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J Clin Med ; 13(8)2024 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673649


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. Diagnosis is based on the evidence-based international guideline 2018 and the Rotterdam Consensus to classify PCOS phenotypes. This study aims to characterize the biodemographic, clinical, metabolic, and reproductive variables and their relationship with PCOS phenotypes in a population from the Ecuadorian Andes. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-random consecutive sample of 92 women who attended the outpatient gynecology and endocrinology clinic at the Hospital of the Technical University of Loja (UTPL)-Santa Inés, Loja, Ecuador, between January 2022 and July 2023. Descriptive statistics, mean calculations, standard deviation, parametric and nonparametric tests, odds ratios (OR), confidence intervals (CI), and p-values were employed. Results: The average age was 22 ± 3.4 years, with a predominantly mestizo, urban, single, highly educated, and medium-high socioeconomic level population. It was identified that phenotypes A + B are at a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea and hypertriglyceridemia compared to phenotypes C + D, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in terms of reproductive variables, phenotypes A + B exhibit a significantly higher frequency of elevated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) compared to phenotypes C + D, also with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The classical phenotypes A and B of PCOS are the most common in Ecuadorian Andean women and carry a higher risk of insulin resistance, anovulation, metabolic disorders, and elevated triglyceride levels compared to phenotypes C and D. Ethnic diversity and sociocultural habits influence the prevalence and clinical manifestations of these phenotypes.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011558, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452054


BACKGROUND: Cholangiohydatidosis (CH) is an evolutionary complication of hepatic cystic echinococcosis, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the available evidence regarding clinical characteristics of CH, postoperative complications and hospital mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Systematic review. Studies related to CH with no language or publication restriction were included. Sensitive searches were performed in Trip Database, SciELO, BIREME-BVS, WoS, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS. MeSH and free terms were used, including articles up to April 2023. The main outcome variables were postoperative complications and hospital mortality; the secondary ones were publication year, origin and design of primary studies, main clinical manifestation, anatomical location and type of cysts, hospital stay, surgical procedure performed, reinterventions; and methodological quality of primary studies, which was assessed using MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales. Descriptive statistics, calculation of weighted averages and their comparison by least squares logistic regression were applied. 446 studies were retrieved from the searches performed, 102 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies analyzed represent 1241 patients. The highest proportion of articles was published in the last decade (39.2%). Reports are mainly from Turkey (28.4%), Greece (9.8%), Morocco and Spain (8.8% each). With a weighted mean of 14.3 days of hospital stance; it was verified that 26.2% of patients developed postoperative complications (74,3% Clavien y Dindo III y IV), 6.7% needed re-interventions, and 3.7% died. When comparing the variables age, postoperative complications, hospital mortality, and reinterventions in two periods of time (1982-2006 vs. 2007-2023), no statistically significant differences were found. When applying the MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales, the methodological quality of the primary studies was 9.6±1.1 and 14.5±4.3 points, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CH is associated with severe postoperative complications and significant hospital mortality, independent of the development of therapeutic support associated with the passage of time.

Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Postoperative Complications , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Morbidity
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 111-116, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528817


El cáncer gástrico (CG), es la primera causa de muerte por cáncer, en hombres, y la tercera en mujeres, en Chile. No obstante ello, el CG bifocal (CGB) es una situación poco frecuente. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar un caso de CGB, con linfonodos negativos en un paciente con cirrosis hepática, que fue intervenido quirúrgicamente; y revisar la evidencia existente respecto de sus características morfológicas, terapéuticas y pronósticas. Caso clínico: Hombre de 74 años diabético, hipertenso, insuficiente cardíaco y cirrótico; portador de CGB (subcardial y antro-pilórico), diagnosticado por endoscopia y con confirmación histológica de ambas lesiones; operado en Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco en septiembre de 2023. En el intraoperatorio se verificó además la coexistencia de una lesión de aspecto metastásico en el segmento III del hígado, y adhesión de la región antro-pilórica a la vesícula biliar. Se realizó gastrectomía total, linfadenectomía D2, esófago-yeyuno anastomosis término-lateral, resección segmentaria hepática (segmento III) y colecistectomía. El paciente permaneció 6 días en la UCI debido a que desarrolló insuficiencia hepática (encefalopatía leve y ascitis). Se alimentó vía enteral por sonda naso-yeyunal. Posteriormente inició alimentación oral progresiva, la que fue bien tolerada. Completó 11 días de hospitalización en servicio médico-quirúrgico, donde mejoró actividad neurológica, hasta su alta domiciliaria. Actualmente, lleva dos meses desde su operación, se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales, y el Comité Oncológico decidió no dar quimioterapia adyuvante. Se presenta un caso inusual de CG de tipo bifocal, respecto de lo cual hay escasa información disponible. Se logró realizar cirugía con intención curativa en un paciente de alto riesgo, con un resultado exitoso.

