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1.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 21, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the commonest mental disorders in primary care but is poorly identified. The objective of this review was to determine the level of detection of depression by primary care clinicians and its determinants in studies from low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILAC, and AJOL with no restriction of year of publication. Risk of bias within studies was evaluated with the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). "Gold standard" diagnosis for the purposes of this review was based on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; cutoff scores of 5 and 10), other standard questionnaires and interview scales or expert diagnosis. Meta-analysis was conducted excluding studies on special populations. Analyses of pooled data were stratified by diagnostic approaches. RESULTS: A total of 3159 non-duplicate publications were screened. Nine publications, 2 multi-country studies, and 7 single-country studies, making 12 country-level reports, were included. Overall methodological quality of the studies was good. Depression detection was 0.0% in four of the twelve reports and < 12% in another five. PHQ-9 was the main tool used: the pooled detection in two reports that used PHQ-9 at a cutoff point of 5 (combined sample size = 1426) was 3.9% (95% CI = 2.3%, 5.5%); in four reports that used PHQ-9 cutoff score of 10 (combined sample size = 5481), the pooled detection was 7.0% (95% CI = 3.9%, 10.2%). Severity of depression and suicidality were significantly associated with detection. CONCLUSIONS: While the use of screening tools is an important limitation, the extremely low detection of depression by primary care clinicians poses a serious threat to scaling up mental healthcare in LMICs. Interventions to improve detection should be prioritized. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016039704 .


Subject(s)
Depression , Developing Countries , Depression/diagnosis , Humans , Income , Primary Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Age Ageing ; 51(1)2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unmet healthcare needs have increasingly been recognised as an indicator of equity of healthcare access and utilisation, having the potential to capture frailty of health and social protection systems. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs and its correlates among middle-aged and older adults in China. METHODS: This study is based on analyses of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study carried out in 2011 among Chinese adults aged 45 years and above. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to examine associated factors, stratified by rural or urban residence. Reasons for having unmet needs for inpatient and outpatient services were also analysed. RESULTS: Among 14,774 participants, the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs was 13.0% (95% confidence interval 12.3-13.8%) and was higher in rural areas. The most prevalent reasons for unmet need for inpatient and outpatient care were 'not enough money' and 'illness is not serious, don't need treatment', respectively. The respondents who were unmarried, employed, had poor self-reported health, needed help with activities of daily living, reported lower life satisfaction, multiple chronic conditions and depressive symptoms had increased odds of unmet healthcare needs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that unmet healthcare needs are more concentrated among people living with multiple health conditions and mental health problems in China. If universal health coverage goals and sustainable development goal 3 are to be met, it is essential that effective mechanisms for addressing unmet healthcare needs are identified.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Health Services Needs and Demand , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity
3.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 99-114, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672829

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to systematically review and synthesize quantitative studies that assessed the association between socioeconomic inequalities and primary health care (PHC) utilization among older people living in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Six databases were searched, including Embase, Medline, Psych Info, Global Health, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI, to identify eligible studies. A narrative synthesis approach was used for evidence synthesis. A total of 20 eligible cross-sectional studies were included in this systematic review. The indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) identified included income level, education, employment/occupation, and health insurance. Most studies reported that higher income, higher educational levels and enrollment in health insurance plans were associated with increased PHC utilization. Several studies suggested that people who were unemployed and economically inactive in older age or who had worked in formal sectors were more likely to use PHC. Our findings suggest a pro-rich phenomenon of PHC utilization in older people living in LMICs, with results varying by indicators of SES and study settings.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Social Class , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
4.
Transcult Psychiatry ; : 13634615211064367, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939463

ABSTRACT

Available evidence in Africa suggests that the prevalence of depression in primary care settings is high but it often goes unrecognized. In this study, we explored how depression is conceptualized and communicated among community members and primary care attendees diagnosed with depression in rural Ethiopia with the view to informing the development of interventions to improve detection. We conducted individual interviews with purposively selected primary care attendees with depression (n = 28; 16 females and 12 males) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with males, females, and priests (n = 21) selected based on their knowledge of their community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. None of the community members identified depression as a mental illness. They considered depressive symptoms presented in a vignette as part of a normal reaction to the stresses of life. They considered medical intervention only when the woman's condition in the vignette deteriorated and "affected her mind." In contrast, participants with depression talked about their condition as illness. Symptoms spontaneously reported by these participants only partially matched symptoms listed in the current diagnostic criteria for depressive disorders. In all participants' accounts, spiritual explanations and traditional healing were prominent. The severity of symptoms mediates the decision to seek medical help. Improved detection may require an understanding of local conceptualizations in order to negotiate an intervention that is acceptable to affected people.

