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1.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-7, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525811

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A lipoenxertia é um enxerto autólogo de células do tecido celular subcutâneo, que pode ser utilizada como técnica complementar na reconstrução mamária. Diante disso, a criopreservação de células-tronco mesenquimais provenientes de tecido adiposo (CTDAs) poderia ser uma maneira de realizar a coleta em um tempo cirúrgico e após realizar a lipoenxertia de forma fracionada. O dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO) é um criopreservante utilizado em pesquisas com células, porém é potencialmente tóxico, o que impossibilitaria a utilização de CTDAs criopreservadas na prática clínica. Novos criopreservantes celulares, sem toxicidade, vêm sendo descritos na literatura científica experimental, como as substâncias L-prolina e trealose. Com isso, esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade de CTDAs criopreservadas com a combinação de L-prolina e trealose, em um período de até 90 dias. Método: Estudo experimental, no qual foram obtidas amostras de lipoaspirado provenientes de 9 pacientes. A fração celular foi processada e congelada com L-prolina (1,5M) + trealose (0,2M), ou com DMSO + soro fetal bovino (SFB), como controle. Após 30 e 90 dias, as amostras foram descongeladas e a viabilidade celular foi avaliada pela técnica de MTT. Resultados: A análise das CTDAs, após 1 e 3 meses de congelamento, indicou que as amostras tratadas com L-prolina + trealose apresentaram viabilidade semelhante àquelas preservadas com DMSO e SFB (p=0,444). Conclusão: A associação de L-prolina e trealose manteve CTDA viáveis por 30 e 90 dias de congelamento, podendo ser uma alternativa como criopreservante celular sem toxicidade e viabilizando o uso de lipoenxertia seriada.


Introduction: Fat grafting is an autologous graft of cells from subcutaneous tissue, which can be used as a complementary technique in breast reconstruction. Given this, the cryopreservation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) could be a way to collect them in one surgical procedure and after performing fractional fat grafting. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a cryopreservative used in cell research, but it is potentially toxic, which would make it impossible to use cryopreserved ADMSCs in clinical practice. New cellular cryopreservatives, without toxicity, have been described in the experimental scientific literature, such as the substances L-proline and trehalose. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the viability of ADMSCs cryopreserved with the combination of L-proline and trehalose over up to 90 days. Method: Experimental study in which lipoaspirate samples were obtained from 9 patients. The cellular fraction was processed and frozen with L-proline (1.5M) + trehalose (0.2M) or with DMSO + fetal bovine serum (FBS) as control. After 30 and 90 days, the samples were thawed, and cell viability was assessed using the MTT technique. Results: The analysis of ADMSCs, after 1 and 3 months of freezing, indicated that samples treated with L-proline + trehalose showed similar viability to those preserved with DMSO and SFB (p=0.444). Conclusion: The association of L-proline and trehalose kept ADMSC viable for 30 and 90 days of freezing, and could be an alternative as a cellular cryopreservative without toxicity and enabling the use of serial fat grafting.

2.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 41(8): 1295-1304, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792322

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a malignant neoplasm with a high metastatic rate that shows poor response to systemic treatments in patients with advanced stages. Recently, studies have highlighted the antineoplastic potential of natural compounds, such as polyphenols, in the adjuvant therapy context to treat CM. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of curcumin (0.1-100 µM) on the metastatic CM cell line SK-MEL-28. The cells were treated for 6 and 24 h with different concentrations of curcumin. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and fluorescence microscopy. The apoptotic-inducing potential was detected by annexin V flow cytometry. The wound healing assay was used to verify cell migration after the curcumin exposition. The redox profile was evaluated by levels of the pro-oxidant markers reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nitric oxide (NOx) and antioxidants of total thiols (PSH) and nonprotein thiols. The gene expression and enzymatic activity of caspase 3 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a sensitive fluorescence assay, respectively. Curcumin significantly decreased the cell viability of SK-MEL-28 cells at both exposure times. It also induced apoptosis at the highest concentration tested (p < .0001). SK-MEL-28 cell migration was inhibited by curcumin after treatment with 10 µM (p < .0001) and 100 µM (p < .0001) for 6 and 24 h (p = .0006 and p < .0001, respectively). Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased levels of ROS and NOx. Finally, curcumin was capable of increasing the gene expression at 10 µM (p = .0344) and 100 µM (p = .0067) and enzymatic activity at 10 µM (p = .0086) and 100 µM (p < .0001) of caspase 3 after 24 h. For the first time, we elucidated in our study that curcumin increases ROS levels, promoting oxidative stress that activates the caspase pathway and culminates in SK-MEL-28 metastatic CM cell death.


