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J Clin Med ; 13(8)2024 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673649


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. Diagnosis is based on the evidence-based international guideline 2018 and the Rotterdam Consensus to classify PCOS phenotypes. This study aims to characterize the biodemographic, clinical, metabolic, and reproductive variables and their relationship with PCOS phenotypes in a population from the Ecuadorian Andes. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-random consecutive sample of 92 women who attended the outpatient gynecology and endocrinology clinic at the Hospital of the Technical University of Loja (UTPL)-Santa Inés, Loja, Ecuador, between January 2022 and July 2023. Descriptive statistics, mean calculations, standard deviation, parametric and nonparametric tests, odds ratios (OR), confidence intervals (CI), and p-values were employed. Results: The average age was 22 ± 3.4 years, with a predominantly mestizo, urban, single, highly educated, and medium-high socioeconomic level population. It was identified that phenotypes A + B are at a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea and hypertriglyceridemia compared to phenotypes C + D, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in terms of reproductive variables, phenotypes A + B exhibit a significantly higher frequency of elevated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) compared to phenotypes C + D, also with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The classical phenotypes A and B of PCOS are the most common in Ecuadorian Andean women and carry a higher risk of insulin resistance, anovulation, metabolic disorders, and elevated triglyceride levels compared to phenotypes C and D. Ethnic diversity and sociocultural habits influence the prevalence and clinical manifestations of these phenotypes.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011558, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452054


BACKGROUND: Cholangiohydatidosis (CH) is an evolutionary complication of hepatic cystic echinococcosis, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the available evidence regarding clinical characteristics of CH, postoperative complications and hospital mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Systematic review. Studies related to CH with no language or publication restriction were included. Sensitive searches were performed in Trip Database, SciELO, BIREME-BVS, WoS, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS. MeSH and free terms were used, including articles up to April 2023. The main outcome variables were postoperative complications and hospital mortality; the secondary ones were publication year, origin and design of primary studies, main clinical manifestation, anatomical location and type of cysts, hospital stay, surgical procedure performed, reinterventions; and methodological quality of primary studies, which was assessed using MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales. Descriptive statistics, calculation of weighted averages and their comparison by least squares logistic regression were applied. 446 studies were retrieved from the searches performed, 102 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies analyzed represent 1241 patients. The highest proportion of articles was published in the last decade (39.2%). Reports are mainly from Turkey (28.4%), Greece (9.8%), Morocco and Spain (8.8% each). With a weighted mean of 14.3 days of hospital stance; it was verified that 26.2% of patients developed postoperative complications (74,3% Clavien y Dindo III y IV), 6.7% needed re-interventions, and 3.7% died. When comparing the variables age, postoperative complications, hospital mortality, and reinterventions in two periods of time (1982-2006 vs. 2007-2023), no statistically significant differences were found. When applying the MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales, the methodological quality of the primary studies was 9.6±1.1 and 14.5±4.3 points, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CH is associated with severe postoperative complications and significant hospital mortality, independent of the development of therapeutic support associated with the passage of time.

Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Postoperative Complications , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Morbidity
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 111-116, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528817


El cáncer gástrico (CG), es la primera causa de muerte por cáncer, en hombres, y la tercera en mujeres, en Chile. No obstante ello, el CG bifocal (CGB) es una situación poco frecuente. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar un caso de CGB, con linfonodos negativos en un paciente con cirrosis hepática, que fue intervenido quirúrgicamente; y revisar la evidencia existente respecto de sus características morfológicas, terapéuticas y pronósticas. Caso clínico: Hombre de 74 años diabético, hipertenso, insuficiente cardíaco y cirrótico; portador de CGB (subcardial y antro-pilórico), diagnosticado por endoscopia y con confirmación histológica de ambas lesiones; operado en Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco en septiembre de 2023. En el intraoperatorio se verificó además la coexistencia de una lesión de aspecto metastásico en el segmento III del hígado, y adhesión de la región antro-pilórica a la vesícula biliar. Se realizó gastrectomía total, linfadenectomía D2, esófago-yeyuno anastomosis término-lateral, resección segmentaria hepática (segmento III) y colecistectomía. El paciente permaneció 6 días en la UCI debido a que desarrolló insuficiencia hepática (encefalopatía leve y ascitis). Se alimentó vía enteral por sonda naso-yeyunal. Posteriormente inició alimentación oral progresiva, la que fue bien tolerada. Completó 11 días de hospitalización en servicio médico-quirúrgico, donde mejoró actividad neurológica, hasta su alta domiciliaria. Actualmente, lleva dos meses desde su operación, se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales, y el Comité Oncológico decidió no dar quimioterapia adyuvante. Se presenta un caso inusual de CG de tipo bifocal, respecto de lo cual hay escasa información disponible. Se logró realizar cirugía con intención curativa en un paciente de alto riesgo, con un resultado exitoso.