5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 604449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744572

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study was designed to explore prevalence and correlates of self-reported loneliness and to investigate whether loneliness predicts mortality among older adults (aged 65 or above) in Latin America, China and India. Methods: The study investigated population-based cross-sectional (2003-2007) and longitudinal surveys (follow-up 2007-2010) from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group project. Poisson regression and Cox regression analyses were conducted to analyse correlates of loneliness and its association with mortality. Results: The standardised prevalence of loneliness varied between 25.3 and 32.4% in Latin America and was 18.3% in India. China showed a low prevalence of loneliness (3.8%). In pooled meta-analyses, there was robust evidence to support an association between loneliness and mortality across Latin American countries (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26, I2 = 10.1%) and China (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.03-2.41), but there were no associations in India. Conclusion: Our findings suggest potential cultural variances may exist in the concept of loneliness in older age. The effect of loneliness upon mortality is consistent across different cultural settings excluding India. Loneliness should therefore be considered as a potential dimension of public health among older populations.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Mortality , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Prevalence , Risk Factors
6.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003097, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has reframed health and healthcare for older people around achieving the goal of healthy ageing. The recent WHO Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE) guidelines focus on maintaining intrinsic capacity, i.e., addressing declines in neuromusculoskeletal, vitality, sensory, cognitive, psychological, and continence domains, aiming to prevent or delay the onset of dependence. The target group with 1 or more declines in intrinsic capacity (DICs) is broad, and implementation may be challenging in less-resourced settings. We aimed to inform planning by assessing intrinsic capacity prevalence, by characterising the target group, and by validating the general approach-testing hypotheses that DIC was consistently associated with higher risks of incident dependence and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted population-based cohort studies (baseline, 2003-2007) in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, India, and China. Door-knocking identified eligible participants, aged 65 years and over and normally resident in each geographically defined catchment area. Sociodemographic, behaviour and lifestyle, health, and healthcare utilisation and cost questionnaires, and physical assessments were administered to all participants, with incident dependence and mortality ascertained 3 to 5 years later (2008-2010). In 12 sites in 8 countries, 17,031 participants were surveyed at baseline. Overall mean age was 74.2 years, range of means by site 71.3-76.3 years; 62.4% were female, range 53.4%-67.3%. At baseline, only 30% retained full capacity across all domains. The proportion retaining capacity fell sharply with increasing age, and declines affecting multiple domains were more common. Poverty, morbidity (particularly dementia, depression, and stroke), and disability were concentrated among those with DIC, although only 10% were frail, and a further 9% had needs for care. Hypertension and lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease, and healthcare utilisation and costs, were more evenly distributed in the population. In total, 15,901 participants were included in the mortality cohort (2,602 deaths/53,911 person-years of follow-up), and 12,939 participants in the dependence cohort (1,896 incident cases/38,320 person-years). One or more DICs strongly and independently predicted incident dependence (pooled adjusted subhazard ratio 1.91, 95% CI 1.69-2.17) and death (pooled adjusted hazard ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.49-1.85). Relative risks were higher for those who were frail, but were also substantially elevated for the much larger sub-groups yet to become frail. Mortality was mainly concentrated in the frail and dependent sub-groups. The main limitations were potential for DIC exposure misclassification and attrition bias. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we observed a high prevalence of DICs, particularly in older age groups. Those affected had substantially increased risks of dependence and death. Most needs for care arose in those with DIC yet to become frail. Our findings provide some support for the strategy of optimising intrinsic capacity in pursuit of healthy ageing. Implementation at scale requires community-based screening and assessment, and a stepped-care intervention approach, with redefined roles for community healthcare workers and efforts to engage, train, and support them in these tasks. ICOPE might be usefully integrated into community programmes for detecting and case managing chronic diseases including hypertension and diabetes.