SUMMARY: Gastric cancer (GC) is the first cause of death from cancer in men, and the third one in women, in Chile. However, a bifocal GC (BGC) is uncommon. The aim of this study was to report a case of CGB, with negative-lymph nodes in a patient with liver cirrhosis, who underwent surgery; and review the existing evidence regarding its morphological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics. Clinical case: A 74-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis underwent surgical intervention for GC located in subcardial and antro- pyloric regions. The diagnosis was established via endoscopy and confirmed histologically. Surgery was performed at the RedSalud Mayor Temuco Clinic in September 2023. During intraoperative assessment, the coexistence of a lesion with metastatic-like characteristics in segment III of the liver was also verified, along with adhesions between the antro-pyloric region and the gallbladder. Surgical approach encompassed total gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, esophago-jejunostomy, segmental hepatic resection, and cholecystectomy. Subsequently, the patient required a six-day stay in ICU due to the development of hepatic insufficiency, characterized by mild encephalopathy and ascites. Enteral nutrition was administered via a naso-jejunal tube, followed by a gradual transition to oral feeding, which was well-tolerated. The patient completed an 11-day hospitalization period in the medical-surgical ward, during which his neurological function improved significantly, resulting in his discharge. At present, 2 months post-surgery, the patient remains in satisfactory general health, and the Oncology Committee decided not to proceed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case represents a rare instance of bifocal GC, for which there is limited available literature. Surgical intervention with curative intent was successfully carried out in a high-risk patient, yielding a positive outcome.

Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Gastrectomy
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(12): e0011813, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064500


BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in southern Chile. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of CE among relatives of patients who underwent surgical intervention for this disease in Cautín, a province of southern Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study. Relatives of patients who underwent surgery for hepatic echinococcosis (HE), who lived at the same address, during the period 2000-2020 were studied. A total of 288 relatives of 322 patients who underwent surgery for HE participated in a CE screening. All these relatives were interviewed and underwent abdominal ultrasonography, chest X-ray and immunodiagnostic studies (relatives who had been diagnosed with or had undergone surgery for CE were excluded). Descriptive statistics were applied. Prevalence calculation, odds ratio (OR), and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined. Abdominal or thoracic CE was verified in 42 relatives of subjects operated on for HE (mean age 41±8 years; 73.8% women; 38.1% of cases had two or more cysts), all of them new and asymptomatic cases. CE was detected in the lungs, liver, peritoneum, and spleen in 16.7%; 71.4%; 7.1%; and 4.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of EQ during the studied time period was 14,6% (17.9% and 12.3% in relatives of first and second degree respectively (OR:1.56; CI 95%: 0.81; 3.01). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of CE in relatives of patients undergoing surgery by this disease in the province of Cautín, Chile.

Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Echinococcosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/surgery , Echinococcosis/diagnosis
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(2): 52-58, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537926


INTRODUCCIÓN: el desbridamiento retroperitoneal video asistido (DRVA) es una técnica mínimamente invasiva usada para el tratamiento de la necrosis pancreática infectada (NPI). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: reporte de caso. RESULTADOS: se presenta un caso de pancreatitis aguda severa tratada con DRVA en una paciente femenina de 43 años, con un cuadro clínico de 5 días de evolución caracterizado por dolor abdominal espasmódico en hipocondrio derecho, de moderada intensidad, irradiado a epigastrio y en cinturón a ambos flancos. La paciente recibió atención privada en dos centros previos al ingreso al nuestro. Al ingreso, en el laboratorio, presenta leucocitosis y desvió izquierdo, amilasémia y lipasémia altas. Se realizaron tomografías contrastadas y punciones guiadas por TAC y DRVA cuando se evidencia necrosis amurallada. Se describe la técnica quirúrgica. Súbitamente la paciente presenta insuficiencia respiratoria y datos compatibles con tromboembolia pulmonar y fallece. CONCLUSIÓN: bajo la visión de terapia escalonada, el desbridamiento retroperitoneal video asistido va ganando adeptos en el manejo de la Pancreatitis Aguda Severa

BACKGROUND: video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD) is a minimally invasive technique used for the treatment of infected necrotizing pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: case report. RESULTS: a case of severe necrotizing pancreatitis is presented in a 43 years old female patient, with 5 days clinical evolution with spasmodic abdominal pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium of moderate intensity, irradiated to both flanks in belt. The patient received private care in two centers upon the admission in our hospital. In the laboratory at the admission, she showed leukocytosis and left deviation, high level in amylase and lipase. Contrasted enhanced tomography and guided punctures were realized and VARD were considered when evidence of wall of necrosis was observed in scanner. The surgical technique is described. Suddenly the patient presented acute respiratory failure with massive pulmonary thromboembolism and died. CONCLUSION: under the step-up approach vision, the video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement is gaining popularity in the management of the acute necrotizing pancreatitis

Female , Adult
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1863-1869, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528796


SUMMARY: Early closure of a loop ileostomy (ECI) is a relatively new practice, for which there is insufficient evidence regarding its effectiveness in relation to closure at conventional times. The aim of this study was to report postoperative complications (POC) and hospital mortality in patients with loop ileostomy (LI) who underwent ECI, compared with patients with LI who underwent late closure. Un- matched case-control study. Patients with LI who underwent surgery at Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco (2010-2022) were included. Cases were defined as patients with LI who underwent early closure and controls as subjects who underwent closure at the usual times. No matching was performed, but a 1:1 relationship between cases and controls was considered. Outcome variables were postoperative complications and hospital mortality. Other variables of interest were surgical time and hospital stay. Descriptive statistics were applied with calculation of proportions and measures of central tendency. Subsequently, t-test and Pearson Chi2 for comparison of averages and proportions was applied, and odds ratios and their respective 95 % CI were calculated. In this study 39 patients with AI were operated on (18 cases and 21 controls). Age and BMI average of the studied subjects was 71.3±7.1 years and 27.3±19.8 kg/m2 respectively. Mean LI closure time, surgical time, and hospitalization were: 10.0±0.7 months; 62.5±10.6min; 3.8±0.1 days respectively. POC were only surgical site infections. Three in cases (16.7 %) and 3 in controls (14.3 %). No anastomotic dehiscence or hospital mortality was observed in either cases or controls. There were no differences in comorbidities or surgical site infection between cases and controls (OR of 0.6 and 1.2 respectively) In this experience, the results of performing the CTI were similar to the late closing in relation to the variables studied.

