pain experiences.

8.
J Prim Health Care ; 12(3): 195-198, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988440

ABSTRACT

Low back pain (LBP) is the leading contributor to years lived with disability, and imposes an enormous burden on individuals and on health-care systems. General practitioners and physiotherapists are generally the front-line health professionals dealing with patients with LBP, and have a key role in minimising its effect. Here we review six key issues associated with LBP including its effects, diagnosis and management in primary care, and highlight the importance of the biopsychosocial model and matched care for patients with LBP.

9.
Clin J Pain ; 36(2): 124-134, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory abnormalities are linked to clinical pain outcomes in individuals with spinal pain. However, a range of factors might confound the relationship between altered somatosensory function and clinical pain outcomes. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the literature to assess the level of evidence of associations between psychological, social, physical activity, and sleep measures and somatosensory function (assessed via sensory psychophysical testing) among individuals with spinal pain. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed in 6 electronic databases from their inception to June 2018. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality using a modified Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool and supplemented with recommendations from the Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for the Systematic Review of Prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS) checklist and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. The level of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) system. Data were pooled to evaluate the strength of the relationships of interest. RESULTS: Among the 17 factors identified in the included studies, pain catastrophizing, depression, and pain-related fear have significant negative (small to fair) associations with pain thresholds. A "very low" to "moderate" quality of evidence was found for all the investigated factors. Subgroup analysis showed a smaller effect size for pain catastrophizing/fear of movement and pain thresholds in individuals with low back pain. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological factors are associated negatively with pain thresholds and they need to be adjusted when establishing predictive relationships between somatosensory function and pain outcomes in individuals with spinal pain.

10.
Pain Pract ; 20(1): 24-33, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal conditions are well documented in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether IBD activity influences musculoskeletal pain experiences is uncertain. Central sensitization has been proposed in patients with IBD who are suffering from persistent pain. Identification of central sensitization symptomology using the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) has been reported in many pain-related disorders. Aims of this study were to explore predictive relationships between IBD activity and musculoskeletal pain experiences (severity/interference), and the mediating effects of the CSI. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was performed exploring self-reported musculoskeletal pain in adults with IBD. Survey questionnaires included IBD activity indices, numeric rating scales, PROMIS Pain Interference, and the CSI. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between active IBD and pain experiences. Simple and serial mediation analyses were used to explore mediation models: independent variable (IBD activity), dependent variables (severity/interference), and mediators (CSI/severity). RESULTS: 208 adults with IBD, 18 to 88 years of age, reported musculoskeletal pain. Regression analysis identified IBD activity as a significant predictor of worse pain severity (R2  = 0.039, P < 0.005) and interference (R2  = 0.067, P < 0.001). Simple mediation showed a significant indirect effect from CSI scores between IBD activity and pain severity. Serial mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect from CSI scores and pain severity, between IBD activity and pain interference. CONCLUSION: Active IBD demonstrated a positive association with worse musculoskeletal pain experiences. The CSI demonstrated significant mediation between active IBD and pain severity. Additionally, the CSI and pain severity demonstrated significant mediation between active IBD and pain interference. This suggests that symptoms of central sensitization significantly influence musculoskeletal pain experiences in IBD.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Sensitization , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Musculoskeletal Pain/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Pain Rep ; 4(5): e773, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875181

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Higher physical activity (PA) and lower sedentary behaviour (SB) levels have demonstrated beneficial effects on temporal summation (TS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in healthy adults. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between PA and SB and TS/CPM responses in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods: Sixty-seven middle-aged and older adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain were recruited from the community. Questionnaires measuring demographics, pain, and psychological measures were completed. Physical activity/SB levels were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form and Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire, respectively. Semmes monofilament was used to assess mechanical TS (MTS) at the most symptomatic (MTS-S) and a reference region (MTS-R); change in the pain scores (baseline-10th application) was used for analysis. Conditioned pain modulation procedure involved suprathreshold pressure pain threshold (PPT-pain4) administered before and after (CPM30sec, CPM60sec, and CPM90sec) conditioning stimulus (2 minutes; ∼12°C cold bath immersion). For analysis, PPT-pain4 (%) change scores were used. Results: PPT-pain4 (%) change scores at CPM30sec and CPM60sec demonstrated significant weak positive correlations with SB levels and weak negative correlations with PA measures. After adjusting for confounding variables, a significant positive association was found between SB (h/d) and PPT-pain4 (%) change scores at CPM30sec and CPM60sec. No significant associations between MTS and PA/SB measures. Conclusion: Sedentariness is associated with higher pain inhibitory capacity in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The observed relationship may be characteristic of a protective (sedentary) behaviour to enhance pain modulatory mechanism. Prospective longitudinal studies using objective PA/SB measures are required to validate the observed relationship in a larger sample size.