SUMMARY: Gastric cancer (GC) is the first cause of death from cancer in men, and the third one in women, in Chile. However, a bifocal GC (BGC) is uncommon. The aim of this study was to report a case of CGB, with negative-lymph nodes in a patient with liver cirrhosis, who underwent surgery; and review the existing evidence regarding its morphological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics. Clinical case: A 74-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis underwent surgical intervention for GC located in subcardial and antro- pyloric regions. The diagnosis was established via endoscopy and confirmed histologically. Surgery was performed at the RedSalud Mayor Temuco Clinic in September 2023. During intraoperative assessment, the coexistence of a lesion with metastatic-like characteristics in segment III of the liver was also verified, along with adhesions between the antro-pyloric region and the gallbladder. Surgical approach encompassed total gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, esophago-jejunostomy, segmental hepatic resection, and cholecystectomy. Subsequently, the patient required a six-day stay in ICU due to the development of hepatic insufficiency, characterized by mild encephalopathy and ascites. Enteral nutrition was administered via a naso-jejunal tube, followed by a gradual transition to oral feeding, which was well-tolerated. The patient completed an 11-day hospitalization period in the medical-surgical ward, during which his neurological function improved significantly, resulting in his discharge. At present, 2 months post-surgery, the patient remains in satisfactory general health, and the Oncology Committee decided not to proceed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case represents a rare instance of bifocal GC, for which there is limited available literature. Surgical intervention with curative intent was successfully carried out in a high-risk patient, yielding a positive outcome.

Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Gastrectomy
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(12): e0011813, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064500


BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in southern Chile. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of CE among relatives of patients who underwent surgical intervention for this disease in Cautín, a province of southern Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study. Relatives of patients who underwent surgery for hepatic echinococcosis (HE), who lived at the same address, during the period 2000-2020 were studied. A total of 288 relatives of 322 patients who underwent surgery for HE participated in a CE screening. All these relatives were interviewed and underwent abdominal ultrasonography, chest X-ray and immunodiagnostic studies (relatives who had been diagnosed with or had undergone surgery for CE were excluded). Descriptive statistics were applied. Prevalence calculation, odds ratio (OR), and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined. Abdominal or thoracic CE was verified in 42 relatives of subjects operated on for HE (mean age 41±8 years; 73.8% women; 38.1% of cases had two or more cysts), all of them new and asymptomatic cases. CE was detected in the lungs, liver, peritoneum, and spleen in 16.7%; 71.4%; 7.1%; and 4.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of EQ during the studied time period was 14,6% (17.9% and 12.3% in relatives of first and second degree respectively (OR:1.56; CI 95%: 0.81; 3.01). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of CE in relatives of patients undergoing surgery by this disease in the province of Cautín, Chile.

Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Echinococcosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/surgery , Echinococcosis/diagnosis
Andes Pediatr ; 94(3): 392-400, 2023 Jun.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37909943


Several studies have supported the positive effect of respiratory rehabilitation (RR) in children and adolescents (CRA) with chronic respiratory diseases (CRD); however, qualitative aspects related to the experiences and perceptions about RR have been scarcely studied. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the qualitative evidence regarding the perceptions and experiences of patients, families and professionals related to the RR of children and adolescents with CKD. METHODS: Review of qualitative studies in 5 databases. We used MeSH terms and free English-language terms grouped into three dimensions: patients, intervention, and research design. The study subjects had to be patients, their families, teachers or treating health teams. No restrictions were placed on language or year of publication. The search strategy was configured as follows: ((Cystic fibrosis) OR (Asthma) OR (Neuromuscular diseases)) AND ((Respiratory rehabilitation) OR (Exercise)) AND ((Qualitative research) OR (Phenomenology) OR (Grounded theory) OR (Ethnography)). Two independent authors analyzed atingent titles, abstracts and long texts. Finally, a qualitative description of the results was made. RESULTS: Twenty-one qualitative studies were selected, all on patients, family members, teachers or professionals treating patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma or neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Perception of benefits, parental influence, enjoyment of the protocols, and time required to engage in physical activity were categories identified in all three groups. Aspects such as perceived safety on school grounds and parental stress were specific categories, highlighted in the context of asthma and CF respectively. CONCLUSION: Several general and specific factors of a qualitative nature influence the experience of children with CRD during RR. Future studies conducted in our cultural context should be conducted to confirm these results.

Asthma , Cystic Fibrosis , Neuromuscular Diseases , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Qualitative Research , Family
Ter. psicol ; 41(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530527


Introducción. A pesar de la importante presencia de la población haitiana en países de América Latina, existen pocos estudios que evalúen la salud mental en esta población; una de las razones es la falta de instrumentos psicométricos en kreyol (creole haitiano). Objetivo. Adaptar la versión en español de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos (CESD-R-20) al kreyol. Métodos. Estudio transversal de muestreo bietápico con 207 migrantes haitianos viviendo en Santiago de Chile, se tradujo y retrotradujo la Escala CESD-R-20 del español al kreyol. Resultados. 132 participantes respondieron la encuesta en kreyol y 75 en español. Las técnicas de detección de la dimensionalidad recomiendan retener un único componente y tres factores, con pocas excepciones a través de las muestras. Las soluciones factoriales llevan a retener un único factor, que presenta un Alfa de Cronbach =0.92 (IC: 0.90-0.94) adecuado. Estos resultados indican que se necesita un único factor. Discusión y conclusión. La adaptación del instrumento CESD-R-20 de español al kreyol obtiene evidencias de validez favorables y puede servir para iniciar nuevos estudios en población migrante haitiana en su trayecto por América Latina, si bien es necesario seguir ampliando el proceso de validación.