El cierre temprano de una ileostomía en asa (IA), es una práctica relativamente nueva, sobre la que no hay suficiente evidencia respecto de su efectividad en relación con el cierre en tiempos convencionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar diferencias en la tasa de complicaciones postoperatorias (CPO) y de mortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes con IA sometidos a cierre temprano comparados con pacientes con IA sometidos a cierre tardío. Estudio de casos y controles sin emparejamiento. Se incluyeron pacientes con IA que fueron sometidos a cirugía en la Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco (2010-2022). Los casos se definieron como pacientes con IA sometidos a cierre temprano y los controles como sujetos con IA sometidos a cierre en tiempos habituales. No se realizó emparejamiento. Se consideró una relación 1:1 entre casos y controles. Las variables de resultado fueron CPO y mortalidad hospitalaria. Otras variables de interés fueron: tiempo quirúrgico y hospitalización. Se aplicó estadísticas descriptivas (cálculo de proporciones y medidas de tendencia central). Posteriormente, se aplicó prueba t-test y Chi2 para comparación de promedios y proporciones; y se calcularon odds ratios e intervalos de confianza del 95 %. Se operaron 39 pacientes con IA (18 casos y 21 controles). El promedio de edad e IMC fue 71,3±7,1 años y 27,3±19,8 kg/m2, respectivamente. El tiempo promedio de cierre de IA, tiempo quirúrgico y hospitalización fueron: 10,0±0,7 meses; 62,5±10,6 minutos; 3,8±0,1 días, respectivamente. Las CPO fueron infecciones del sitio quirúrgico (3 casos; 16,7 % y 3 controles; 14,3 %). No se observó dehiscencia anastomótica ni mortalidad hospitalaria en casos ni controles. No hubo diferencias en comorbilidades ni en infecciones del sitio quirúrgico entre casos y controles (OR de 0,6 y 1,2, respectivamente). No se evidenciaron diferencias entre realizar cierre temprano o tardío de IA, respecto de las variables CPO y de mortalidad hospitalaria.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Ileostomy/adverse effects , Ileostomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Time Factors , Ostomy , Case-Control Studies , Hospital Mortality , Surgical Stomas
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1550-1557, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521030


El carcinoma de células renales (CCR) a nivel mundial presenta una incidencia de 431.288 casos anuales, causando 179.368 muertes en 2020. Sin embargo, a pesar de su incidencia, el desarrollo de metástasis pancreática (MP) de un RCC es un hecho inusual. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar el caso de una paciente con una MP metacrónica de un CCR. Se trata de una paciente de 56 años, sexo femenino, nefrectomizada derecha hace 132 meses por un CCR, en adyuvancia con inmunoterapia. En un control imagenológico de rutina, se le pesquisó una lesión de aspecto tumoral en el cuerpo y cola del páncreas. Se intervino quirúrgicamente, realizándose una pancreatectomía córporo-caudal con preservación esplénica. Evolucionó de forma satisfactoria, sin complicaciones, siendo dada de alta al 4º día de su cirugía. El informe del estudio de la pieza operatoria con estudio inmunohistoquímico concluyó que se trataba de una MP de CCR. La paciente se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales y reinició quimioterapia con anticuerpos monoclonales. El seguimiento frecuente y prolongado de pacientes con antecedentes de CCR, facilita un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de MP facilitando el mejor pronóstico de los pacientes, con tasas más altas de supervivencia.

SUMMARY: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) worldwide has an incidence of 431,288 cases per year, causing 179,368 deaths in 2020. However, despite its incidence, the development of pancreatic metastasis (MP) from RCC is unusual. The aim of this manuscript was to report the case of a patient with a PM of a RCC. This is a 56-year-old female patient, underwent right nephrectomy 132 months earlier for RCC. While she was in adjuvant immunotherapy, in a routine imaging control, it was found a tumor lesion in the body and the tail of the pancreas. So, she underwent surgery, performing a corpora-caudal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation. Postoperative evolution was correct, without complications, and she was discharged on the 4th day after surgery. The report of the study of the surgical piece with an immunohistochemical study included, conclusive of PM of RCC. Currently, the patient is in good general condition and restarted chemotherapy with monoclonal antibodies. Frequent and prolonged follow-up of patients with a history of RCC facilitates timely diag- nosis and treatment of PM, facilitating the best prognosis for patients, with higher survival rates.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1452-1460, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521031


Lograr determinar el volumen total de un hígado (VHT), o volumetría hepática, pasa a ser de relevancia en diversas situaciones, tales como, vigilancia del progreso de una enfermedad de carácter crónico, planificación de resecciones y trasplantes hepáticos; y observación del clearance hepático de algunos fármacos hepatotropos. La VHT se puede realizar utilizando métodos de segmentación en el curso de una tomografía computarizada (TC), ya sean estos manual, automáticos, y semiautomáticos; mediante resonancia nuclear (RN), utilizando softwares de distintas generaciones (1ª a 4ª). La medición de VHT está indicada en pacientes sometidos a resecciones hepáticas mayores, en el contexto del tratamiento de neoplasias (carcinoma hepatocelular, colangiocarcinoma, metástasis hepáticas o tumores benignos de gran tamaño), abscesos (piogénicos, amebianos), y después de un traumatismo hepático complejo; así como también en la etapa preoperatoria de un trasplante hepático. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio sobre métodos para determinar volumetría hepática.