Subject(s)
Curcumin , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Melanoma/metabolism , Curcumin/pharmacology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival
3.
Purinergic Signal ; 2023 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768408

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine on viability, apoptosis, migration, redox profile and modulatory effect of the purinergic system of cutaneous melanoma cells. The melanoma cells SK-MEL-28 and non-tumoural CCD-1059sk cells were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of caffeine. Cell viability was evaluated by a biochemical assay and fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry assessed apoptosis induction. A wound-healing assay assessed cell migration. The redox profile was evaluated by the levels of markers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NOx), total thiols (PSH) and non-protein thiols (NPSH). RT-qPCR and flow cytometry assessed the expression of CD39 and CD73. ATPase/ADPase and AMPase enzyme activities were evaluated by hydrolysis of ATP, ADP and AMP nucleotides. A bioluminescent assay assessed extracellular ATP levels. Caffeine significantly reduced melanoma cell viability and migration and did not affect non-tumoural cells. Caffeine increased ROS levels and improved PSH levels in melanoma cells. Furthermore, caffeine reduced CD39 and CD73 expression, decreased ATP, ADP and AMP nucleotide hydrolysis and increased extracellular ATP levels. We have shown that caffeine reduces metastatic cutaneous melanoma cell viability and migration, induces ROS generation and improves PSH levels. In an unprecedented manner, we also showed that caffeine reduces the expression of CD39 and CD73 and, consequently, ATPase/ADPase/AMPase hydrolytic activity of ectonucleotidases, thus displacing the CD39/CD73 axis and increasing extracellular ATP levels. Therefore, caffeine may be an interesting compound for clinical trials with the CD39/CD73 axis as a therapeutic target.

5.
Cancer Med ; 12(15): 16129-16141, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37485802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the neoplasia most associated with BRCA1 germline pathogenic variants (PV) and is more likely to develop metastases than the other breast cancer (BC) subtypes, mainly in the lungs and the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, BRCA2 carriers were shown to have a higher risk for developing CNS metastases. However, the patterns of recurrence and metastases of BRCA2 carriers with TNBC are unknown. METHODS: TNBC patient data attending the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, from 1998 through 2020, were verified either by medical records or by BRCA1/2 genetic testing carried out. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to the data to assess the independent factors for bone and CNS metastases. Adjustment was done using all independent variables with p < 0.2 in the univariable Cox model to describe the relationship between the independent variables until time of death. RESULTS: A total of 388 TNBC patients were evaluated. We identified PV in BRCA1/2 genes in 21% (82/388), being 17.7% (69/388) in BRCA1 and only 3.3% (13/388) in BRCA2. A total of 120 patients (31%) developed distant metastases. Bone or CNS metastases were observed in 40% and 60% of BRCA2 PV carriers (p = 0.155), respectively. The BRCA2 carriers tended to have a higher likelihood of developing bone metastases (OR, 4.06; 95% CI, 0.82-20.01; p = 0.085), when compared to BRCA1 carriers (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.12-2.87; p = 0.528). BRCA2 carriers had an OR of 1.75 (95% CI, 0.33-9.14; p = 0.503) for CNS metastasis development, while BRCA1 carriers had an OR of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.23-2.23; p = 0.574). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TNBC and PV in the BRCA2 gene had higher frequencies of secondary bone involvement and CNS in the course of the disease. However, the BRCA2 PV did not represent an independent outcome predictor of metastases and overall survival. Efforts to increase the number of BRCA2 carriers among TNBC patients are crucial for determining their risk of developing bone and CNS metastases compared to BRCA2 noncarriers.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , BRCA1 Protein/genetics , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/secondary , Genes, BRCA2 , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 67(6): e000645, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364147