12.
Med Hypotheses ; 129: 109243, 2019 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371091

ABSTRACT

Pain is reported to affect over 70% of individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), with abdominal and musculoskeletal (MSK) pain representing the most common complaints. MSK pain is typically considered within the narrow framework of inflammatory extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, resulting in a limited scope for the nature and underlying mechanisms participating in MSK pain experiences in this population. Symptoms related to central sensitization have recently demonstrated association with active IBD and worse MSK pain experiences, suggesting a potential roll for central mechanisms in MSK-related pain. Current literature exploring persistent pain in chronic inflammatory and MSK populations propose complex pain models comprised of dynamic nervous system relationships influenced by primary disease features and concomitant pain states, as well as affective and cognitive components. Nervous system contributions in the development and maintenance of persistent pain are postulated to include mechanisms of peripheral and central sensitization, changes in descending central modulation, as well as structural brain changes. These models go beyond current MSK pain models described in IBD literature, highlighting the need for new frameworks for considering MSK-related pain in IBD. Consequently, this paper proposes a broader theoretical model whereby central mechanisms, such as central sensitization and grey matter changes, as well as psychological and disease factors are suggested to modulate pain experiences in this population. Exploration of relationships within the proposed framework may provide not only a deeper understanding of the generation and maintenance of persistent MSK pain in IBD, but also highlight the need for new targeted management pathways in this population. This paper hypothesizes that exploration of central sensitization in IBD patients will demonstrate altered somatosensory functioning in patients with MSK pain, and that IBD activity and psychological factors will be associated with altered somatosensory functioning and worse pain experiences.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Musculoskeletal Pain/complications , Pain Threshold , Algorithms , Gray Matter/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Models, Theoretical , Musculoskeletal Pain/psychology , Pain Measurement , Self Report
14.
Clin J Pain ; 35(7): 559-568, 2019 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pain affects over 70% of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with abdominal and musculoskeletal pain representing the most common symptoms. Musculoskeletal pain in IBD is reported to be associated with multiple clinical features, however the scope and nature of pain is not well understood. Primary aims were to identify subgroups of musculoskeletal pain in individuals with IBD based on clinical features of pain and assess how these subgroups differ in aspects of demographics, comorbidity, and IBD characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey was performed on adults with IBD. Domains included: demographics, comorbidity, and clinical IBD and pain features. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar attributes of: pain (severity, location, interference, and quality), IBD (activity, quality of life, and abdominal pain), and symptoms related to central sensitization. Correlation and regression analyses were used to profile identified subgroups. RESULTS: Of 305 included participants, 208 indicated the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Three identified subgroups were characterized as "mixed mechanism," "central mechanism," and "regional and remission." Between subgroup differences included: total comorbidity score (P=0.005), osteoarthritis (P=0.027), osteoporosis (P=0.045), depression (P=0.001), anxiety (P=0.025), and chronic fatigue syndrome (P=0.020). Sex and age were identified as confounders for depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Study results suggest multiple mechanisms contributing to pain experiences in IBD, to include central mechanisms. Features related to demographics, extraintestinal manifestations, IBD subtype, and clinical IBD features were not predictors of subgroup membership. However, total comorbidity demonstrated association with pain subgroups in this population.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Sensitization/physiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Musculoskeletal Pain/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Musculoskeletal Pain/diagnosis , Musculoskeletal Pain/physiopathology , Pain Measurement , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e025578, 2019 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is common in Maori and Pacific peoples and in those living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation in New Zealand (NZ). People with type 2 diabetes often have multimorbidity, which makes their diabetes management more complex. The Diabetes Community Exercise and Education Programme (DCEP) is an interprofessional, patient-centred, whanau (family)-supported package of care specifically developed to engage with Maori and Pacific people and those living in deprived areas. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of the DCEP. This study aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DCEP through a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 220 adults (age ≥35 years) with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from general practices in the lower South Island of NZ (Dunedin and Invercargill) to participate in an RCT. Participants will be randomised to intervention (DCEP) and control (usual care) groups. The DCEP participants will have their exercise goals agreed on with a physiotherapist and nurse and will attend two 90 min exercise and education sessions per week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is blood glucose control (glycated haemoglobin). Secondary outcome measures include quality of life assessed using the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life questionnaire. Data will be collected at four time points: baseline, end of the 12-week intervention (3 months), 6 months postintervention (9 months) and 12 months after the intervention ends (15 months). We will also conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis and a qualitative process evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Health and Disability Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health (HDEC17/CEN/241/AM01). A key output will be the development of an evidence-based training package to facilitate implementation of the DCEP in other NZ regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN 12617001624370 p; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise Therapy , Long-Term Care , Patient Education as Topic , Community Health Centers , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , New Zealand , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Program Evaluation , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Pain Pract ; 18(7): 895-924, 2018 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Test procedures that were developed to assess somatosensory abnormalities should possess optimal psychometric properties (PMPs) to be used in clinical practice. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature to assess the level of evidence for PMPs of test procedures investigated in individuals with peripheral joint pain (PJP). METHODS: A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted in 7 databases from inception to March 2016. The Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist and the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) tool were used to assess risk for bias of the included studies. Level of evidence was evaluated based on the methodological quality and the quality of the measurement properties. RESULTS: Forty-one studies related to PJP were included. The majority of included studies were considered to be of insufficient methodological quality, and the level of evidence for PMPs varied across different test procedures. The level of evidence for PMPs varied across different test procedures in different types of PJP. Hand-held pressure algometry is the only test procedure that showed moderate positive evidence of intrarater reliability, agreement, and responsiveness, simultaneously, when it was investigated in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified that the level of evidence for PMPs varied across different testing procedures to assess somatosensory abnormalities for different PJP populations. Further research with standardized protocols is recommended to further investigate the predictive ability and responsiveness of reported test procedures in order to warrant their extended utility in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Arthralgia/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Psychometrics , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 34: 103-107, 2018 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28928032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. METHODS: This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. FINDINGS: Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM.