Introduction. Although the Haitian migrant population has a significant presence in Latin American countries, a few studies assess this population's mental health; one of the reasons is the lack of psychometric instruments in kreyol (Haitian Creole). Objective. Adapt the Spanish version of the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiological Studies (CESD-R-20) into kreyol. Methods. Based on a cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling with 207 Haitian migrants living in Santiago de Chile, we conducted translation and back translation of the CESD-R-20 Scale from Spanish to kreyol; additionally, we reached an adapted version in Spanish. Results. In total, 132 participants answered the survey in Kreyol and 75 in Spanish. Dimensionality detection techniques recommend retaining a single component and three factors, with few exceptions across samples. Exploration of factor solutions leads to the retention of a single factor, which has an adequate Cronbach's alpha=0.92 (IC: 0.90;0.94). These results indicate that only one factor is needed. Discussion and conclusion. The adaptation of the Spanish CESD-R-20 instrument to Kreyol has obtained favorable validity evidence and can be used to initiate new studies on the Haitian migrant population on their journey through Latin America, although the validation process needs to be further extended.

Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1036-1042, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514342


La anemia afecta a miles de niños. Para el diagnóstico se cuantifica la hemoglobina (Hb); técnica que no se encuentra al alcance de toda la población. Contar con un instrumento validado de fácil aplicación, puede ayudar al diagnóstico. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar una aplicación móvil (APP) para diagnosticar anemia en niños de 2 a 5 años, aplicable por padres o tutores. Estudio de validación de escalas. Mediante búsqueda bibliografía se recopilaron ítems y dominios relacionados con anemia en niños. Una vez reducidos, se construyó un cuestionario para pilotaje, con tres hematólogos pediatras. El resultado de este fue posteriormente validado por 22 expertos mediante aplicación de escalas tipo Likert. Los ítems validados, se contrastaron con la Hb de niños de 267 niños de 2 a 5 años de los andes ecuatorianos (2.560 msnm). Se determinó asociación de los ítems con Hb y con los resultados obtenidos y se construyó la APP. 14 ítems fueron analizados. Todos ellos puntuaron sobre la mediana de la distribución (35,5 puntos) y fueron valorados por, al menos el 50 % de los expertos. Se seleccionaron palidez palmar, astenia y sueño en horas no habituales. Todos mostraron asociación significativa con anemia (p<0,05), y fueron aplicados como preguntas a padres o tutores y contrastados con el valor de Hb. Sensibilidad y especificidad para palidez fue: 85,1 % y 85,0 %; astenia: 72,3 % y 87,7 %; sueño en horas no habituales: 68,1 % y 87,7 %; palidez más astenia o sueño: 95,7 % y 74,6 %; y debilidad más sueño: 92,5 % y 76,8 %. Se desarrolló y validó una APP para diagnóstico de anemia en niños de 2 a 5 años aplicable por padres o tutores.

SUMMARY: Anemia affects thousands of children, and to reach a diagnosis, hemoglobin (Hb) is quantified. This technique however, is not always accessible to the general population. Therefore, the availability of a validated instrument can be useful in the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to validate a mobile application (APP), to diagnose anemia in children from 2 to 5 years old, applicable by parents or guardians. Scale validation study. Through a bibliographic search, items and domains related to anemia in children were collected. Once reduced, a pilot questionnaire was constructed with three pediatric hematologists. The result was later validated by 22 experts through the application of the Likert-type scales. The validated items were contrasted with the Hb of children of 267 children from 2 to 5 years of age from the Ecuadorian Andes (2,560 meters above sea level). The association of the items with Hb and with the results obtained was determined, and the APP was constructed. 14 items were analyzed. All of them scored above the median of the distribution (35.5 points) and were valued by at least 50 % of the experts. Palmar pallor, asthenia, and sleep at unusual hours were selected. All showed a significant association with anemia (p<0.05) and were applied as questions to parents or guardians and contrasted with the Hb value. Sensitivity and specificity for pallor was: 85.1 % and 85.0 %; asthenia: 72.3 % and 87.7 %; sleep at unusual hours: 68.1 % and 87.7 %; paleness plus fatigue or sleepiness: 95.7 % and 74.6 %; and weakness plus sleep: 92.5 % and 76.8 %. An APP for the diagnosis of anemia in children from 2 to 5 years old applicable by parents or guardians was developed and validated.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Mobile Applications , Anemia/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1240-1253, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514343