ABSTRACT

Thyroid cancer usually responds to surgical and ablative therapy, but when it's refractory the alternative lies in tyrosine kinase inhibitors that, in addition to harmful side effects, acts only in a palliative way. The concern for other therapeutic possibilities brought evidence on flavonoids, hypothesizing a possible strategy. This review aimed to organize a compilation of in vitro studies using polyphenol substances in TPC-1 (human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line) summarizing it's results and describing the metabolic pathways involved. Articles were selected on PubMed, Google Scholar, LILACS, BVS and SciELO, using keywords "thyroid cancer", "flavonoids" and "TPC-1", until June 2022. 185 studies were selected. After identification and exclusion of duplicates and exclusion criteria applied, 11 original articles were evaluated. Of these, the findings of flavonoids added to TPC-1 were: inhibition of cell growth and viability, promotion of cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Polyphenolic compounds have antineoplastic properties by different mechanisms as shown in vitro, but the concentrations needed are above usual dietary consumption and the findings are limited to experimental cellular studies. Despite that, these results should be useful to guide further analysis aiming to reveal the real safety and efficacy of polyphenols in this scenario.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Thyroid Neoplasms , Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/drug therapy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(6): 1819-1830, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439832

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a efetividade em estudo de vida real do trastuzumabe adjuvante em mulheres com câncer de mama inicial HER-2 positivo na sobrevida global e livre de recidiva. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em mulheres com câncer de mama inicial HER-2 positivo atendidas no SUS, desde a incorporação da medicação. Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva com mulheres com câncer de mama HER-2 positivo, que foram tratadas entre julho de 2012 e maio de 2017 com seguimento até julho de 2021. A taxa de incidência de óbito foi de 2,62 por 100 pessoa/ano e a de recidiva foi de 7,52 por 100 pessoa/ano. A probabilidade de sobrevida em 8,7 anos foi 85,9%, enquanto a probabilidade de sobrevida livre de doença no mesmo período foi 62,8%. O uso de trastuzumabe se mostrou efetivo no tratamento adjuvante do câncer de mama em um serviço público de saúde no Sul do Brasil. Fatores prognósticos associados com pior sobrevida ou recidiva não influenciaram na história natural da doença, exceto doença localmente avançada no início do tratamento. Os dados apresentados podem vir a ser úteis em auxiliar na tomada de decisão sobre a manutenção ou não do uso do trastuzumabe no tratamento do câncer de mama inicial ou localmente avançado no serviço público de saúde brasileiro.


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness in a real-world study of adjuvant trastuzumab in women with HER-2+ initial breast cancer in overall survival and recurrence-free survival. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with women who had HER-2+ breast cancer treated with trastuzumab from July 2012 to May 2017 and followed up until July 2021. The death rate was 2.62 per 100 persons/year, and the incidence rate of recurrence was 7.52 per 100 persons/year. The probability of survival at 8.7 years was 85.9%, while the probability of recurrence-free survival in the same period was 62.8%. The use of trastuzumab proved to be effective in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in a public health service in southern Brazil. Prognostic factors associated with worse overall survival or relapse did not influence the natural history of the disease, except locally advanced disease at the beginning of treatment. The data presented may prove to be useful in helping to make decisions about whether to use trastuzumab in the treatment of initial or locally advanced breast cancer in the Brazilian SUS.