Subject(s)
Buttocks/physiology , Electromyography/standards , Hamstring Muscles/physiology , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results
19.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 47(9): 617-627, 2017 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704625

ABSTRACT

Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Spinal manipulation (SM) can trigger a cascade of responses involving multiple systems, including the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system, specifically, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. However, no manual therapy study has investigated the neuroendocrine response to SM (ie, sympathetic nervous system-hypothalamic-pituitary axis) in the same trial. Objective To determine short-term changes in sympathetic nervous system activity, heart rate variability, and endocrine activity (cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone-cortisol [T/C] ratio) following a thoracic SM. Methods Twenty-four healthy men aged between 18 and 45 years were randomized into 2 groups: thoracic SM (n = 12) and sham (n = 12). Outcome measures were salivary cortisol (micrograms per deciliter), salivary testosterone (picograms per milliliter), T/C ratio, heart rate variability, and changes in oxyhemoglobin concentration of the right calf muscle (micromoles per liter). Measurements were done before and at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and approximately 6 hours after intervention. Results A statistically significant group-by-time interaction was noted for T/C ratio (P<.05) and salivary cortisol (P<.01) concentrations. Significant between-group differences were noted for salivary cortisol concentration at 5 minutes (mean difference, 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.6; interaction: P<.01) and for T/C ratio at 6 hours postintervention (mean difference, -0.09; 95% confidence interval: -0.16, -0.04; P = .02). However, SM did not differentially alter oxyhemoglobin, testosterone, or heart rate variability relative to responses in the sham group. Conclusion Thoracic SM resulted in an immediate decrease in salivary cortisol concentration and reduced T/C ratio 6 hours after intervention. A pattern of immediate sympathetic excitation was also observed in the SM group. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):617-627. Epub 13 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7348.


Subject(s)
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Manipulation, Spinal/methods , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology , Adult , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Male , Oxyhemoglobins/metabolism , Saliva/metabolism , Testosterone/metabolism , Thoracic Vertebrae
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...