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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 452-459, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a human pathogenic arenavirus, is distributed worldwide. However, no human cases have been reported in Africa. This study aimed to investigate the current situation and potential risks of LCMV infection in Gabon, Central Africa. METHODS: A total of 492 human samples were screened to detect LCMV genome RNA and anti-LCMV IgG antibodies using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ELISA-positive samples were further examined using a neutralization assay. Viral RNAs and antibodies were also analyzed in 326 animal samples, including rodents, shrews, and bushmeat. RESULTS: While no LCMV RNA was detected in human samples, the overall seroprevalence was 21.5% and was significantly higher in male and adult populations. The neutralization assay identified seven samples with neutralizing activity. LCMV RNA was detected in one species of rodent (Lophuromys sikapusi) and a porcupine, and anti-LCMV IgG antibodies were detected in four rodents and three shrews. CONCLUSIONS: This study determined for the first time the seroprevalence of LCMV in Gabon, and revealed that local rodents, shrews, and porcupines in areas surrounding semi-urban cities posed an infection risk. Hence, LCMV infection should be considered a significant public health concern in Africa.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244800, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been linked to neutrophil activation. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are also associated with neutrophil activation. Since ANCAs are reportedly skewed in TB and HIV infections, we investigated plasma levels of 7 ANCAs in TB-IRIS patients. METHODS: We retrospectively compared 17 HIV-TB patients who developed TB-IRIS with controls of similar CD4 count, age and gender who did not (HIV+TB+ n = 17), HIV-infected patients without TB (HIV+TB-, n = 17) and 10 HIV-negative (HIV-TB-) controls. Frozen plasma was collected before ART, at 3 and 9 months of ART, and examined by ELISA for levels of 7 ANCAs directed against; Proteinase 3 (PR3), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Permeability-increasing protein (BPI), Elastase, Cathepsin, Lysozyme, and Lactoferrin. RESULTS: Compared to HIV+TB+ controls, pre-ART anti-elastase levels were lower in TB-IRIS patients (p = 0.026) and HIV-TB- controls (p = 0.044), whereas other ANCAs did not show significant differences between groups at any time point. A significant decrease over time could be observed in TB-IRIS patients during ART for anti -PR3 (p = 0.027), -lysozyme (p = 0.011), and -lactoferrin (p = 0.019). Conversely, HIV+TB+ controls showed a significant decrease over time for anti -MPO (p = 0.002), -lyzosyme (p = 0.002) and -elastase (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The lack of elevated anti-elastase levels in TB-IRIS patients as opposed to HIV+TB+ controls correspond to previous findings of lowered immune capacity in patients that will develop TB-IRIS. This may suggest a specific role for anti-elastase, elastase or even matrix-metalloproteinases in TB-IRIS. The precise dynamics of neutrophil activation in HIV-TB merits further investigation and could provide more insight in the early mechanisms leading up to TB-IRIS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Pancreatic Elastase/immunology , Tuberculosis/complications , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/blood , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/etiology , Male , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/immunology
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087393

ABSTRACT

Acute febrile illness (AFI) is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care in low-income and middle-income countries. Bacterial infections account for a relatively small proportion of AFIs; however, in the absence of a simple diagnostic test to guide clinical decisions, healthcare professionals often presume that a non-malarial febrile illness is bacterial in origin, potentially resulting in inappropriate antibiotic use. An accurate differential diagnostic tool for AFIs is thus essential, to both limit antibiotic use to bacterial infections and address the antimicrobial resistance crisis that is emerging globally, without resorting to multiple or complex pathogen-specific assays. The Biomarker for Fever-Diagnostic (BFF-Dx) study is one of the largest fever biomarker studies ever undertaken. We collected samples and classified disease aetiology in more than 1900 individuals, distributed among enrolment centres in three countries on two continents. Identical protocols were followed at each study site, and the same analyses were conducted in each setting, enabling like-with-like comparisons to be made among the large sample set generated. The BFF-Dx methodology can act as a model for other researchers, facilitating wider utility of the work in the future. The established sample collection is now accessible to researchers and companies and will facilitate the development of future fever-related diagnostic tests. Here, we outline the methodology used to determine the sample populations and to differentiate bacterial versus non-bacterial AFIs. Future publications will set out in more detail the study's demographics, the causes of fever identified and the performance of selected biomarkers.