La expansión y consolidación de la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia ha llevado entre otras, a la necesidad de realizar una variedad cada vez mayor de tipos de revisión de la literatura científica; lo que permite avanzar en el conocimiento y comprender la amplitud de la investigación sobre un tema de interés, teniendo en cuenta que una de las propiedades del conocimiento es su carácter acumulativo. Sin embargo, la diversidad de la terminología utilizada genera confusión de términos y conceptos. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar un listado de los tipos de revisiones de la literatura más frecuentemente utilizados con sus características y algunos ejemplos de ellas. Revisión cualitativa. Se examinaron de forma dirigida las bases de datos PubMed, WoS y Scopus, en búsqueda de términos asociados a tipos de revisiones y síntesis de la literatura científica. Se encontraron 21 tipos de revisión; y 29 variantes y sinonimias asociadas; las que ilustran los procesos de cada una de ellas. Se da una descripción general de las características de cada cual, junto con las fortalezas y debilidades percibidas. No obstante, se verificó que sólo algunos tipos de revisión poseen metodologías propias y explícitas. Este enfoque, proporciona un punto de referencia para quienes realizan o interpretan revisiones en el ámbito sanitario, y sugiere dos tipos de propuestas de clasificación.

SUMMARY: The expansion and consolidation of evidence-based clinical practice has led, among other things, to the need to carry out an increasing variety of types of literature reviews, which allows advancing in knowledge and understanding the breadth of research on a topic of interest. However, the diversity of the terminology used generates confusion of terms and concepts. The aim of this manuscript was to provide a list of the most frequently used review types with their characteristics and some examples. Qualitative review. PubMed, WoS and Scopus databases were examined in a directed way, searching for terms associated with types of reviews and syntheses of the scientific literature. Twenty-one types of review, and 29 variants and associated synonymies were found; those that illustrate the processes of each of them. An overview of the characteristics of each is given, along with perceived strengths and weaknesses. However, it was verified that only some types of review have their own explicit methodologies. This approach, provides a point of reference for those who perform or interpret reviews in the health field and suggests two classification proposals.

Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 926-936, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514292


SUMMARY: The dentogingival junction (DGJ) is an adaptation of the oral mucosa composed of epithelial and connective tissues intimately related with the mineralised tissues of the tooth. The histological evidence available is mainly based on studies in animals, separate evaluations of hard and soft tissues, and studies using conventional histological techniques that eliminate the enamel from preparations. The aim of this study was to carry out a review of the existing evidence on histological techniques available for study of the tooth and periodontium in conjunction in humans. A scoping review was carried out of the available literature referring to study of the tooth and the periodontium in conjunction in humans, in the Web of Science (WoS), EMBASE, Scopus and SciELO databases, using the terms "Histological Techniques"[Mesh]) and "Epithelial Attachment"[Mesh]. One hundred and fifty-nine articles were found, of which 54 were selected for full- text reading. Ten were finally included in the qualitative synthesis, and we applied the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist for analysis the methodological quality of the selected articles. The results showed that the only articles with a low risk of bias in all five domains according to the AQUA criteria corresponded to Silva et al. (2011) and Agustín-Panadero et al. (2020). Finally, we conclude that the quality of the histological sections to observe tissues that simultaneously contain the tooth and the periodontium, is conditioned by the selected technique and by the care required in certain specific tasks during the histological processing of the samples.

La unión dentogingival (DGJ) es una adaptación de la mucosa oral compuesta por tejidos epitelial y conectivo íntimamente relacionados con los tejidos mineralizados del diente. La evidencia histológica disponible se basa principalmente en estudios en animales, evaluaciones separadas de tejidos duros y blandos y estudios utilizando técnicas histológicas convencionales que eliminan el esmalte de las preparaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión de la evidencia existente sobre las técnicas histológicas disponibles para el estudio del diente y el periodonto en conjunto en humanos. Se realizó un scoping review de la literatura disponible referente al estudio del diente y el periodonto en conjunto en humanos, en las bases de datos Web of Science (WoS), EMBASE, Scopus y SciELO, utilizando los términos "Histological Techniques"[Mesh]) y "Epithelial Attachment"[Mesh]. Se encontraron 159 artículos, de los cuales 54 fueron seleccionados para lectura de texto completo. Diez fueron finalmente incluidos en la síntesis cualitativa, y se aplicó la lista de verificación Anatómica Quality Assurance (AQUA) para el análisis de la calidad metodológica de los artículos seleccionados. Los resultados mostraron que los únicos artículos con bajo riesgo de sesgo en los cinco dominios según los criterios AQUA correspondían a Silva et al. (2011) y Agustín-Panadero et al. (2020). Finalmente, concluimos que la calidad de los cortes histológicos para observar los tejidos que contienen simultáneamente el diente y el periodonto, está condicionada por la técnica seleccionada y por el cuidado requerido en ciertas tareas específicas durante el procesamiento histológico de las muestras.