8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1819-1830, 2023 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37255158

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness in a real-world study of adjuvant trastuzumab in women with HER-2+ initial breast cancer in overall survival and recurrence-free survival. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with women who had HER-2+ breast cancer treated with trastuzumab from July 2012 to May 2017 and followed up until July 2021. The death rate was 2.62 per 100 persons/year, and the incidence rate of recurrence was 7.52 per 100 persons/year. The probability of survival at 8.7 years was 85.9%, while the probability of recurrence-free survival in the same period was 62.8%. The use of trastuzumab proved to be effective in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in a public health service in southern Brazil. Prognostic factors associated with worse overall survival or relapse did not influence the natural history of the disease, except locally advanced disease at the beginning of treatment. The data presented may prove to be useful in helping to make decisions about whether to use trastuzumab in the treatment of initial or locally advanced breast cancer in the Brazilian SUS.


O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a efetividade em estudo de vida real do trastuzumabe adjuvante em mulheres com câncer de mama inicial HER-2 positivo na sobrevida global e livre de recidiva. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em mulheres com câncer de mama inicial HER-2 positivo atendidas no SUS, desde a incorporação da medicação. Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva com mulheres com câncer de mama HER-2 positivo, que foram tratadas entre julho de 2012 e maio de 2017 com seguimento até julho de 2021. A taxa de incidência de óbito foi de 2,62 por 100 pessoa/ano e a de recidiva foi de 7,52 por 100 pessoa/ano. A probabilidade de sobrevida em 8,7 anos foi 85,9%, enquanto a probabilidade de sobrevida livre de doença no mesmo período foi 62,8%. O uso de trastuzumabe se mostrou efetivo no tratamento adjuvante do câncer de mama em um serviço público de saúde no Sul do Brasil. Fatores prognósticos associados com pior sobrevida ou recidiva não influenciaram na história natural da doença, exceto doença localmente avançada no início do tratamento. Os dados apresentados podem vir a ser úteis em auxiliar na tomada de decisão sobre a manutenção ou não do uso do trastuzumabe no tratamento do câncer de mama inicial ou localmente avançado no serviço público de saúde brasileiro.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 375: 110427, 2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863647

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer; it is difficult to treat, and has been highlighted in recent years due to increasing numbers of cases worldwide. The use of antitumoral therapeutics for this neoplasm has been associated with severe side effects, low quality of life, and resistance. We aimed in this study to explore the effect of the phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) on human metastatic melanoma cells. SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of RA. In parallel, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) also were treated with RA under the same experimental conditions to verify the cytotoxic effect on non-tumoral cells. Then, we assessed cell viability and migration, levels of intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as nitric oxide (NOx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and total thiol (PSH). Gene expression of the caspase 8, caspase 3 and NLRP3 inflammasome was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The enzymatic activity of the caspase 3 protein was assessed by a sensitive fluorescent assay. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to corroborate the effects of RA on melanoma cell viability, mitochondria transmembrane potential and apoptotic bodies formation. We found that RA potently reduces melanoma cell viability and migration after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, it has no cytotoxic effect on non-tumoral cells. The fluorescence micrographics indicated that RA reduces transmembrane potential of mitochondria and induces apoptotic bodies formation. Moreover, RA significantly decreases intracellular and extracellular ROS levels, and increases the antioxidant defenders NPSH and PSH. A remarkable feature found in our study was that RA strongly upregulates the gene expression of the caspase 8 and caspase 3, and downregulates NLRP3 inflammasome expression. Similar to gene expression, RA greatly increases the enzymatic activity of caspase 3 protein. Taken together, we have shown for the first time that RA reduces cell viability and migration of human metastatic melanoma cells, in addition to modulates apoptosis-related gene expression. We suggest that RA may have the potential to be used in a therapeutic perspective, particularly for CM cell treatment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Melanoma/drug therapy , Melanoma/pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Quality of Life , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 67(6): e000645, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447275