SUMMARY: Being able to determine the total hepatic volume (THV), or THV, becomes relevant in various situations, such as monitoring the progress of a chronic disease, planning resections and liver transplants; and observation of the hepatic clearance of some hepatotropic drugs. THV can be performed using segmentation methods in the course of a computed tomography (CT), whether manual, automatic, or semi-automated; by nuclear resonance (NR), using software from different generations (1st to 4st). THV measurement is indicated in patients undergoing major liver resections, in the context of treatment of neoplasms (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, liver metastases or large benign tumors), abscesses (pyogenic, amoebic), and after liver trauma complex, as well as in the preoperative stage of a liver transplant. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document regarding methods for determine hepatic volumetry.

Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1036-1042, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514342


La anemia afecta a miles de niños. Para el diagnóstico se cuantifica la hemoglobina (Hb); técnica que no se encuentra al alcance de toda la población. Contar con un instrumento validado de fácil aplicación, puede ayudar al diagnóstico. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar una aplicación móvil (APP) para diagnosticar anemia en niños de 2 a 5 años, aplicable por padres o tutores. Estudio de validación de escalas. Mediante búsqueda bibliografía se recopilaron ítems y dominios relacionados con anemia en niños. Una vez reducidos, se construyó un cuestionario para pilotaje, con tres hematólogos pediatras. El resultado de este fue posteriormente validado por 22 expertos mediante aplicación de escalas tipo Likert. Los ítems validados, se contrastaron con la Hb de niños de 267 niños de 2 a 5 años de los andes ecuatorianos (2.560 msnm). Se determinó asociación de los ítems con Hb y con los resultados obtenidos y se construyó la APP. 14 ítems fueron analizados. Todos ellos puntuaron sobre la mediana de la distribución (35,5 puntos) y fueron valorados por, al menos el 50 % de los expertos. Se seleccionaron palidez palmar, astenia y sueño en horas no habituales. Todos mostraron asociación significativa con anemia (p<0,05), y fueron aplicados como preguntas a padres o tutores y contrastados con el valor de Hb. Sensibilidad y especificidad para palidez fue: 85,1 % y 85,0 %; astenia: 72,3 % y 87,7 %; sueño en horas no habituales: 68,1 % y 87,7 %; palidez más astenia o sueño: 95,7 % y 74,6 %; y debilidad más sueño: 92,5 % y 76,8 %. Se desarrolló y validó una APP para diagnóstico de anemia en niños de 2 a 5 años aplicable por padres o tutores.

SUMMARY: Anemia affects thousands of children, and to reach a diagnosis, hemoglobin (Hb) is quantified. This technique however, is not always accessible to the general population. Therefore, the availability of a validated instrument can be useful in the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to validate a mobile application (APP), to diagnose anemia in children from 2 to 5 years old, applicable by parents or guardians. Scale validation study. Through a bibliographic search, items and domains related to anemia in children were collected. Once reduced, a pilot questionnaire was constructed with three pediatric hematologists. The result was later validated by 22 experts through the application of the Likert-type scales. The validated items were contrasted with the Hb of children of 267 children from 2 to 5 years of age from the Ecuadorian Andes (2,560 meters above sea level). The association of the items with Hb and with the results obtained was determined, and the APP was constructed. 14 items were analyzed. All of them scored above the median of the distribution (35.5 points) and were valued by at least 50 % of the experts. Palmar pallor, asthenia, and sleep at unusual hours were selected. All showed a significant association with anemia (p<0.05) and were applied as questions to parents or guardians and contrasted with the Hb value. Sensitivity and specificity for pallor was: 85.1 % and 85.0 %; asthenia: 72.3 % and 87.7 %; sleep at unusual hours: 68.1 % and 87.7 %; paleness plus fatigue or sleepiness: 95.7 % and 74.6 %; and weakness plus sleep: 92.5 % and 76.8 %. An APP for the diagnosis of anemia in children from 2 to 5 years old applicable by parents or guardians was developed and validated.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Mobile Applications , Anemia/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1240-1253, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514343


La expansión y consolidación de la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia ha llevado entre otras, a la necesidad de realizar una variedad cada vez mayor de tipos de revisión de la literatura científica; lo que permite avanzar en el conocimiento y comprender la amplitud de la investigación sobre un tema de interés, teniendo en cuenta que una de las propiedades del conocimiento es su carácter acumulativo. Sin embargo, la diversidad de la terminología utilizada genera confusión de términos y conceptos. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar un listado de los tipos de revisiones de la literatura más frecuentemente utilizados con sus características y algunos ejemplos de ellas. Revisión cualitativa. Se examinaron de forma dirigida las bases de datos PubMed, WoS y Scopus, en búsqueda de términos asociados a tipos de revisiones y síntesis de la literatura científica. Se encontraron 21 tipos de revisión; y 29 variantes y sinonimias asociadas; las que ilustran los procesos de cada una de ellas. Se da una descripción general de las características de cada cual, junto con las fortalezas y debilidades percibidas. No obstante, se verificó que sólo algunos tipos de revisión poseen metodologías propias y explícitas. Este enfoque, proporciona un punto de referencia para quienes realizan o interpretan revisiones en el ámbito sanitario, y sugiere dos tipos de propuestas de clasificación.