Subject(s)
Dementia/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Healthy Aging , Independent Living , Age Factors , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/mortality , Functional Status , Geriatric Assessment , Health Surveys , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048742, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: ASSET (Health System Strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa) is a health system strengthening (HSS) programme involving eight work-packages (ie, a research study that addresses a specific need for HSS) that aims to develop solutions that support high-quality care. Here we present the protocol for the implementation science (IS) theme within ASSET (ASSET-ImplmentER) that aims to understand what HSS interventions work, for whom and how, and how IS methodologies can be adapted to improve the HSS interventions within resource-poor contexts. SETTINGS: Publicly funded health facilities in rural and urban areas in in Ethiopia, South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: Research staff including principal investigators, coinvestigators, field staff, PhD students, and research assistants. INTERVENTIONS: Work-packages use a mixed-methods effectiveness-effectiveness hybrid designs. At the end of the pre-implementation phase, a workshop is held whereby the IS theme, jointly with ASSET work-packages apply IS determinant frameworks to research findings to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of delivering evidence-informed care. Determinants are used to select a set of HSS interventions for further evaluation, where work-packages also theorise selective mechanisms.In the piloting and rolling implementation phase, work-packages pilot the HSS interventions. An iterative process then begins involving evaluation, reflection and adaptation. Throughout this phase, IS determinant frameworks are applied to monitor and identify barriers/enablers to implementation. Selective mechanisms of action are also investigated. Implementation outcomes are evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. The psychometric properties of outcome measures including acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility are also evaluated. In a final workshop, work-packages come together, to reflect and explore the utility of the selected IS methods and provide suggestions for future use.Structured templates are used to organise and analyse common and heterogeneous patterns across work-packages. Qualitative data are analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data are analysed using means and proportions. CONCLUSIONS: We use a novel combination of IS methods at a programmatic level to facilitate comparisons of determinants and mechanisms that influence the effectiveness of HSS interventions in achieving implementation outcomes across different contexts. The study also contributes conceptual development and clarification at the underdeveloped interface of IS, HSS and global health.The ASSET-ImplementER theme is considered minimal risk as we only interview researchers involved in the different work-packages. To this effect we have received approval from King's College London Ethics Committee for research that is considered minimal risk (Reference number: MRA-20/21-21772).


Subject(s)
Implementation Science , Ethiopia , Humans , London , Sierra Leone , South Africa , Zimbabwe
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 270: 113625, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373775

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Little is known about the specific experience people living with bipolar disorder in rural, low resource settings, where conditions that disrupt normal social interactions are often highly stigmatized and evidence-based treatments are rare. OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experience, coping strategies, help-seeking practices, and consequences of illness among people with bipolar disorder (PBD) and their family members in rural Ethiopia as an initial step for developing psychosocial intervention grounded by the experiences of PBD. METHOD: A qualitative methods using in-depth interviews were carried out with 27 individuals (15 PBD and 12 caregivers). The participants were identified on the basis of previous community-based research among people with severe mental illness. Interviews were carried out in Amharic, audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Our approach was informed by phenomenological theory. RESULT: Three major themes emerged: expressions and experiences of illness, managing self and living with otherness, and the costs of affliction. PBD and caregivers were concerned by different forewarnings of illness. Stigma and social exclusion were entwined in a vicious cycle that shaped both illness experience and the economic health and social life of the household. Nonetheless, PBD and caregivers learned from their experiences, developed coping strategies, and sought relief from trusted relationships, spirituality, and medication. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that psychosocial intervention could be used to strengthen existing resources, in order to improve the lives of PBD and their family members. However, pervasive stigma may be a barrier to group and peer support approaches.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Bipolar Disorder/therapy , Caregivers , Ethiopia , Humans , Qualitative Research , Rural Population
10.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(12): 1581-1591, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have suggested that women with schizophrenia are more likely to achieve positive outcomes, the evidence-base is fraught with inconsistencies. In this study we compare the long-term course and outcomes for men and women living with schizophrenia in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: The Butajira course and outcome study for severe mental disorders is a population-based cohort study. Community ascertainment of cases was undertaken between 1998 and 2001, with diagnostic confirmation by clinicians using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Findings from annual outcome assessments were combined with clinical records, patient and caregiver report, and psychiatric assessments at 10-13 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation- LIFE chart. For the sub-group of people with schizophrenia (n = 358), we compared course of illness and treatment, co-morbidity, recovery, social outcomes and mortality between men and women. Multivariable analyses were conducted for modelling associations identified in bivariate analyses according to blocks shaped by our a priori conceptual framework of the biological and social pathways through which gender might influence the course and outcome of schizophrenia. RESULTS: Looking into over 10-13 years of follow-up data, there was no difference in the functioning or recovery in women compared to men (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.91, 3.57). Women were less likely to report overall life satisfaction (AOR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.53) or good quality of spousal relationships (AOR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01-1.04). Men were more likely to have co-morbid substance use and there was a trend towards women being more likely to be prescribed an antidepressant (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.88). There were no gender differences in the course of illness, number of psychotic episodes or adherence to medications. CONCLUSION: In this rural African setting, we found little evidence to support the global evidence indicating better course and outcome of schizophrenia in women. Our findings are suggestive of a gendered experience of schizophrenia which varies across contexts. Further investigation is needed due to the important implications for the development of new mental health services in low and middle-income country settings.


Subject(s)
Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Cohort Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Rural Population , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 246: 112760, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006814

ABSTRACT

Debate about the cross-cultural relevance of depression has been central to cross-cultural psychiatry and global mental health. Although there is now a wealth of evidence pertaining to symptoms across different cultural settings, the role of the health system in addressing these problems remains contentious. Depression is undetected among people attending health facilities. We carried out a thematic synthesis of qualitative evidence published in the scientific literature from sub-Saharan Africa to understand how depression is debated, deployed and described. No date limits were set for inclusion of articles. Our results included 23 studies carried out in communities, among people living with HIV, attendees of primary healthcare and with healthcare workers and traditional healers. Included studies were carried out between 1995 and 2018. In most cases, depression was differentiated from 'madness' and seen to have its roots in social adversity, predominantly economic and relationship problems, sometimes entangled with HIV. Participants described the alienation that resulted from depression and a range of self-help and community resources utilised to combat this isolation. Both spiritual and biomedical causes, and treatment, were considered when symptoms were very severe and/or other possibilities had been considered and discarded. Context shaped narratives: people already engaged with the health system for another illness such as HIV were more likely to describe their depression in biomedical terms. Resolution of depression focussed upon remaking the life world, bringing the individual back to familiar rhythms, whether this was through the mechanism of encouraging socialisation, prayer, spiritual healing or biomedical treatment. Our findings suggest that it is essential that practitioners and researchers are fluent in local conceptualisations and aware of local resources to address depression. Design of interventions offered within the health system that are attuned to this are likely to be welcomed as an option among other resources available to people living with depression.


Subject(s)
Depression , Mental Disorders , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies show that the prevalence of comorbid depression in people with tuberculosis (TB) is high. The hypothesis that TB may lead to depression has not been well studied. Our objectives were to determine the incidence and predictors of probable depression in a prospective cohort of people with TB in primary care settings in Ethiopia. METHODS: We assessed 648 people with newly diagnosed TB for probable depression using Patient Health Questionnaire, nine-item (PHQ-9) at the time of starting their anti-TB medication. We defined PHQ-9 scores 10 and above as probable depression. Participants without baseline probable depression were assessed at 2 and 6 months to measure incidence of depression. Incidence rates per 1000-person months were calculated. Predictors of incident depression were identified using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-nine (46.1%) of the participants did not have probable depression at baseline. Twenty-two (7.4%) and 26 (8.7%) developed depression at 2 and 6 months of follow up. The incidence rate of depression between baseline and 2 months was 73.6 (95% CI 42.8-104.3) and between baseline and 6 months was 24.2 (95% CI 14.9-33.5) per 1000 person-months respectively. Female sex (adjusted ß = 0.22; 95% CI 0.16-0.27) was a risk factor and perceived social support (adjusted ß = -0.14; 95% CI -0.24 to -0.03) was a protective factor for depression onset. CONCLUSION: There was high incidence of probable depression in people undergoing treatment for newly diagnosed TB. The persistence and incidence of depression beyond 6 months need to be studied. TB treatment guidelines should have mental health component.