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer usually responds to surgical and ablative therapy, but when it's refractory the alternative lies in tyrosine kinase inhibitors that, in addition to harmful side effects, acts only in a palliative way. The concern for other therapeutic possibilities brought evidence on flavonoids, hypothesizing a possible strategy. This review aimed to organize a compilation of in vitro studies using polyphenol substances in TPC-1 (human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line) summarizing it's results and describing the metabolic pathways involved. Articles were selected on PubMed, Google Scholar, LILACS, BVS and SciELO, using keywords "thyroid cancer", "flavonoids" and "TPC-1", until June 2022. 185 studies were selected. After identification and exclusion of duplicates and exclusion criteria applied, 11 original articles were evaluated. Of these, the findings of flavonoids added to TPC-1 were: inhibition of cell growth and viability, promotion of cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Polyphenolic compounds have antineoplastic properties by different mechanisms as shown in vitro, but the concentrations needed are above usual dietary consumption and the findings are limited to experimental cellular studies. Despite that, these results should be useful to guide further analysis aiming to reveal the real safety and efficacy of polyphenols in this scenario.

12.
Mastology (Impr.) ; 32: 1-4, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416031

ABSTRACT

Malignant neoplasm diagnosed after radiological evaluation of a simple breast cyst is rare. This report described the case of a young patient with an initial simple cystic lesion, whom, in 18-month follow-up examinations, showed a change in the imaging pattern of the cyst, and underwent biopsy, where a triple negative carcinoma was identified. In addition, the diagnosis occurred during pregnancy, which makes the present report even rarer.

13.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 36(1): 9-14, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151543

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A lipoenxertia é uma alternativa com importante aplicabilidade para reconstrução de mama e/ou correções de assimetrias decorrentes do tratamento oncológico. Esta técnica consiste na transferência de gordura autóloga, cujo estroma contém células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo que tem capacidade de diferenciar-se em toda a linhagem mesodermal. Para o preparo do tecido adiposo, Coleman fundamentou a centrifugação, de material aspirado por seringa, em 3000 rotações por minuto (rpm) durante 3 minutos. Contudo, estudos questionam se velocidades menores de centrifugação poderiam ser menos deletérias para viabilidade celular. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo experimental, onde foram avaliadas as células adiposas de seis pacientes; a partir de 60mL de lipoaspirado de cada um. A amostra coletada foi fracionada em quatro tubos, e submetidos a diferentes protocolos, decantação e centrifugação nas velocidades 500, 1000 e 3000rpm por 3 minutos. Após as amostras foram processadas com colagenase IA por 30 min, submetidas ao cultivo celular por 24 horas e realizado a análise da viabilidade celular. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados pelo teste ANOVA utilizando os programas Graphpad Prism 6.0® e SAS®. Resultados: A viabilidade celular foi maior na amostra celular centrifugada a 3000rpm e menor na amostra decantada. A coloração com Giemsa indicou manutenção da morfologia celular entre as amostras. Conclusão: As células centrifugadas na velocidade de 3000rpm apresentaram maior viabilidade celular. A centrifugação foi efetiva na compactação do tecido e eliminação de resíduos indesejados (sangue e óleo residual).


Introduction: Lipografting is an alternative with important applicability for breast reconstruction and/or corrections of asymmetries resulting from cancer treatment. This technique consists of autologous fat transfer, whose stroma contains stem cells derived from adipose tissue that can differentiate itself throughout the mesodermal lineage. For adipose tissue preparation, Coleman-based centrifugation of syringe-aspirated material at 3000 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 3 minutes. However, studies question whether lower centrifugation speeds could be less harmful to cell viability. Methods: An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the adipose cells of six patients; from 60mL of liposuction of each one. The sample collected was fractionated into four tubes and submitted to different protocols, decanting and centrifugation at speeds 500, 1000, and 3000rpm for 3 minutes. Afterward, the samples were processed with collagenase IA for 30 min, submitted to cell culture for 24 hours, and a cell viability analysis. The results were tabulated and analyzed by the ANOVA test using the Graphpad Prism 6.0® and SAS®. Results: Cell viability was higher in the cell sample centrifuged at 3000rpm and lower in the decanted sample. Giemsa staining indicated maintenance of cell morphology on the samples. Conclusion: Centrifuged cells at a speed of 3000rpm showed higher cell viability. Centrifugation was effective in compacting tissue and eliminating unwanted waste (blood and residual oil).

14.
J Digit Imaging ; 33(4): 858-868, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206943

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of breast cancer in early stage is essential for successful treatment. Detection can be performed in several ways, the most common being through mammograms. The projections acquired by this type of examination are directly affected by the composition of the breast, which density can be similar to the suspicious masses, being a challenge the identification of malignant lesions. In this article, we propose a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to aid in the diagnosis of masses in digitized mammograms using a model based in the U-Net, allowing specialists to monitor the lesion over time. Unlike most of the studies, we propose the use of an entire base of digitized mammograms using normal, benign, and malignant cases. Our research is divided into four stages: (1) pre-processing, with the removal of irrelevant information, enhancement of the contrast of 7989 images of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), and obtaining regions of interest. (2) Data augmentation, with horizontal mirroring, zooming, and resizing of images; (3) training, with tests of six-based U-Net models, with different characteristics; (4) testing, evaluating four metrics, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Dice Index. The tested models obtained different results regarding the assessed parameters. The best model achieved a sensitivity of 92.32%, specificity of 80.47%, accuracy of 85.95% Dice Index of 79.39%, and AUC of 86.40%. Even using a full base without case selection bias, the results obtained demonstrate that the use of a complete database can provide knowledge to the CAD expert.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Deep Learning , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mammography , Neural Networks, Computer
15.
Mastology (Online) ; 30: 1-4, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121099

ABSTRACT

Breast squamous cell carcinoma are rare, occurring in less than 0.1% of all breast carcinomas. This report describes the oncological conduct performed on a patient with a triple negative squamous cell carcinoma in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. The same patient presented a lobular carcinoma in situ within a fibroadenoma of the contralateral breast, during the follow up period. The association of these two diseases in the same patient has not yet been described in the literature.

16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1273-1282, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058594

ABSTRACT

Background: INR is used to monitor the treatment with vitamin K antagonists. A strategy to reduce waiting times for sampling is to measure INR in a capillary sample using a portable point of care (POC) type coagulometer. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of CoaguChek Pro II™, Xprecia™ and microINR™ with venous INR measured at the clinical laboratory and their ease of use. Materials and Methods: Patients provided capillary and venous blood samples for parallel tests comparing Xprecia™ Stride with CoaguChek Pro II™ and with venous INR, microINR™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM and with venous INR. The devices' ease of use was assessed surveying the sampling staff. Results: The three tested devices had good correlation coefficients with venous INR: CoaguChek Pro IITM 0.953 and 0.962; Xprecia™ of 0.912 and microINR™ of 0.932. The correlation coefficient of Xprecia™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM was 0.937 and microINR™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM was 0.976. Conclusions: CoaguChek Pro IITM, Xprecia™ and microINR™ results had a good correlation coefficient with INR measured at the laboratory. Our results indicate that, in the hands of trained users, POC-type coagulometers are reliable and acceptable for routine use in anticoagulant treatment control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , International Normalized Ratio/instrumentation , Reference Standards , Capillaries , Thromboplastin/therapeutic use , Chile , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Monitoring/instrumentation , Drug Monitoring/standards , International Normalized Ratio/standards , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
17.
Cell Signal ; 59: 122-130, 2019 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926387

ABSTRACT

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer originated by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Increasing incidence and mortality require efforts focused on studies and research about this cancer. Its microenvironment is rich in extracellular ATP, but there are no studies evaluating the ectonucleotidases and ATP effects on tumor-derived melanoma cells with known amounts of ATP. This way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of in vivo melanoma and the in vitro effects of ATP signaling. We found increased and effective extracellular ATP hydrolysis in platelets and a significant decrease of extracellular ATP levels and adenosine hydrolysis. In addition, we cultured PBMCs of melanoma patients and used ATP salt with specific concentrations to evaluate its signaling effects. The enzymatic activity analysis revealed that even with higher ATP doses cells metabolize adenine nucleotides less efficiently, and present low ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolytic activity in CM compared to CT cells. In summary, we showed for the first time important data about the purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of melanoma and ATP signaling exercising immunosuppressive effects. Therefore, as already shown for other tumors, the purinergic signaling should be considered a potential target for melanoma management and treatment and could offer novel therapeutic prospects.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Melanoma/metabolism , Skin Neoplasms/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Blood Platelets/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Hydrolysis , Male , Middle Aged , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(10): 1273-1282, 2019 Oct.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: INR is used to monitor the treatment with vitamin K antagonists. A strategy to reduce waiting times for sampling is to measure INR in a capillary sample using a portable point of care (POC) type coagulometer. AIM: To evaluate the correlation of CoaguChek Pro II™, Xprecia™ and microINR™ with venous INR measured at the clinical laboratory and their ease of use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients provided capillary and venous blood samples for parallel tests comparing Xprecia™ Stride with CoaguChek Pro II™ and with venous INR, microINR™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM and with venous INR. The devices' ease of use was assessed surveying the sampling staff. RESULTS: The three tested devices had good correlation coefficients with venous INR: CoaguChek Pro IITM 0.953 and 0.962; Xprecia™ of 0.912 and microINR™ of 0.932. The correlation coefficient of Xprecia™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM was 0.937 and microINR™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM was 0.976. CONCLUSIONS: CoaguChek Pro IITM, Xprecia™ and microINR™ results had a good correlation coefficient with INR measured at the laboratory. Our results indicate that, in the hands of trained users, POC-type coagulometers are reliable and acceptable for routine use in anticoagulant treatment control.


Subject(s)
International Normalized Ratio/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Capillaries , Chile , Drug Monitoring/instrumentation , Drug Monitoring/standards , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Thromboplastin/therapeutic use
19.
J Cell Biochem ; 119(5): 3980-3988, 2018 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227546

ABSTRACT

Skin cancer represents a serious public health problem and melanoma is considered the most significant due to its high metastasis capacity. Evasion mechanisms are the main characteristic of these tumor cells to escape of immune response. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides play an important role in inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we analyzed the expression and activity of purinergic system enzymes in platelets and lymphocytes, ATP levels quantification, as well the level of pro and anti-inflammatory interleukins in the serum of 23 patients with surgical melanoma removal (CM group) and 23 control subjects (CT group). Results showed a decrease in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis and an increase in ATP levels quantification in CM group. The pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in CM group when compared to CT group. These results suggest an inflammatory process, even after surgical removal, due to elevated extracellular ATP levels. Besides, CM group displayed an increase in IL-10 levels and an increased in ADA activity in platelets and lymphocytes. Once adenosine and IL-10 are anti-inflammatory molecules, these results indicate a down-regulation of immune system front to malignant process. The alteration in nucleotide and nucleoside hydrolysis reinforces the purinergic systems role in this cancer. Therefore, even after surgical removal, the purinergic system can develop a chronic inflammatory micro-environment that can influence directly on relapse or metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/blood , Melanoma/blood , Skin Neoplasms/blood , Adult , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Male , Melanoma/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/blood , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
20.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148160, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859408

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study is to confirm the function of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 633 patients with invasive melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in 7 referral centers certified by the Brazilian Melanoma Group. Independent risk factors of sentinel node metastasis (SNL) were identified by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: SLN metastasis was detected in 101 of 633 cases (16.1%) and in 93 of 428 patients (21.7%) when melanomas ≤ 1mm were excluded. By multiple logistic regression, the absence of TILs was as an independent risk factor of SLN metastasis (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0), in addition to Breslow index (greater than 2.00 mm), lymph vascular invasion, and presence of mitosis. CONCLUSION: SLNB can identify patients who might benefit from immunotherapy, and the determination of predictors of SLNB positivity can help select the proper population for this type of therapy. The absence of TILs is a reproducible parameter that can predict SLNB positivity in melanoma patients, since this study was made with several centers with different dermatopathologists.


Subject(s)
Cell Count , Databases, Factual , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/cytology , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/pathology , Brazil , Female , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Melanoma/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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