Humans , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Histological Techniques , Epithelial Attachment/anatomy & histology , Checklist , Gingiva/anatomy & histology , Periodontium/anatomy & histology
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36992259


More than 600 healthcare workers died due to COVID-19 infection until January 2022 in Ecuador. Even though the COVID-19 vaccines are safe, local and systemic reactions were reported among physicians. This study aims to analyze the adverse events of COVID-19 with an emphasis on comparing the homologous and heterologous booster doses in physicians that received three approved vaccines in Ecuador. An electronic survey was performed in Quito, Ecuador, directed at physicians who were vaccinated with the three doses of COVID-19 vaccines. A total of 210 participants were analyzed after administering any dose of the vaccines. At least one AE was identified in 60.0% (126/210) of the sample after the first dose, 52.40% (110/210) after the second dose, and 75.2% (158/210) after the booster dose. The most frequent AEs were localized pain, myalgia, headache, and fever. At least one drug was used in 44.3% of the population after the first dose, 37.1% after the second dose, and 63.8% in the booster dose. Heterologous booster produces more AEs compared with homologous booster (80.1% vs. 53.8%), and 77.3% of participants reported that interfered with daily activities. Similar studies agree that reactogenicity occurs mainly with heterologous vaccination compared to homologous vaccination. This situation affected physicians' performance in daily activities and led them to use medication for the symptoms. In the future, it is recommended to perform cohort studies, where adverse events that are associated with vaccine boosters in the general population can be analyzed longitudinally, thus improving the level of evidence of the results.

Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 146-155, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430522


Los estudios de corte transversal (ECT) inician en la década de los 40 en países Europeos. Los ECT corresponden a investigaciones de tipo observacional que permiten estudiar prevalencia de enfermedad, determinar asociación entre variables y el desarrollo de un efecto de interés, conocer propiedades de una prueba diagnóstica, y censar poblaciones; describiendo las características de una población en un momento y lugar determinado. Esto implica, que no se requieren periodos de seguimiento, que no son prospectivos ni retrospectivos; características que permiten que sean más baratos y fáciles de realizar en relación a los estudios longitudinales. Por otro lado, al ser de carácter descriptivo sirven como insumo y evidencia preliminar para estudios de mayor complejidad metodológica, como estudios de cohortes. Sin embargo, tienen limitantes y sesgos que deben ser considerados por los investigadores. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio para revisar características esenciales, fortalezas y debilidades; discutir cuestiones metodológicas de los ECT en ciencias de la salud; y proporcionar algunos ejemplos obtenidos de la literatura, para mejor comprensión del diseño.

SUMMARY: Cross-sectional studies (CSS) began European countries in the 1940s in. The CSSs correspond to observational-type investigations that allow studying the prevalence of disease, determining the association between variables and the development of an effect of interest, discovering the properties of a diagnostic test, and censusing populations, describing the characteristics of a population at a given time and place. This implies that follow-up periods are not required, and that they are neither prospective nor retrospective. These characteristics allow them to be cheaper and easier to perform in relation to longitudinal studies. On the other hand, being descriptive in nature, they serve as input and preliminary evidence for studies of greater methodological complexity, such as cohort studies. However, they have limitations and biases that must be considered by researchers. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document to review essential characteristics, strengths and weaknesses; discuss methodological issues of ECT in health sciences; and provide some examples obtained from the literature, for a better understanding of the design.

Humans , Research Design , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anatomy/methods , Selection Bias , Prevalence , Observational Studies as Topic
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 54(2): 513-519, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488975


PURPOSE: Worldwide, gastric cancer (GC) is the 5th cancer with the highest incidence and the 4th in mortality. To reduce it, one strategy is to diagnose preneoplastic lesions (PNL): atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia (DYS); to form risk groups on which to focus surveillance efforts as are first-degree relatives (FDR). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of gastric PNL in FDR of patients with GC, and to study association with sex, age, and Helicobacter pylorii (Hp) infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. One hundred and ten FDR, aged between 50 and 65 years, 54.5 female, obtained through convenience sampling, were studied. Biodemographic data survey and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with histological study were applied according to Sidney protocol, and focal lesions found. Diagnosis of these lesions and condition of mucosa was carried out by applying OLGA and OLGIM systems. Descriptive statistics, estimation of prevalence, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Median age of study group was 56.5 years. Prevalence of PNL, AG, IM, and DYS were 86.4%, 82.7%, 54.5%, and 12.7% respectively. Advanced stages of OLGA and OLGIM were verified in 18.0% and 16.3% respectively. No association with sex, age, and Hp infection were found ([OR 3.10; 95CI 1.0; 9.64]; [OR 0.74; 95CI 0.26; 2.14]; [OR 0.58; 95CI 0.12; 2.77]) respectively. CONCLUSION: FDR of patients with GC have a high prevalence of PNL, which makes them a risk group in which endoscopic surveillance should be applied.

Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Precancerous Conditions , Stomach Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Precancerous Conditions/epidemiology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Gastritis, Atrophic/epidemiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/complications , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Hyperplasia/complications , Metaplasia/epidemiology , Metaplasia/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Gastric Mucosa/pathology
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 16: 11795549221134831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338263


Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Liquid biopsy (LB) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the analysis of biomarkers in different body fluids, particularly in peripheral blood and also in urine, saliva, nipple discharge, volatile respiratory fluids, nasal secretions, breast milk, and tears. The objective was to analyze the available evidence related to the use of biomarkers obtained by LB for the early diagnosis of BC. Methods: Articles related to the use of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of BC due to LB, published between 2010 and 2022, from the databases (WoS, EMBASE, PubMed, and SCOPUS) were included. The MInCir diagnostic scale was applied in the articles to determine their methodological quality (MQ). Descriptive statistics were used, as well as determination of weighted averages of each variable, to analyze the extracted data. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve values for specific biomarkers (individual or in panels) are described. Results: In this systematic review (SR), 136 articles met the selection criteria, representing 17 709 patients with BC. However, 95.6% were case-control studies. In 96.3% of cases, LB was performed in peripheral blood samples. Most of the articles were based on microRNA (miRNA) analysis. The mean MQ score was 25/45 points. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve values for specific biomarkers (individual or in panels) have been found. Conclusions: The determination of biomarkers through LB is a useful mechanism for the diagnosis of BC. The analysis of miRNA in peripheral blood is the most studied methodology. Our results indicate that LB has a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of BC, especially in early stages.

Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232089


BACKGROUND: Despite its enormous health and social burden, there are limited published studies describing the epidemiology of violent deaths in Chile. We described violent mortality rate trends in Chile between 2001 and 2018, its current spatial distribution and ecological level correlates. METHODS: A population-based study using publicly accessible data. We calculated age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 persons for sex, age, intention, and mechanism of death. Next, we used linear regression to estimate time trends for sex and intention. We then employed hierarchical Poisson analyses to model the spatial distribution across 345 municipalities and the influence of six ecological level variables. RESULTS: The average rate of violent death in Chile between 2001 and 2018 was 15.9 per 100,000 people, with the majority (70.3%) of these attributed to suicide. Suffocation was the most common mechanism of death for suicide (82.3%) and cut/pierce for homicide (43.1%), followed by firearm (33.2%). Violent deaths are trending downward in Chile across all categories except suicides by women, which have remained stable. Poverty rates and urban population were positively associated with violent mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although violence-related deaths seem to be decreasing, disparities across gender, age group, and geographic location may have continuing effects on mortality rates.

Suicide , Cause of Death , Chile/epidemiology , Female , Homicide , Humans , Population Surveillance , Prevalence
Clin Genet ; 101(3): 285-295, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687555


Advancements in genetic sequencing techniques along with the identification of specific mutations and structural changes in multiple cancer genes, make it possible to identify circulating tumor cells and cell free nucleic acids as blood-based biomarkers, serving as a liquid biopsy (LB) with great utility for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with neoplasms. This systematic review focuses on the clinical utility of LB in patients with breast cancer (BC). Articles published between 1990 and 2021 were included. Databases searched: Trip Database, WoS, EMBASE, PubMed, SCOPUS, and Clinical Keys. Variables studied: Publication year, country, number of cases, primary study design, LB detection methods, genes found, overall survival, disease-free survival, stage, response to treatment, clinical utility, BC molecular type, systemic treatment and methodological quality of primary studies. Of 2619 articles, 74 were retained representing 12 658 patients, mainly cohort studies (66.2%), the majority were from China (15%) and Japan (12.2%). All primary studies described clinical stage and type of systemic treatment used. Most used biomarker detection method: DNA (52.7%) and type of analysis: quantification of total cfDNA (35.1%). PIK3CA mutation was most frequent (62.9%). Evidence suggests clinically useful applications of BC. Though heterogeneous, publications suggest that LB will constitute part of the standard diagnostic-therapeutic process of BC.

Breast Neoplasms , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Female , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Mutation
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1268-1275, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405290


RESUMEN: La obesidad es un problema de salud pública, mundial. Considerada una enfermedad sistémica, multiorgánica, metabólica e inflamatoria crónica, ocasionada por el exceso de tejido celular subcutáneo, con un mayor riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad por ciclos vitales, en todas las edades. Determinar las tendencias de obesidad general según variables demográficas en Ecuador en el período 2014 - 2016. Estudio poblacional, con 318.594 sujetos diagnosticados de obesidad general. Representada en un 77,2 % por mujeres. Los datos fueron otorgados por el Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador según provincia (n=24), regiones (Costa, Sierra, Amazonía e Insular), grupos de edad (menores de 15 años, de 15 a 19 años, de 20 a 39 años, de 40 a 64 años y mayores de 64 años) y sexo. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos de frecuencias, porcentaje, tasa de incidencia por 1.000 habitantes, razón de tasas de incidencia por año, en la población total, por sexo y grupo de edad. Se utilizó el software Microsoft Excel 16.44 considerando intervalos de confianza del 95 %. En el período estudiado, la tasa de obesidad general por 1.000 habitantes fue de 6,52, siendo 3,16 veces más alta en mujeres que en hombres (IC 95 %; 3,14-3,19). En el año 2016, se reportaron las mayores tasas de incidencia de obesidad (6,8 por 1.000 habitantes). Además, existe una tasa de obesidad 2,38 veces mayor en la región Insular que en la Costa (IC 95 %; 2,14-2,65). Es fundamental realizar análisis de estos datos, siendo este el primer estudio con este propósito. Sentando un precedente relevante a considerar al momento de realizar prevención de enfermedad y promoción de salud.

SUMMARY: Obesity is a global, public health problem. Considered a systemic, multiorgan, metabolic and chronic inflammatory disease, with an excess of subcutaneous adipose tissue, which carries a greater risk of morbidity and mortality due to life cycles. To determine the general obesity trends according to demographic variables in Ecuador in the period 2014 - 2016. Population study, with 318,594 subjects diagnosed with general obesity. 77.2 % represented by women. The data were provided by the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador according to province (n = 24), regions (Coast, Sierra, Amazon, and Insular), age groups (under 15, 15 to 19, 20 to 64, and over 65) and sex. Statistical analyzes of frequencies, percentage, incidence rate per 1.000 inhabitants, incidence rate ratio per year, in the total population, by sex and age group were performed. Microsoft Excel 16.44 soft- ware was used. Considering 95 % confidence intervals. In the period studied, the general obesity rate per 1.000 inhabitants was 6,5, being 3 times higher in women than in men. In 2016, the highest obesity incidence rates were reported, (6,38 per 1000 inhabitants). In addition, there is an obesity rate 2,38 times higher in the Insular region than in the Coast (95 % CI; 2.14-2.65). The data found are important, since it is the first study where these figures were analyzed, so it is relevant to consider them when carrying out disease prevention and health promotion.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Obesity/epidemiology , Demography , Incidence , Ecuador/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 157(12): 561-568, diciembre 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-216483


Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an alpha-2 adrenergic drug used for short sedation and as an alternative to diazepam (DZP) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS).PurposeThis study aims to compare the hemodynamic effect of DZP versus DEX on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure in patients with AWS.MethodsProspective randomized clinical trial that includes 40 patients with AWS from Mérida, Yucatán, México.ResultsForty patients were randomly divided into two groups: one group DZP (n=20) patients received diazepam (doses 5–20mg IV) and the other group (n=20) received DEX (dexmedetomidine infusion .2–.7mcg/kg/min). We obtained statistical significance in sedation with the DEX group in the degree of traumatic brain injury I/II (p=.003). The DEX group remained haemodynamically stable in the first 24h, the mean HR (73.85±8.39) was significant comparing both groups (p=.002). In the comparison of the figures for the DEX group with the DZP (143.85±2.30–137.95±5.62) the SBP was significant with a (p=.0001). Furthermore, DEX treatment was shorter.ConclusionAlthough DEX is not indicated for the routine treatment of AWS, this study proposes a positive effect on HR, SBP and fewer days of treatment compared to the standard DZP treatment for AWS. (AU)

Antecedentes: La dexmedetomidina (DEX) es un fármaco alfa-2 adrenérgico, utilizado para la sedación corta y como alternativa al diazepam (DZP) en el tratamiento por síndrome de abstinencia por alcohol.ObjetivosComparar el efecto hemodinámico del DZP versus la DEX en la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y la presión arterial en pacientes con síndrome de abstinencia del alcohol.MétodosEnsayo clínico aleatorizado prospectivo en 40 pacientes con síndrome de abstinencia de alcohol, del Hospital General Agustín O’Horán Mérida, Yucatán, México.ResultadosCuarenta pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grupos: grupo DZP (n=20) recibió DZP n=20 (dosis: 5-20mg IV) y el otro grupo (n=20) recibió DEX (infusión de DEX: 0,2-0,7μg/kg/min). Obtuvimos significancia estadística en la sedación con el grupo de DEX en el grado de trauma craneoencefálico I/II (p=0,003). El grupo de DEX se mantuvo hemodinámicamente estable en las primeras 24h, la media FC (73; 85±8,39) fue significativa comparando ambos grupos (p=0,002). Las cifras de PAS para el grupo DEX comparada con DZP (143; 85±2; 30-137, 95±5,62) fue significativa con a (p=0,0001). Además, el tratamiento con DEX fue de menor duración.ConclusiónAunque DEX no está indicado para el tratamiento de rutina de AWS, este estudio propone un efecto positivo hemodinámicamente sobre la FC, la PAS y menos días de tratamiento en comparación con el tratamiento estándar de DZP para el tratamiento del síndrome de abstinencia del alcohol. (AU)

Humans , Alcoholism , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Hemodynamics , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385722


RESUMEN: En México las enfermedades orales se encuentran entre las de mayor demanda de atención en los servicios de salud, presentándose en las poblaciones de trabajadores migrantes mayor vulnerabilidad en cuestiones de salud. El alfabetismo funcional en salud oral es la capacidad que los individuos poseen para obtener, procesar y comprender la información de los servicios de salud básica, reflejándose en su salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el estado de higiene oral y su relación con el nivel de alfabetismo funcional (OHLA-S) en salud oral de los trabajadores agrícolas migrantes mexicanos. Estudio de corte transversal, con un tamaño de muestra de 208 sujetos elegidos por conveniencia y calculada con base a un OR esperado. Se incluyeron a sujetos de 18 años o más, con consentimiento informado. Las variables estudiadas fueron: autocuidado, OHLA-S, índice de higiene oral simplificado (IHO-S) e índice periodontal comunitario (IPC). Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y analítica. El 53,0 % de la muestra fueron hombres. La media de edad fue de 30,7±10,8 años. Los promedios de alfabetismo funcional en salud oral, del índice de higiene y del índice periodontal comunitario fueron de 7,8±6,9; 1,7±1,0; y 2,0±0,7 respectivamente. La regresión lineal múltiple del IPC muestra que edad y puntaje del OHLA-S explican el 22,0 % de la varianza y el OHLA-S influye indirectamente en el IHO-S. El promedio del índice de higiene oral de los trabajadores agrícolas migrantes fue bueno y el promedio del índice periodontal comunitario reflejó presencia de gingivitis. Así mismo, presentaron un puntaje bajo de alfabetismo funcional en salud oral; Sin embargo el alfabetismo funcional en salud oral se relacionó de forma significativa con el estado periodontal.

ABSTRACT: In Mexico, oral health disease is among the greatest health care demands in health services. These are evident in the higher vulnerability of migrant worker populations regarding major healthcare issues. Oral health literacy (OHL) is the ability of individuals to obtain, process and understand information of basic health services. The aim of the study was to ascertain the state of oral hygiene and its relation with the level of oral health literacy of Mexican migrant farm workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out, with a sample size of 208 subjects selected for convenience and calculated by the expected OR. Subjects 18 years of age or older with signed informed consent were included. The variables studied were: Oral health literacy, simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and Community Index of Periodontal (CPI). Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. In this evaluation, 53.0 % of the sample were men. The mean age was 30.7±10.8 years. The average oral health literacy was 7.8±6.9, the average hygiene index was 1.7±1.0 and the community periodontal index was 2.0±0.7. The multiple linear regression of the CPI shows that the age and OHLA-S scores account for 22.0 % of the variance and the OHLA-S indirectly influences the IHO-S. This study reflects the importance of performing health interventions focused not only on oral health knowledge, but also considering the age of the individual and maintaining open future lines of research on this subject in different populations.

Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(12): 561-568, 2021 12 24.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423824


BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an alpha-2 adrenergic drug used for short sedation and as an alternative to diazepam (DZP) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the hemodynamic effect of DZP versus DEX on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure in patients with AWS. METHODS: Prospective randomized clinical trial that includes 40 patients with AWS from Mérida, Yucatán, México. RESULTS: Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups: one group DZP (n=20) patients received diazepam (doses 5-20mg IV) and the other group (n=20) received DEX (dexmedetomidine infusion .2-.7mcg/kg/min). We obtained statistical significance in sedation with the DEX group in the degree of traumatic brain injury I/II (p=.003). The DEX group remained haemodynamically stable in the first 24h, the mean HR (73.85±8.39) was significant comparing both groups (p=.002). In the comparison of the figures for the DEX group with the DZP (143.85±2.30-137.95±5.62) the SBP was significant with a (p=.0001). Furthermore, DEX treatment was shorter. CONCLUSION: Although DEX is not indicated for the routine treatment of AWS, this study proposes a positive effect on HR, SBP and fewer days of treatment compared to the standard DZP treatment for AWS. Clinical ID: NCT03877120-

Alcoholism , Dexmedetomidine , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Diazepam/therapeutic use , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy
Andes Pediatr ; 92(6): 937-942, 2021 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506807


INTRODUCTION: The BITSS scale (Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale) is an instrument used in the diagnosis and follow-up of infants and young children with infectious diarrhea. It consists of 7 pictures of diapers with different types of stools. OBJECTIVE: To determine intra and interobserver reliability of the BITSS scale in infants and children using diapers. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Reliability study. Three pediatri cians with experience in treating childhood infectious diarrhea were selected and, after training in applying the BITSS scale, they evaluated 70 pictures of stools obtained from pediatric patients, repre senting the 7 different types of stools categorized by the scale (10 images for each item). Two pediatri cians participated in the interobserver reliability study and performed a blind evaluation of the same pictures, assigning a value to each one, and the third pediatrician participated in the intra-observer analysis, evaluating 70 images on two different occasions, 15 days apart. Interobserver agreement and kappa statistics were determined for the scale and each scale item. RESULTS: 280 measurements were made, 140 for the inter-observer reliability study and 140 for the intra-observer one. The degree of inter-observer agreement for the scale was 85.7%; with a kappa of 0.817 (95% CI 0.72; 0.92), and standard error of 0.05; and the intra-observer kappa for the scale was 0.883 (95% CI 0.80; 0.96), with a standard error of 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The BITSS scale has good intra- and interobserver reliability.

Diarrhea , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Feces , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results