SUMMARY: The expansion and consolidation of evidence-based clinical practice has led, among other things, to the need to carry out an increasing variety of types of literature reviews, which allows advancing in knowledge and understanding the breadth of research on a topic of interest. However, the diversity of the terminology used generates confusion of terms and concepts. The aim of this manuscript was to provide a list of the most frequently used review types with their characteristics and some examples. Qualitative review. PubMed, WoS and Scopus databases were examined in a directed way, searching for terms associated with types of reviews and syntheses of the scientific literature. Twenty-one types of review, and 29 variants and associated synonymies were found; those that illustrate the processes of each of them. An overview of the characteristics of each is given, along with perceived strengths and weaknesses. However, it was verified that only some types of review have their own explicit methodologies. This approach, provides a point of reference for those who perform or interpret reviews in the health field and suggests two classification proposals.

Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Biomedicines ; 11(7)2023 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37509725


Cancer is one of the leading global causes of death and disease, and treatment options are constantly evolving. In this sense, the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in immunotherapy has been considered a fundamental aspect of modern cancer therapy. In order to avoid collateral damage, it is indispensable to identify specific molecular targets or biomarkers of therapy and/or diagnosis (theragnostic) when designing an appropriate immunotherapeutic regimen for any type of cancer. Furthermore, it is important to understand the currently employed mAbs in immunotherapy and their mechanisms of action in combating cancer. To achieve this, a comprehensive understanding of the biology of cancer cell antigens, domains, and functions is necessary, including both those presently utilized and those emerging as potential targets for the design of new mAbs in cancer treatment. This review aims to provide a description of the therapeutic targets utilized in cancer immunotherapy over the past 5 years, as well as emerging targets that hold promise as potential therapeutic options in the application of mAbs for immunotherapy. Additionally, the review explores the mechanisms of actin of the currently employed mAbs in immunotherapy.

Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(1): 52-57, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444500


Introducción: La infección del sitio operatorio (ISO), es una de las principales complicaciones en la cirugía de la peritonitis generalizada por apendicitis aguda (PGAA). La mejor opción entre cierre primario (CP) y diferido (CD) de la laparotomía, aún es materia de controversia. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar asociación entre tipo de cierre y desarrollo de ISO en pacientes con PGAA. Material y método: Ensayo clínico con asignación aleatoria (ECA) Se reclutó a pacientes con PGAA sin exclusión de sexo ni edad, e intervenidos quirúrgicamente en el Servicio de Cirugía del Hospital Obrero Nº 1 (La Paz, Bolivia) entre julio de 2019 y noviembre de 2021; y se les asignó de forma aleatoria a CP y CD; con un seguimiento mínimo de 30 días postoperatorio. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva (cálculo de porcentajes, de medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión); y posteriormente, se aplicaron estadísticas analíticas para estudiar asociación entre variables (test exacto de Fisher para variables categóricas y t de student para variables continuas). Se determinaron RA, RR, OR NNT y sus respectivos IC95%. Resultados: Se incluyeron 100 pacientes, divididos en 59 con CP y 41 con CD, con promedio de edad, peso, estatura e IMC de 43±13,1 años, 71±8,5 kilogramos, 1,61±0,8 metros y 27,6±3,2 respectivamente. La ISO fue de 29,8% y 4,7% en los grupos de CP y CD respectivamente. La incidencia de ISO para el CD fue de 0,05 (5%) y de 0,30 (30%) para el CP. Para los seromas, el RA para el CD es de 0,27 y para el CP de 0,55. El Número Necesario a Tratar (NNT) fue 3,97 (IC95%: 2,75-5,19). No hubo mortalidad. Conclusión: El CD se asocia a menor incidencia de ISO.

Introduction: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the main complications in surgery for generalized peritonitis due to acute appendicitis (GPAA). The best option between primary (PC) and delayed (CD) laparotomy closure is still a matter of controversy. The objective of this study was to determine the association between the type of closure and the development of SSI in patients with GPAA. Material and method: Randomized Clinical trial. Patients with GPAA were recruited without exclusion of sex or age, and underwent surgery in the Surgery Service of Hospital Obrero No. 1 (La Paz, Bolivia) between July 2019 and November 2021; they were randomly assigned to PC and DC; with a minimum follow-up of 30 days postoperatively. Descriptive statistics were applied (calculation of percentages, measures of central tendency, and dispersion); and subsequently, analytical statistics were applied to study the association between variables (Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's T test for continuous variables). AR, RR, OR, NNT and their respective 95% CI were determined. Results: 100 patients were included, divided into 59 with PC and 41 with CD, with average age, weight, height, and BMI of 43±13.1 years, 71±8.5 kilograms, 1.61±0.8 meters and 27.6±3.2 respectively. The SSI was 29.8% and 4.7% in the PC and DC groups respectively. The incidence of SSI for DC was 0.05 (5%) and 0.30 (30%) for PC. For seromas, the AR for DC is 0.27 and for PC 0.55. The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) was 3.97 (95% CI: 2.75-5.19). There was no mortality. Conclusion: DC is associated with a lower incidence of SSI.