13.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(5): 895-917, 2019 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046632

ABSTRACT

Studies have suggested that in African countries, symptoms of cognitive decline are commonly seen as part of "normal ageing" or attributed to supernatural causes. The impact of folk beliefs about causality upon help-seeking is unclear. Likewise, there is a lack of evidence relating to how families cope with living with an older resident with dementia. Our study's aim was to explore the sociocultural beliefs, understandings, perceptions and behaviours relating to living with dementia in Kintampo, Ghana. We conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 28 people, using a series of case studies among 10 older people living with dementia and their families. Results revealed that symptoms of cognitive impairment were generally linked to inexorable bodily decline understood to be characteristic of "normal" ageing. Stigma was therefore perceived to be non-existent. Whilst managing the costs of care was often a challenge, care-giving was largely accepted as a filial duty, commonly shared among female residents of large compound households. Families experimented with biomedical and traditional medicine for chronic conditions they perceived to be treatable. Our findings suggest that whilst families offer a holistic approach to the needs of older people living with chronic conditions including dementia, health and social policies offer inadequate scaffolding to support this work. In the future, it will be important to develop policy frameworks that acknowledge the continued social and economic potential of older people and strengthen the existing approach of families, optimising the management of non-communicable diseases within primary care.


Subject(s)
Aging/ethnology , Dementia/ethnology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Ghana/ethnology , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , Rural Population
14.
Heliyon ; 5(3): e01272, 2019 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923757

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-term functional schizophrenia outcomes are not well characterized in low-income environments because of the rarity of prospective studies. Objectives: To assess and describe long-term schizophrenia's functional outcomes and potential outcome predictors. Methods: Following a baseline assessment, 316 people with schizophrenia were studied for 10 years, on average. Of the total, 79 were incident cases: cases with onset of the illness occurring two years or less from entry into the study. SF-36 scores of physical and social functioning were used to assess functional outcomes. Linear mixed models were employed to evaluate the association of functioning with potential predictors. Results: Social and physical functioning scores regarding the cohort were lower than the population's norm for most of the follow-up period. Incident cases had better function than prevalent cases. Fifteen percent of incident and 30% of prevalent cases had reduced social functioning for at least six years. Declining symptom severity during the follow-up period was significantly associated with improvement in social functioning. When baseline functioning was controlled for, the long-term trend in functionality was not associated with demographic or illness characteristics (age and speed of onset, duration of illness and neuroleptic use at entry, substance use, and medication adherence). Conclusion: Long-term physical and social functioning of the population with schizophrenia were significantly lower than the population norm. A significant proportion of the cohort had lower functioning for the long-term. Functioning was not associated with demographic or illness characteristics of the study population.

15.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(1): 1-10, 2019 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this review we discuss how the study of dementia epidemiology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) has changed in the last 20 years, and specifically to review the evidence created by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) and discuss future directions for research. METHODS: We identified and collated all the papers related to the 10/66 Dementia Research Group, including papers from groups who adopted the 10/66 methodology, that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. RESULTS: Over 200 papers including data from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean were identified by this review. Many of the findings revolved around the epidemiology of dementia, mental health and non-communicable diseases, including the cross-cultural development and validation of measurement tools of cognition and functioning, need for care, care arrangements and mental health. Social ageing, care dependence and caregiver interventions were also topics that the group had published on. DISCUSSION: A body of evidence has been generated that has challenged the view, prevalent when the group started, that dementia is comparatively rare in LMICs. The experience of the 10/66 DRG has shown that descriptive epidemiological research can be important and impactful, where few data exist. Monitoring population trends in the prevalence and incidence of dementia may be our best chance to confirm hypotheses regarding modifiable risk factors of dementia.