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hookworms cause substantial morbidity in children and women of reproductive age. The control strategy of mass drug administration is suboptimal, hence the need for a vaccine. Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1) and N americanus glutathione S-transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) are involved in the digestion and detoxification of haemoglobin in the hookworm digestive tract. In animal models, vaccination against these antigens resulted in protection from challenge infection. Both vaccine candidates were shown to be safe and well tolerated when administered separately to healthy adults. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of co-administered Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 (M74) vaccines in healthy Gabonese adults. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, double-blind, phase 1, dose-escalation trial was done at the Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, in a region of Gabon where N americanus and other helminths are prevalent. Healthy adults aged 18-50 years and living in Lambaréné or the surrounding areas were recruited to the study. Participants were enrolled consecutively into two dose cohorts (30 µg or 100 µg of the experimental vaccines) and randomly assigned in blocks (block size four) to receive three doses of either co-administered Na-GST-1 plus Na-APR-1 (M74; 30 µg or 100 µg of each), adjuvanted with Alhydrogel (aluminium hydroxide gel suspension) together with an aqueous formulation of glucopyranosyl lipid A, or hepatitis B vaccine plus saline (control group). Vaccines were administered intramuscularly on days 0, 28, and 180. The primary endpoint was safety, with immunogenicity a secondary endpoint. The intention-to-treat population was used for safety analyses, whereas for immunogenicity analyses, the per-protocol population was used (participants who received all scheduled vaccinations). Control vaccine recipients for both dose cohorts were combined for the analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02126462. FINDINGS: Between Oct 27, 2014, and Jan 31, 2015, 56 individuals were screened for eligibility, of whom 32 were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the three study groups (12 each in the 30 µg and 100 µg experimental vaccine groups and eight in the control group). Both study vaccines were well tolerated in both dose groups. The most common adverse events were mild-to-moderate injection-site pain, headache, myalgia, and nausea. No severe or serious adverse events related to the vaccines were recorded. 52 unsolicited vaccine-related adverse events occurred during the study, but there was no difference in frequency between vaccine groups. IgG antibodies were induced to each of the vaccine antigens, with mean IgG levels increasing after each vaccination. Vaccination with 100 µg of each vaccine antigen consistently induced IgG seroconversion (IgG levels above the reactivity threshold). Peak IgG responses were observed 2 weeks after the third vaccine dose for both antigens, with all participants who received the 100 µg doses seroconverting at that timepoint. IgG levels steadily declined until the final study visit 6 months after the third vaccination, although they remained significantly higher than baseline in the 100 µg dose group. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination with recombinant Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 (M74) in healthy adults living in N americanus-endemic areas of Gabon was safe and induced IgG to each antigen. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report results of Na-APR-1 (M74) co-administered with Alhydrogel in participants from an N americanus-endemic area. Further clinical development of these vaccines should involve efficacy studies. FUNDING: European Union Seventh Framework Programme.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664597

ABSTRACT

Helminth infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. Besides direct clinical effects, a bias towards a T helper type 2 (Th2) cell immune response is observed. The consequences of parasite infection during pregnancy for the mother and particularly for the fetus and the newborn can be severe and may include impaired immune response during acute infection and vaccination. Here, we present data of immune responses to vaccines given within the expanded program on immunization (EPI) of infants born to helminth infected or non-infected mothers. The study was conducted in Lambaréné and surroundings, Gabon. Maternal helminth infection was diagnosed microscopically using the Kato-Katz method for soil-transmitted helminths (STH), urine filtration for Schistosoma haematobium infections and the saponin-based method for filarial infections. Plasma antibody levels to different vaccine antigens were measured in mothers and their offspring by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at different timepoints. We found 42.3% of the mothers to be infected with at least one helminth species. Significantly lower anti-tetanus toxoid immunoglobulin (Ig) G was detected in the cord blood of infants born to helminth infected mothers. Following vaccination, immune responses of the infants to EPI vaccines were similar between the two groups at nine and 12 months. Even though infection with helminths is still common in pregnant women in Gabon, in our setting, there was no evidence seen for a substantial effect on infants' immune responses to vaccines given as part of the EPI.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008464, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614822

ABSTRACT

Infection with parasitic helminths has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, lowering the risk for type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about its impact on whole-body lipid homeostasis, especially in obese individuals. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was carried out in lean and overweight/obese adults residing in the Lambaréné region of Gabon, an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium. Helminth infection status, peripheral blood immune cell counts, and serum metabolic and lipid/lipoprotein levels were analyzed. We found that urine S. haematobium egg-positive individuals exhibited lower serum total cholesterol (TC; 4.42 vs 4.01 mmol/L, adjusted mean difference [95%CI] -0.30 [-0.68,-0.06]; P = 0.109), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C (1.44 vs 1.12 mmol/L, -0.24 [-0.43,-0.06]; P = 0.009) and triglyceride (TG; 0.93 vs 0.72 mmol/L, -0.20 [-0.39,-0.03]; P = 0.022) levels than egg-negative individuals. However, when stratified according to body mass index, these effects were only observed in overweight/obese infected individuals. Similarly, significant negative correlations between the intensity of infection, assessed by serum circulating anodic antigen (CAA) concentrations, and TC (r = -0.555; P<0.001), HDL-C (r = -0.327; P = 0.068), LDL-C (r = -0.396; P = 0.025) and TG (r = -0.381; P = 0.032) levels were found in overweight/obese individuals but not in lean subjects. Quantitative lipidomic analysis showed that circulating levels of some lipid species associated with cholesterol-rich lipoprotein particles were also significantly reduced in overweight/obese infected individuals in an intensity-dependent manner. In conclusion, we reported that infection with S. haematobium is associated with improved lipid profile in overweight/obese individuals, a feature that might contribute reducing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases in such population.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol/blood , Lipids/blood , Obesity/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Schistosomiasis haematobia/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215991, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The exact contribution of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes to TB-IRIS development remains unclear. Here, we studied the expression of exhaustion markers on lymphocytes at different intervals during ART. METHODS: We compared 13 HIV-TB patients who developed TB-IRIS with 13 patients who did not (HIV+TB+), 13 HIV-patients without TB (HIV+TB-) and 9 HIV/TB-negative controls (HIV-TB-). Patients did not differ in age, gender, or CD4-count prior to ART. Frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected before ART and during 3 months and 9 months of ART, were analysed using flow cytometry. We examined expression of KLRG1, PD-1 and IL-27R on CD4+ and CD8hi T cells, as well as CD3-negative CD8lo lymphocytes as an approximate subset of NK cells. In addition, expression of TLR2, TLR4, IL1RL1, and TRAILR on CD14+ monocytes were investigated. RESULTS: Prior to ART, TB-IRIS patients had higher percentages of CD8hi T cells that are KLRG1+PD-1+ compared to each control group (p≤0.034). Though PD-1 expression decreased during ART in all groups (p≤0.026), the percentage KLRG1+PD-1+CD8hi T cells remained higher in TB-IRIS patients after 3 months of ART (p≤0.013). Though these patterns were less pronounced in CD3-CD8lo lymphocytes, the percentage of KLRG1+ cells was higher in TB-IRIS patients prior to ART (p≤0.043). In contrast, no clear differences could be observed for CD4+ T cells or monocytes. CONCLUSION: TB-IRIS is preceded by a high level of exhausted (KLRG1+PD-1+) CD8hi T cells, which persists during 3 months of ART. This trait is potentially mirrored in a subpopulation of NK cells, but not CD4+ T cells. Since a dysfunctional CD8+ lymphocyte compartment could predispose patients to TB-IRIS, the functional role of these cells prior to TB-IRIS development should be further explored.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/immunology , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Male , Receptors, Interleukin/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(8): 1377-1384, 2019 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: GMZ2 is a recombinant malaria vaccine inducing immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) merozoite surface protein-3 and glutamate-rich protein. We used standardized controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) to assess the efficacy of this asexual blood-stage vaccine. METHODS: We vaccinated 50 healthy, adult volunteers with lifelong exposure to Pf 3 times, at 4-week intervals, with 30 or 100 µg GMZ2 formulated in CAF01, a liposome-based adjuvant; 100 µg GMZ2, formulated in Alhydrogel; or a control vaccine (Verorab). Approximately 13 weeks after the last vaccination, 35/50 volunteers underwent CHMI by direct venous inoculation of 3200 Pf sporozoites (Sanaria® PfSPZ Challenge). RESULTS: Adverse events were similarly distributed between GMZ2 and control vaccinees. Baseline-corrected anti-GMZ2 antibody concentrations 4 weeks after the last vaccination were higher in all 3 GMZ2-vaccinated arms, compared to the control group. All GMZ2 formulations induced similar antibody levels. CHMI resulted in 29/34 (85%) volunteers with Pf parasitemia and 15/34 (44%) with malaria (parasitemia and symptoms). The proportion of participants with malaria (2/5 control, 6/10 GMZ2-Alhydrogel, 2/8 30 µg GMZ2-CAF01, and 5/11 100 µg GMZ2-CAF01) and the time it took them to develop malaria were similar in all groups. Baseline, vaccine-specific antibody concentrations were associated with protection against malaria. CONCLUSIONS: GMZ2 is well tolerated and immunogenic in lifelong-Pf-exposed adults from Gabon, with similar antibody responses regardless of formulation. CHMI showed no protective effect of prior vaccination with GMZ2, although baseline, vaccine-specific antibody concentrations were associated with protection. CHMI with the PfSPZ Challenge is a potent new tool to validate asexual, blood-stage malaria vaccines in Africa. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Pan-African Clinical Trials: PACTR201503001038304.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Vaccination , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adolescent , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Parasitemia , Sporozoites , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
12.
PLoS Med ; 14(10): e1002402, 2017 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine prevented Ebola virus disease when used at 2 × 107 plaque-forming units (PFU) in a trial in Guinea. This study provides further safety and immunogenicity data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomised, open-label phase I trial in Lambaréné, Gabon, studied 5 single intramuscular vaccine doses of 3 × 103, 3 × 104, 3 × 105, 3 × 106, or 2 × 107 PFU in 115 adults and a dose of 2 × 107 PFU in 20 adolescents and 20 children. The primary objective was safety and tolerability 28 days post-injection. Immunogenicity, viraemia, and shedding post-vaccination were evaluated as secondary objectives. In adults, mild-to-moderate adverse events were frequent, but there were no serious or severe adverse events related to vaccination. Before vaccination, Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-specific and ZEBOV antibodies were detected in 11% and 27% of adults, respectively. In adults, 74%-100% of individuals who received a dose 3 × 104, 3 × 105, 3 × 106, or 2 × 107 PFU had a ≥4.0-fold increase in geometric mean titres (GMTs) of ZEBOV-GP-specific antibodies at day 28, reaching GMTs of 489 (95% CI: 264-908), 556 (95% CI: 280-1,101), 1,245 (95% CI: 899-1,724), and 1,503 (95% CI: 931-2,426), respectively. Twenty-two percent of adults had a ≥4-fold increase of ZEBOV antibodies, with GMTs at day 28 of 1,015 (647-1,591), 1,887 (1,154-3,085), 1,445 (1,013-2,062), and 3,958 (2,249-6,967) for the same doses, respectively. These antibodies persisted up to day 180 for doses ≥3 × 105 PFU. Adults with antibodies before vaccination had higher GMTs throughout. Neutralising antibodies were detected in more than 50% of participants at doses ≥3 × 105 PFU. As in adults, no serious or severe adverse events related to vaccine occurred in adolescents or children. At day 2, vaccine RNA titres were higher for adolescents and children than adults. At day 7, 78% of adolescents and 35% of children had recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus RNA detectable in saliva. The vaccine induced high GMTs of ZEBOV-GP-specific antibodies at day 28 in adolescents, 1,428 (95% CI: 1,025-1,989), and children, 1,620 (95% CI: 806-3,259), and in both groups antibody titres increased up to day 180. The absence of a control group, lack of stratification for baseline antibody status, and imbalances in male/female ratio are the main limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile of the 2 × 107 PFU dose in adults and support consideration of lower doses for paediatric populations and those who request boosting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000919191.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Ebola Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ebolavirus/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Child , Ebola Vaccines/adverse effects , Ebola Vaccines/immunology , Female , Gabon , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 72(3): 344-52, 2016 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306506

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether mycobacterial antigen-induced cytokine secretions are helpful in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in a cohort of HIV-infected patients living in a country with a high burden of Mtb and HIV infections, and to determine their predictive value for the development of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. DESIGN: A total of 352 HIV-infected patients (186 with active TB) were prospectively enrolled when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sequential blood samples were collected during the first 6 months of ART. Eighty-three HIV-uninfected subjects (39 with active TB) were enrolled as controls. METHODS: The concentrations of 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants from blood mononuclear cells in vitro stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) or early secreted antigen-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10), and results were compared with those of tuberculin skin tests (TST). RESULTS: The best detection of Mtb infection was achieved by ESAT-6/CFP-10-induced interferon-γ concentrations, but results were often negative for patients with CD4 T-cell counts <50 per cubic millimeters. Patients with active TB were identified by high ESAT-6/CFP-10-induced interleukin-6. Conversions of interferon-γ-release assays (IGRA) and TST occurred under ART, and combined TB and antiretroviral treatments of coinfected patients resulted in a decrease of ESAT-6/CFP-10-induced and an increase of HBHA-induced interferon-γ responses. No Mtb antigen-induced cytokines allowed us to predict TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or ART-associated TB. CONCLUSIONS: In Uganda, ESAT-6/CFP-10-IGRA is better in detecting Mtb infection than TST and, when combined with an HBHA-IGRA, could help to evaluate anti-TB treatment success.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/metabolism , HIV Infections/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/microbiology , Uganda
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 95(2): 394-400, 2016 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273645

ABSTRACT

Infections with helminths and Plasmodium spp. overlap in their geographical distribution. It has been postulated that helminth infections may influence malarial transmission by altering Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the effect of helminth infections on P. falciparum gametocyte carriage and on humoral immune responses to sexual stage antigens in Gabon. Schistosoma haematobium and filarial infections as well as P. falciparum asexual forms and gametocyte carriage were determined. The antibody responses measured were to sexual (Pfs230, Pfs48/45) and asexual P. falciparum antigens (AMA1, MSP1, and GLURP). A total of 287 subjects were included. The prevalence of microscopically detectable P. falciparum asexual parasites was higher in S. haematobium-infected subjects in comparison to their uninfected counterparts (47% versus 26%, P = 0.003), but this was not different when filarial infections were considered. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage was similar between Schistosoma- or filaria-infected and uninfected subjects. We observed a significant decrease of Pfs48/45 immunoglobulin G titer in S. haematobium-infected subjects (P = 0.037), whereas no difference was seen for Pfs230 antibody titer, nor for antibodies to AMA1, MSP1, or GLURP. Our findings suggest an effect of S. haematobium on antibody responses to some P. falciparum gametocyte antigens that may have consequences for transmission-blocking immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Protozoan/biosynthesis , Life Cycle Stages/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Child , Coinfection , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Merozoite Surface Protein 1/genetics , Merozoite Surface Protein 1/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Schistosoma haematobium/genetics , Schistosoma haematobium/growth & development , Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/parasitology
15.
N Engl J Med ; 374(17): 1647-60, 2016 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine expressing a Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein was selected for rapid safety and immunogenicity testing before its use in West Africa. METHODS: We performed three open-label, dose-escalation phase 1 trials and one randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 1 trial to assess the safety, side-effect profile, and immunogenicity of rVSV-ZEBOV at various doses in 158 healthy adults in Europe and Africa. All participants were injected with doses of vaccine ranging from 300,000 to 50 million plaque-forming units (PFU) or placebo. RESULTS: No serious vaccine-related adverse events were reported. Mild-to-moderate early-onset reactogenicity was frequent but transient (median, 1 day). Fever was observed in up to 30% of vaccinees. Vaccine viremia was detected within 3 days in 123 of the 130 participants (95%) receiving 3 million PFU or more; rVSV was not detected in saliva or urine. In the second week after injection, arthritis affecting one to four joints developed in 11 of 51 participants (22%) in Geneva, with pain lasting a median of 8 days (interquartile range, 4 to 87); 2 self-limited cases occurred in 60 participants (3%) in Hamburg, Germany, and Kilifi, Kenya. The virus was identified in one synovial-fluid aspirate and in skin vesicles of 2 other vaccinees, showing peripheral viral replication in the second week after immunization. ZEBOV-glycoprotein-specific antibody responses were detected in all the participants, with similar glycoprotein-binding antibody titers but significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers at higher doses. Glycoprotein-binding antibody titers were sustained through 180 days in all participants. CONCLUSIONS: In these studies, rVSV-ZEBOV was reactogenic but immunogenic after a single dose and warrants further evaluation for safety and efficacy. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02283099, NCT02287480, and NCT02296983; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry number, PACTR201411000919191.).


Subject(s)
Ebola Vaccines/immunology , Ebolavirus/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arthritis/etiology , Dermatitis/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Ebola Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ebola Vaccines/adverse effects , Ebolavirus/isolation & purification , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins , Vesiculovirus , Viremia , Virus Shedding
16.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133924, 2015.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26208109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The role of disturbed T cell reconstitution in TB-IRIS is not well understood. We investigated T cell activation and maturation profiles in patients who developed TB-IRIS at different intervals during ART. METHODS: Twenty-two HIV-TB patients who developed early-onset TB-IRIS and 10 who developed late-onset TB-IRIS were matched for age, sex and CD4 count to equal numbers of HIV-TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on fresh blood, drawn before and after ART initiation and during TB-IRIS events. T cell activation and maturation was measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using CD45RO, CD38, HLA-DR, CCR7 and CD27 antibodies. RESULTS: CD8+ T cell activation before ART was decreased in both early-onset (77% vs. 82%, p = 0.014) and late-onset (71% vs. 83%, p = 0.012) TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. After ART initiation, the observed differences in T cell activation disappeared. During late-onset, but not early-onset TB-IRIS, we observed a skewing from memory to terminal effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations (p≤0.028). CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence of reduced CD8+ T cell activation before ART as a common predisposing factor of early- and late-onset TB-IRIS. The occurrence of TB-IRIS itself was not marked by an over-activated CD8+ T cell compartment. Late- but not early-onset TB-IRIS was characterized by a more terminally differentiated T cell phenotype.


Subject(s)
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/etiology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Viral Load
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(6): e0003768, 2015.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are a major public health problem, especially in the tropics. Infected individuals have an altered immune response with evidence that antibody response to vaccination is impaired. Hence, treatment of helminth infections before vaccination may be a simple intervention to improve vaccine immunogenicity. In the present study we investigated whether a single-dose antihelminthic treatment influences antibody responses to a seasonal influenza vaccine in primary school children living in Gabon, Central Africa. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled double-blind trial conducted in Gabon the effect of a single-dose antihelminthic treatment with 400 mg albendazole versus a placebo one month prior to immunization with a seasonal influenza vaccine was investigated. Antiviral antibody titers against all three vaccine strains were assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test at baseline (Day 0; vaccination) and four weeks (Day 28) as well as 12 weeks (Day 84) following vaccination. Vaccine-specific memory B-cell response was measured at Day 0 and Day 84 by vaccine-specific Enzyme-linked Immunospot (ELISpot) assay. The trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) (PACTR201303000434188). RESULTS: 98 school children aged 6-10 years were randomly allocated to receive either antihelminthic treatment or placebo and were vaccinated one month after the treatment. The prevalence of helminths at baseline was 21%. Vaccine-specific HI titers against at least one of the three vaccine strains increased at Day 28 and Day 84 in all participants. HI titers against both influenza A strains as well as memory B-cell response were modestly higher in the antihelminthic treated group compared to the placebo group but the difference was not statistically significant. Total but not specific IgA was elevated in the antihelminthic treated group compared to the control group at Day 28. CONCLUSION: In our setting antihelminthic treatment had no significant effect on influenza vaccine immunogenicity. A trend towards better antiviral and vaccine immunogenicity in the antihelminthic treated group encourages studies to be conducted with alternative treatment schedules or in populations with a higher helminth burden.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Helminthiasis/drug therapy , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Child , Double-Blind Method , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminthiasis/immunology , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/classification , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/immunology , Male , Prevalence , Seasons
18.
Malar J ; 14: 94, 2015 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25890010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helminths and malaria are among the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world. They both occur in tropical area where they often affect the same populations. There are studies suggesting an effect of helminths on malariometric indices. For example, malaria attacks as well as disease severity has been shown to be influenced by a concurrent chronic helminth infection. However, there are also studies that show no effect of concurrent helminth infections on malarial outcomes. To start addressing this issue, the effect of chronic Schistosoma haematobium infection on both the innate and adaptive immune response of Plasmodium falciparum-infected subjects was assessed in an area endemic for both these infections in Gabon. METHOD: Subjects infected with S. haematobium and or P. falciparum, as well as a control group with neither of these infections, were recruited. For innate immune response, heparinized blood was obtained and cultured for 24 hours with a panel of TLR ligands. For adaptive immune response, PBMC was isolated and stimulated with SEB for 72 hours. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in supernatants using a multiplex beads array immunoassay. Principal Component analysis was used to assess pattern of cytokine and chemokine responses representing the innate and adaptive components of the immune system. RESULTS: Overall it was observed that the presence of P. falciparum infection was marked by an increase in innate and adaptive immune responsiveness while S. haematobium infection was characterized by an increased chemokine profile, with at the same time, lower pro inflammatory markers. When the study subjects were split into single infected and co-infected groups no effect of S. haematobium on the immune response of P. falciparum infected subjects was observed, neither for the innate nor for the adaptive component of the immune response. CONCLUSION: This study provides original information on the cellular immune response of S. haematobium and/or P. falciparum in infected subjects. It rules out an effect of S. haematobium on the cytokine profile of subjects co-infected with P. falciparum.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Coinfection/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Immunity, Innate , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , Chemokines/blood , Child , Coinfection/parasitology , Female , Gabon , Humans , Male , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology , Schistosoma haematobium/physiology
19.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113101, 2014.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25415590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of IFNγ responses to recall and TB-antigens and explored in vitro innate cytokine production in TB-IRIS patients. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of HIV-TB co-infected patients treated for TB before ART initiation, we compared 18 patients who developed TB-IRIS with 18 non-IRIS controls matched for age, sex and CD4 count. We analyzed IFNγ ELISpot responses to CMV, influenza, TB and LPS before ART and during TB-IRIS. CMV and LPS stimulated ELISpot supernatants were subsequently evaluated for production of IL-12p70, IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 by Luminex. RESULTS: Before ART, all responses were similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. During TB-IRIS, IFNγ responses to TB and influenza antigens were comparable between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls, but responses to CMV and LPS remained significantly lower in TB-IRIS patients. Production of innate cytokines was similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. However, upon LPS stimulation, IL-6/IL-10 and TNFα/IL-10 ratios were increased in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. CONCLUSION: TB-IRIS patients did not display excessive IFNγ responses to TB-antigens. In contrast, the reconstitution of CMV and LPS responses was delayed in the TB-IRIS group. For LPS, this was linked with a pro-inflammatory shift in the innate cytokine balance. These data are in support of a prominent role of the innate immune system in TB-IRIS.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/immunology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Male , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Interleukin-12 , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
20.
Springerplus ; 3: 388, 2014.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25120947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria and helminth co infection are common in tropical and subtropical areas where they affect the life of millions of people. While both helminth and malaria parasites have immunomodulatory activities, little is known about the consequence of co-infections on malaria antigen specific immune responses. METHOD/DESIGN: This study will be conducted in two rural areas of the Moyen Ogooué province in Gabon, endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infections. Participants, 5 to 50 years old, will be enrolled and grouped according to their infection status. S. haematobium and malaria parasites will be detected, demographic and clinical data will be recorded and blood will be collected for hematological as well as for immunological assays. The level of antibody specific to Plasmodium falciparum blood stage and gametocyte antigens will be measured using ELISA. PBMC will be isolated for phenotyping of different T cell subsets ex vivo by flow cytometry and for culture and cytokine response assessment. DISCUSSION: We will provide a comprehensive picture of the interaction between schistosomes and malaria parasites which co-localize in peripheral blood. We will test the hypothesis that schistosome infection has an impact on specific humoral as well as on cellular immune responses to malaria antigens.

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