Humans , Postoperative Period , Peritonitis
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 75(3)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515230


El tratamiento quirúrgico de la equinococosis quística hepática se asocia (entre otras), con una tasa de recurrencia actual de hasta 27%, aunque es infrecuente la recurrencia después de la exéresis total de un quiste intacto. Por lo general, la recurrencia ocurre producto del derrame de estructuras parasitarias vivas a alguna cavidad, o de dejar residuos de germinal, vesículas hijas o protoescólices durante la cirugía. La recurrencia suele ser asintomática, por lo que el diagnóstico depende, casi exclusivamente, de un seguimiento riguroso y prolongado en el tiempo, con controles clínicos, determinaciones serológicas, e imágenes. El tratamiento puede incluir el uso de albendazol, asociado a técnicas de radiología intervencionista o cirugía. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de lectura referente a la recurrencia de la equinococosis quística hepática.

Surgical treatment of hepatic cystic echinococcosis is associated (among others), with a current recurrence rate of up to 27%; although recurrence after total resection of an intact cyst is rare. In general, recurrence occurs as a result of the spillage of living parasitic structures into a cavity, or of leaving germinal residues, daughter vesicles, or protoscolices during surgery. Recurrence is usually asymptomatic, so the diagnosis depends almost exclusively on a rigorous and prolonged follow-up, with clinical controls, serological determinations, and images. Treatment may include the use of albendazole, followed by interventional radiology techniques or surgery. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a reading document regarding the recurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis.

Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 926-936, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514292


SUMMARY: The dentogingival junction (DGJ) is an adaptation of the oral mucosa composed of epithelial and connective tissues intimately related with the mineralised tissues of the tooth. The histological evidence available is mainly based on studies in animals, separate evaluations of hard and soft tissues, and studies using conventional histological techniques that eliminate the enamel from preparations. The aim of this study was to carry out a review of the existing evidence on histological techniques available for study of the tooth and periodontium in conjunction in humans. A scoping review was carried out of the available literature referring to study of the tooth and the periodontium in conjunction in humans, in the Web of Science (WoS), EMBASE, Scopus and SciELO databases, using the terms "Histological Techniques"[Mesh]) and "Epithelial Attachment"[Mesh]. One hundred and fifty-nine articles were found, of which 54 were selected for full- text reading. Ten were finally included in the qualitative synthesis, and we applied the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist for analysis the methodological quality of the selected articles. The results showed that the only articles with a low risk of bias in all five domains according to the AQUA criteria corresponded to Silva et al. (2011) and Agustín-Panadero et al. (2020). Finally, we conclude that the quality of the histological sections to observe tissues that simultaneously contain the tooth and the periodontium, is conditioned by the selected technique and by the care required in certain specific tasks during the histological processing of the samples.

La unión dentogingival (DGJ) es una adaptación de la mucosa oral compuesta por tejidos epitelial y conectivo íntimamente relacionados con los tejidos mineralizados del diente. La evidencia histológica disponible se basa principalmente en estudios en animales, evaluaciones separadas de tejidos duros y blandos y estudios utilizando técnicas histológicas convencionales que eliminan el esmalte de las preparaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión de la evidencia existente sobre las técnicas histológicas disponibles para el estudio del diente y el periodonto en conjunto en humanos. Se realizó un scoping review de la literatura disponible referente al estudio del diente y el periodonto en conjunto en humanos, en las bases de datos Web of Science (WoS), EMBASE, Scopus y SciELO, utilizando los términos "Histological Techniques"[Mesh]) y "Epithelial Attachment"[Mesh]. Se encontraron 159 artículos, de los cuales 54 fueron seleccionados para lectura de texto completo. Diez fueron finalmente incluidos en la síntesis cualitativa, y se aplicó la lista de verificación Anatómica Quality Assurance (AQUA) para el análisis de la calidad metodológica de los artículos seleccionados. Los resultados mostraron que los únicos artículos con bajo riesgo de sesgo en los cinco dominios según los criterios AQUA correspondían a Silva et al. (2011) y Agustín-Panadero et al. (2020). Finalmente, concluimos que la calidad de los cortes histológicos para observar los tejidos que contienen simultáneamente el diente y el periodonto, está condicionada por la técnica seleccionada y por el cuidado requerido en ciertas tareas específicas durante el procesamiento histológico de las muestras.

Humans , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Histological Techniques , Epithelial Attachment/anatomy & histology , Checklist , Gingiva/anatomy & histology , Periodontium/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2)abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440317


SUMMARY: Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), is a tapeworm that spreads between intermediate and definitive hosts through the ingestion of fecal matter contaminated with the parasite's eggs. The life cycle consists of differentiation from eggs to oncospheres to embryos, which eventually form cysts in organs like the liver, lungs and others. Within these cysts are protoscolices, an intermediate stage of the parasite which develop into adult tapeworms once they infect their definitive hosts. When these hydatid cysts form in humans, it is known as Cystic Echinococcosis (CE). This disease is treated through surgical excision of the cysts and or chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. Understanding the morphology of the intermediate developmental stage of E. granulosus, protoscolex stage, can allow researchers to identify defining structural changes and protein functions that could be used to develop treatment modalities for CE. Unique characteristics in the tegumental surface during the protoescolex stage and proteins associated with cyst fertility have all been identified in previous research studies and bring researchers closer to understanding the underlying mechanisms of E. granulosus development, and consequently, means to disrupt it to achieve better control of the disease.

El Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), es un cestodo que se propaga entre huéspedes intermedios y definitivos a través de la ingestión de materia fecal contaminada con los huevos del parásito. El ciclo de vida consiste en la diferenciación de huevos a oncosferas y embriones, que finalmente forman quistes en órganos como el hígado, los pulmones y otros. Dentro de estos quistes hay protoescólices, una etapa intermedia del parásito que se convierte en su forma adulta (tenia), una vez que infectan a sus huéspedes definitivos. Cuando estos quistes hidatídicos se desarrollan en seres humanos, se les conoce como equinococosis quística (EC). Esta enfermedad se trata mediante la extirpación quirúrgica de los quistes o la quimioterapia con compuestos benzimidazólicos. La comprensión de la morfología de la etapa de desarrollo intermedia del E. granulosus y la etapa de protosclex, puede permitir a los investigadores identificar cambios estructurales definidos y funciones de proteínas que podrían usarse para desarrollar modalidades de tratamiento para la CE. Las características únicas en la superficie tegumentaria durante la etapa de protoescolex y las proteínas asociadas con la fertilidad del quiste se han identificado en estudios de investigación anteriores y acercan a los investigadores a la comprensión de los mecanismos subyacentes del desarrollo del E. granulosus y, en consecuencia, los medios para interrumpirlo para lograr un mejor control de la enfermedad.

Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Echinococcus granulosus/pathogenicity , Echinococcosis
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 491-500, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440341


Siendo el cáncer gástrico la 3ª causa de muerte por cáncer en Chile, y existiendo estrategias de tamizaje consistentes en pesquisa de lesiones preneoplásicas de la mucosa gástrica, es relevante conocer los aspectos genéticos y moleculares que puedan ser aplicados, en la optimización de dichas estrategias a grupos de mayor riesgo. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue revisar la evidencia actual en los aspectos señalados, y de la inmunohistoquímica de 4 marcadores (p53, CDX2, MUC2 y S100A9) en la mucosa gástrica normal y en las lesiones preneoplásicas de la misma.

SUMMARY: Since gastric cancer is the 3rd leading cause of death from cancer in Chile, and there are screening strategies consisting of screening for preneoplastic lesions of the gastric mucosa, it is important to know certain genetic and molecular aspects that can be applied in optimizing these strategies for higher risk groups. The aim of this manuscript was to review the current evidence on the aforementioned aspects, and on the immunohistochemistry of 4 markers (p53, CDX2, MUC2 and S100A9) in normal gastric mucosa and in its preneoplastic lesions.

Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , Precancerous Conditions/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Genes, p53 , Mucin-2 , CDX2 Transcription Factor , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Metaplasia
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36992259


More than 600 healthcare workers died due to COVID-19 infection until January 2022 in Ecuador. Even though the COVID-19 vaccines are safe, local and systemic reactions were reported among physicians. This study aims to analyze the adverse events of COVID-19 with an emphasis on comparing the homologous and heterologous booster doses in physicians that received three approved vaccines in Ecuador. An electronic survey was performed in Quito, Ecuador, directed at physicians who were vaccinated with the three doses of COVID-19 vaccines. A total of 210 participants were analyzed after administering any dose of the vaccines. At least one AE was identified in 60.0% (126/210) of the sample after the first dose, 52.40% (110/210) after the second dose, and 75.2% (158/210) after the booster dose. The most frequent AEs were localized pain, myalgia, headache, and fever. At least one drug was used in 44.3% of the population after the first dose, 37.1% after the second dose, and 63.8% in the booster dose. Heterologous booster produces more AEs compared with homologous booster (80.1% vs. 53.8%), and 77.3% of participants reported that interfered with daily activities. Similar studies agree that reactogenicity occurs mainly with heterologous vaccination compared to homologous vaccination. This situation affected physicians' performance in daily activities and led them to use medication for the symptoms. In the future, it is recommended to perform cohort studies, where adverse events that are associated with vaccine boosters in the general population can be analyzed longitudinally, thus improving the level of evidence of the results.

Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 146-155, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430522


Los estudios de corte transversal (ECT) inician en la década de los 40 en países Europeos. Los ECT corresponden a investigaciones de tipo observacional que permiten estudiar prevalencia de enfermedad, determinar asociación entre variables y el desarrollo de un efecto de interés, conocer propiedades de una prueba diagnóstica, y censar poblaciones; describiendo las características de una población en un momento y lugar determinado. Esto implica, que no se requieren periodos de seguimiento, que no son prospectivos ni retrospectivos; características que permiten que sean más baratos y fáciles de realizar en relación a los estudios longitudinales. Por otro lado, al ser de carácter descriptivo sirven como insumo y evidencia preliminar para estudios de mayor complejidad metodológica, como estudios de cohortes. Sin embargo, tienen limitantes y sesgos que deben ser considerados por los investigadores. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio para revisar características esenciales, fortalezas y debilidades; discutir cuestiones metodológicas de los ECT en ciencias de la salud; y proporcionar algunos ejemplos obtenidos de la literatura, para mejor comprensión del diseño.

SUMMARY: Cross-sectional studies (CSS) began European countries in the 1940s in. The CSSs correspond to observational-type investigations that allow studying the prevalence of disease, determining the association between variables and the development of an effect of interest, discovering the properties of a diagnostic test, and censusing populations, describing the characteristics of a population at a given time and place. This implies that follow-up periods are not required, and that they are neither prospective nor retrospective. These characteristics allow them to be cheaper and easier to perform in relation to longitudinal studies. On the other hand, being descriptive in nature, they serve as input and preliminary evidence for studies of greater methodological complexity, such as cohort studies. However, they have limitations and biases that must be considered by researchers. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document to review essential characteristics, strengths and weaknesses; discuss methodological issues of ECT in health sciences; and provide some examples obtained from the literature, for a better understanding of the design.