Subject(s)
Dementia/epidemiology , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Africa/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Dementia/etiology , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Poverty/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
16.
AIDS Care ; 30(12): 1586-1594, 2018 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114950

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to review the evidence related to the impact of co-morbid severe mental illness SMI (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder) and HIV upon mental health, physical health and social outcomes. We carried out a systematic review of scientific evidence, searching online databases (MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Global Health and Scopus) for studies between 1983 and 2017 using search terms for SMI and HIV. Studies were included if they compared health or social outcomes between people living with co-morbid SMI and HIV and people living with either: a) HIV only; or b) SMI only. Outcomes of interest were: mortality, health service use, HIV/SMI-related, co-morbidities, and social outcomes. We identified 20 studies which met our inclusion criteria. Although studies were generally high quality, there was heterogeneity in both selection of outcomes and choice of measure. It was therefore difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the impact of co-morbid SMI and HIV across any outcome. We found little evidence that co-morbid SMI and HIV were associated with lower levels of treatment, care or poorer clinical outcomes compared to people living with SMI or HIV alone. However, mortality appeared to be higher among the co-morbid group in three out of four analyses identified. Physical and mental co-morbidities and social outcomes were rarely measured. Limited data mean that the impact of co-morbid SMI and HIV is uncertain. In order to develop evidence-based guidelines, there is an urgent need for further research. This may be realized by exploring opportunities for using data from existing cohort studies, routinely collected data and data linkage to investigate important questions relating to this neglected but potentially important area.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Mental Disorders/complications , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/psychology
17.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195567, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While links between disability and poverty are well established, there have been few longitudinal studies to clarify direction of causality, particularly among older adults in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study the effect of care dependence among older adult residents on the economic functioning of their households, in catchment area survey sites in Peru, Mexico and China. METHODS: Households were classified from the evolution of the needs for care of older residents, over two previous community surveys, as 'incident care', 'chronic care' or 'no care', and followed up three years later to ascertain economic outcomes (household income, consumption, economic strain, satisfaction with economic circumstances, healthcare expenditure and residents giving up work or education to care). RESULTS: Household income did not differ between household groups. However, income from paid work (Pooled Count Ratio pCR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00) and government transfers (pCR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93) were lower in care households. Consumption was 12% lower in chronic care households (pCR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). Household healthcare expenditure was higher (pCR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.90), and catastrophic healthcare spending more common (pRR 1.64, 95% CI 1.64-2.22) in care households. CONCLUSIONS: While endogeneity cannot be confidently excluded as an explanation for the findings, this study indicates that older people's needs for care have a discernable impact on household economics, controlling for baseline indicators of long-term economic status. Although living, typically, in multigenerational family units, older people have not featured prominently in global health and development agendas. Population ageing will rapidly increase the number of households where older people live, and their societal significance. Building sustainable long-term care systems for the future will require some combination of improved income security in old age; incentivisation of informal care through compensation for direct and opportunity costs; and development of community care services to support, and, where necessary, supplement or substitute the central role of informal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Housing/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Aged , China , Cohort Studies , Humans , Mexico , Peru
18.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(4): 243-255, 2018 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695881

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between comorbid depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability in Ethiopia. Methods: The study involved 648 consecutive adults treated for tuberculosis at 14 primary health-care facilities. All were assessed at treatment initiation (i.e. baseline) and after 2 and 6 months. We defined probable depression as a score of 10 or above on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Data on treatment default, failure and success and on death were obtained from tuberculosis registers. Quality of life was assessed using a visual analogue scale and we calculated disability scores using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale. Using multivariate Poisson regression analysis, we estimated the association between probable depression at baseline and treatment outcomes and death. Results: Untreated depression at baseline was independently associated with tuberculosis treatment default (adjusted risk ratio, aRR: 9.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 6.72 to 12.30), death (aRR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.54 to 5.78), greater disability (ß: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.99) and poorer quality of life (ß: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.07 to -0.06) at 6 months. Participants with probable depression had a lower mean quality-of-life score than those without (5.0 versus 6.0, respectively; P < 0.001) and a higher median disability score (22.0 versus 14.0, respectively; P < 0.001) at 6 months. Conclusion: Untreated depression in people with tuberculosis was associated with worse treatment outcomes, poorer quality of life and greater disability. Health workers should be given the support needed to provide depression care for people with tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Depression/diagnosis , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Comorbidity , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/psychology
19.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192889, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. METHODS: Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. RESULTS: 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period influences dementia incidence in late life.


Subject(s)
Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/physiopathology , Estrogens/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dementia/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Latin America/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Menarche/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Parity/physiology , Risk Factors , Time Factors
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