Humans , Research Design , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anatomy/methods , Selection Bias , Prevalence , Observational Studies as Topic
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 54(2): 513-519, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488975


PURPOSE: Worldwide, gastric cancer (GC) is the 5th cancer with the highest incidence and the 4th in mortality. To reduce it, one strategy is to diagnose preneoplastic lesions (PNL): atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia (DYS); to form risk groups on which to focus surveillance efforts as are first-degree relatives (FDR). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of gastric PNL in FDR of patients with GC, and to study association with sex, age, and Helicobacter pylorii (Hp) infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. One hundred and ten FDR, aged between 50 and 65 years, 54.5 female, obtained through convenience sampling, were studied. Biodemographic data survey and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with histological study were applied according to Sidney protocol, and focal lesions found. Diagnosis of these lesions and condition of mucosa was carried out by applying OLGA and OLGIM systems. Descriptive statistics, estimation of prevalence, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Median age of study group was 56.5 years. Prevalence of PNL, AG, IM, and DYS were 86.4%, 82.7%, 54.5%, and 12.7% respectively. Advanced stages of OLGA and OLGIM were verified in 18.0% and 16.3% respectively. No association with sex, age, and Hp infection were found ([OR 3.10; 95CI 1.0; 9.64]; [OR 0.74; 95CI 0.26; 2.14]; [OR 0.58; 95CI 0.12; 2.77]) respectively. CONCLUSION: FDR of patients with GC have a high prevalence of PNL, which makes them a risk group in which endoscopic surveillance should be applied.

Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Precancerous Conditions , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Precancerous Conditions/epidemiology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Gastritis, Atrophic/epidemiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/complications , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Hyperplasia/complications , Metaplasia/epidemiology , Metaplasia/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Gastric Mucosa/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1630-1640, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421802


La equinococosis quística (EQ) a pesar de ser una enfermedad endémica en diversos lugares del planeta, presenta pocos estudios morfológicos y cuantitativos de las estructuras fundamentales del Echinococcus granulosus en humanos, en especial de los protoescólices. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar morfocuantitativamente protoescólices y otras estructuras fundamentales de E. granulosus obtenidos de hospederos humanos. Estudio de corte transversal. Se estudiaron 8 especímenes de EQ hepática humana, aplicando un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se evaluó las capas quísticas, el líquido y la arenilla hidatídica. Las capas fueron fijadas en formaldehido tamponado a 10 % y procesadas para su inclusión en paraplast. Se realizaron cortes de 5 µm de grosor y fueron teñidas con H-E para su análisis con microscopía óptica. El líquido y arenilla fueron centrifugados y al sedimento obtenido se le realizó análisis directo para determinar las medidas morfométricas de los protoescólices y de los ganchos grandes y pequeños. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva. De los 8 quistes estudiados, 6 eran quistes univesicular, uno multivesicular y un quiste abscedado, cuyas capas laminada y germinativa se encontraban bien definidas. Las vesículas prolígeras presentaban forma redondeada con protoescólices en su interior. Los protoescólices invaginados presentaron un largo y ancho promedio de 140,8 ± 34,3 µm y 106,2 ± 29,5 µm, respectivamente; y los desarrollados un largo de 237,2 ± 53,0 µm y ancho de 128,7 ± 32,0 µm. Los ganchos rostelares presentaron contornos suaves distribuidos en dos filas regulares. El promedio del largo total de los ganchos grandes y pequeños fue 20,1 ± 2,7 µm; el promedio del ancho total fue 7,4 ± 1,2 µm. En conclusión, las características morfocuantitativas de los ganchos de E. granulosus en humanos, son distintos a otras especies hospederas intermediarias y de otros Echinococcus spp. Es posible que el abandono del estado de resistencia de los protoescólices invaginado hasta su desarrollo genere implicancias epidemiológicas de interés.

SUMMARY: Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in several parts of the world, few morphological and quantitative studies of the fundamental structures of Echinococcus granulosus in humans, especially protoscolices. The aim of this study was to perform a morphoquantitative analysis of protoescolex and other fundamental structures of E. granulosus from human hosts. Cross- sectional study. Eight human hepatic EQ specimens were studied, applying non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Cystic layers, fluid and hydatid grit were evaluated. The layers were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for embedding in paraplast. Slices of 5 µm thickness were made and stained with H-E for light microscopic analysis. The liquid and grit were centrifuged and the sediment obtained was analyzed directly to determine the morphometric measurements of the protoscolices and the large and small hooks. Descriptive statistics were used. Of the 8 cysts studied, 6 were univesicular cysts, one multivesicular and one abscessed cyst, whose lamellar and germinative layers were well defined. The proligerous vesicles had a rounded shape with protoscolices inside. The invaginated protoscolices had an average length and width of 140.8 ± 34.3 µm and 106.2 ± 29.5 µm, respectively; and the developed ones had a length of 237.2 ± 53.0 µm and width of 128.7 ± 32.0 µm. The rostellar hooks presented smooth contours distributed in two regular rows. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 20.1 ± 2.7 µm; the average total width was 7.4 ± 1.2 µm. In conclusion, the morphoquantitative characteristics of E. granulosus hooks in humans are distinct from other intermediate host species and from other Echinococcus spp. It is possible that the abandonment of the resistance state of the invaginated protoscolices until their development generates epidemiological implications of interest.

Humans , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies