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1.
Washington; PAHO/WHO; 04 May 2022. 462 p.
Non-conventional in English | PIE, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1368644

ABSTRACT

Background: The urgent need for evidence on measures to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic had led to a rapid escalation in numbers of studies testing potential therapeutic options. The vast amount of data generated by these studies must be interpreted quickly so that physicians have the information to make optimal treatment decisions and manufacturers can scale-up production and bolster supply chains. Moreover, obtaining a quick answer to the question of whether or not a particular intervention is effective can help investigators involved in the many ongoing clinical trials to change focus and pivot to more promising alternatives. It is crucial for healthcare workers to have access to the most up-to-date research evidence to inform their treatment decisions. To address this evidence gap, we compiled the following database of evidence on potential therapeutic options for COVID-19. We hope this information will help investigators, policy makers, and prescribers navigate the flood of relevant data to ensure that management of COVID19, at both individual and population levels, is based on the best available knowledge. We will endeavor to continually update this resource as more research is released into the public space. Summary of evidence: Tables 1 and 2, which divide the total group of identified studies into randomized (Table 1) and non-randomized (Table 2) designs, indicate the primary outcome measures used for each investigation and the level of certainty. Table 3 summarizes the status of evidence for the 193 potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 for which studies were identified through our systematic review.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Therapeutics
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-20. (PAHO/NMH/NV/22-0008).
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56018

ABSTRACT

This scorecard has been developed by the Pan American Health Organization to highlight the country capacity for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and showcase regional results from the global NCD Progress Monitor 2022. It provides a snapshot of key NCD indicators across all countries in the Region of the Americas. The tool, the third of a series initiated in 2017, aims to promote understanding of the response to NCDs and assist decision-making for NCD program improvement. The WHO Progress Monitor 2022 for Noncommunicable Diseases, the fourth of a series, provides information on the country capacity for NCDs, measured by 19 indicators. They include setting time-bound targets to reduce NCD deaths, developing all-of-government policies to address NCDs; implementing key tobacco and alcohol demand reduction measures, measures to reduce unhealthy diets and promote physical activity; and strengthening health systems through primary health care and universal health coverage. Noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors are the leading causes of morbidity, mortality and disability in the Americas, and they represent both a public health challenge and a serious threat to economic and social development. In the Region of the Americas, NCDs cause aproximately 5.8 million deaths per year, representing 81% of all deaths in the Region. Of the total deaths from NCDs, 36.4% are premature deaths, occurring in people under 70 years of age. For more information about the series and access to the interactive NCD Progress Monitor Scorecard, visit www.paho.org/en/topics/noncommunicable-diseases/ncds-progress-monitor.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Surveillance , Risk Factors , Americas
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-19.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56011

ABSTRACT

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained at low levels. In Canada, influenza activity increased above the average of previous seasons for this period at low intensity levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased and remained at low levels. In Mexico, influenza activity increased above the epidemic threshold and was at the average of previous seasons, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In the United States, influenza activity varied within regions and continued to increase in some states with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained at low levels, with predominating influenza A(H3N2), and overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity declined in most countries. In Belize and Dominica, influenza and SARS-CoV-2 activity and percent positivity increased. Central America: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased in most countries. In El Salvador, influenza activity remained above-average levels at low-intensity levels. In Costa Rica and Panama, SARS-CoV-2 activity and percent positivity increased compared to previous seasons. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline in most countries, except in Peru, where the influenza activity with the predominance of A(H3N2) continued elevated above the average seasonal levels. In Ecuador, RSV activity continued elevated. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza with the predominance of A(H3N2) and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In Brazil, SARS-CoV-2 activity increased slightly compared to the previous week. In Chile and Uruguay, influenza A(H3N2) activity and SARS-CoV-2 positivity increased slightly at low intensity levels. RSV activity continued elevated in Chile and Uruguay. Global: Influenza activity continued to decrease, following a peak in March 2022. In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity decreased or remained stable. Detections were mainly influenza A(H3N2) viruses and B/Victoria lineage viruses, with some detections of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In Central Asia, a single influenza B detection was reported in Kazakhstan. In East Asia, influenza activity with mainly influenza B/Victoria lineage. Overall, in Europe, influenza continues to decline, with influenza A(H3N2) predominant. Very little RSV activity was observed. Detections continued to decrease in China while A(H3N2) became the predominantly detected virus across the southern provinces in China. Elsewhere, influenza illness indicators and activity remained low. In Northern Africa, Tunisia continued to report few detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) and one influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection, while Egypt reported increasing detections of influenza B followed by A(H3N2). In Western Asia, influenza activity was low across reporting countries, except Georgia, where detections of influenza A(H3N2) continued to be reported although decreasing. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections were at low levels, with a few detections of A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In South-East Asia, low A(H3N2) detections were reported in Singapore and Timor-Leste. In the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity was low overall, as expected at this time of year. Overall, COVID positivity from sentinel surveillance increased and was just above 10% during the reporting period. Activity from non-sentinel sites was varied.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza y de SARS-CoV-2 se mantuvo en niveles bajos. En Canadá, la actividad de la influenza aumentó por encima del promedio de temporadas anteriores para esta época del año en nivel de intensidad bajo y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó y se mantuvo en niveles bajos. En México, la actividad de la influenza aumentó por encima del umbral epidémico y estuvo en el promedio de las temporadas anteriores y la actividad y el porcentaje de positividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza varía según la región y siguió aumentando en algunas zonas del país con predominio de los virus influenza A(H3N2). Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y, en general, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En Belice y Dominica, aumentó la actividad y el porcentaje de positividad de influenza y SARS-CoV-2. América Central: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En El Salvador, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo por encima del promedio en niveles de baja intensidad. En Costa Rica y Panamá, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 y el porcentaje de positividad aumentaron en comparación con temporadas anteriores. Andina: en general, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo baja con predominio de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo en la mayoría de los países, excepto en Perú, donde la actividad de influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) continuó elevada por encima de los niveles promedio estacionales. En Ecuador, la actividad del VRS continuó elevada. Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, disminuyó la actividad de influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) y SARS-CoV-2. En Brasil, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó levemente con respecto a la semana anterior. En Chile y Uruguay, la actividad de influenza A(H3N2) y la positividad de SARS-CoV-2 aumentaron levemente en niveles de baja intensidad. La actividad del VRS continuó elevada en Chile y Uruguay. Global: la actividad de la influenza siguió disminuyendo, luego de un pico en marzo de 2022. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó o se mantuvo estable. Las detecciones fueron principalmente virus de la influenza A(H3N2) e influenza B linaje Victoria, con algunas detecciones de los virus A(H1N1)pdm09. En Asia Central, se notificó una sola detección de influenza B en Kazajstán. En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza fue principalmente de influenza B linaje Victoria. En general, en Europa, la influenza sigue disminuyendo con predominio de influenza A(H3N2). Se observó muy poca actividad de VRS. Las detecciones continuaron disminuyendo en China, mientras que el A(H3N2) se convirtió en el virus predominantemente detectado en las provincias del sur de China. En otros lugares, los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza permanecieron bajos. En el norte de África, Túnez continuó informando pocas detecciones principalmente de influenza A(H3N2) y una detección de influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, mientras que Egipto reportó un aumento en las detecciones de influenza B seguida de A(H3N2). En Asia occidental, la actividad de la influenza fue baja en todos los países que notificaron, excepto en Georgia, donde continuaron las notificaciones de detecciones de influenza A(H3N2), aunque en disminución. En el sur de Asia, las detecciones del virus de la influenza estuvieron en niveles bajos, con algunas detecciones de los virus A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09. En el Sudeste Asiático, se informaron detecciones bajas de A(H3N2) en Singapur y Timor-Leste. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, en general, la actividad de la influenza fue baja como se esperaba en esta época del año. En general, la positividad de la COVID de la vigilancia centinela aumentó y estuvo justo por encima del 10 % durante el período del informe. La actividad de los sitios no centinela fue variada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-19. (PAHO/NMH/MH/22-0009).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56009

ABSTRACT

This fact sheet presents definition and evidence on violence against women, including during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the harms caused by alcohol regarding the topic. Alcohol consumption is considered as risk factor associated with sexual violence and intimate partner violence. The fact sheet highlights the consequences faced by women in alcohol-related violence and the problems with heavy drinking. It also provides a concise list of how these harms can be addressed.


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Violence Against Women , Gender-Based Violence , Mental Health
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-17.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56000

ABSTRACT

Door voedsel overgedragen ziekten (FBD’s) zijn één van de meest voorkomende volksgezondheidsproblemen in het dagelijks leven. De gevaren die FBD’s veroorzaken kunnen zich voordoen in de verschillende stadia van de voedselketen (van de primaire productie tot aan de consument). Ongeacht de oorsprong van het voedsel kan het, zodra het de consument bereikt, gevolgen hebben voor de volksgezondheid en ernstige economische schade toebrengen aan de bedrijven die zich bezighouden met de bereiding en verkoop van het voedsel. Deze twee gebeurtenissen kunnen leiden tot verlies van vertrouwen en het sluiten van een bedrijf. Gelukkig zijn de maatregelen ter voorkoming van voedselverontreiniging zeer eenvoudig en kunnen ze worden toegepast door iedereen die voedsel hanteert, door het volgen van eenvoudige regels voor het hygiënisch bereiden van voedsel. Het doel van dit Handboek is om personen die voedsel hanteren de informatie te verschaffen die ze nodig hebben om goede praktijken op het gebied van voedselbereiding te vergemakkelijken en toe te passen. Daarnaast wordt getracht basisinformatie over voedselveiligheid te verstrekken die de Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caribische landen aan hun eigen behoeften kunnen aanpassen. Het Handboek is opgebouwd uit drie modules en bijlagen die zich richten op de volgende onderwerpen: (1) voedselveiligheidsgevaren; (2) Door voedsel overgedragen ziekten; en (3) hygiëne maatregelen om voedselverontreiniging te voorkomen. De beoordeling aan het eind maakt deel uit van het Handboek. Het doel ervan is om de kennis te beoordelen die tijdens de cursus is opgedaan met betrekking tot het belang van de hygiënische productie van voedsel voor de volksgezondheid.


Subject(s)
Foodborne Diseases , Food Contamination , Food Handling , Food Safety , Food Hygiene
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-05-17.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55999

ABSTRACT

Door voedsel overgedragen ziekten (FBD’s) zijn één van de meest voorkomende volksgezondheidsproblemen in het dagelijks leven. De gevaren die FBD’s veroorzaken kunnen zich voordoen in de verschillende stadia van de voedselketen (van de primaire productie tot aan de consument). Ongeacht de oorsprong van het voedsel kan het, zodra het de consument bereikt, gevolgen hebben voor de volksgezondheid en ernstige economische schade toebrengen aan de bedrijven die zich bezighouden met de bereiding enverkoop van het voedsel. Deze twee gebeurtenissen kunnen leiden tot verlies van vertrouwen en het sluiten van een bedrijf. Gelukkig zijn de maatregelen ter voorkoming van voedselverontreiniging zeer eenvoudig en kunnen ze worden toegepast door iedereen die voedsel hanteert, door het volgen van eenvoudige regels voor het hygiënisch bereiden van voedsel. Het doel van dit Handboek is om personen die voedsel hanteren, in het bijzonder trainers van food handlers, de informatie te verschaffen die ze nodig hebben om het leren van goede procedures aan food handlers te vergemakkelijken. Daarnaast wordt getracht basisinformatie over voedselveiligheid te verstrekken die de Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caribische landen aan hun eigen behoeften kunnen aanpassen. Het Handboek bestaat uit drie modules en bijlagen die gericht zijn op de volgende onderwerpen: (1) voedselveiligheidsgevaren; (2) Door voedsel overgedragen ziekten; en (3) hygiënemaatregelen om voedselverontreiniging te voorkomen. De beoordeling aan het eind maakt deel uit van het Handboek. Het doel ervan is om de kennis te beoordelen die tijdens de cursus is opgedaan, met betrekking tot het belang van de hygiënische productie van voedsel voor de volksgezondheid.


Subject(s)
Foodborne Diseases , Food Contamination , Food Handling , Food Safety , Food Hygiene
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-12. (PAHO/HSS/HR/21-0013).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55984

ABSTRACT

The Virtual Campus for Public Health (VCPH) is a strategic tool for the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) technical cooperation. As such, it is a space for distributing, managing, and updating knowledge in public health and for strengthening the capacities and competencies of the Region’s health teams. The guiding principles of its activities are consistent with PAHO’s values. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the pedagogical approach that supports PAHO's VCPH to the PAHO staff with project management responsibilities in the VCPH, as well as to the governments, ministries, institutions, and organizations that are part of the national hubs. An educational approach is the conceptual and methodological framework that explains, guides, and specifies educational processes and outcomes. In our case, this general framework supports training interventions in the field of public health. This document presents the vision, mission and principles of VCPH, the concept of permanent education and lifelong learning in the field of health, the principles of virtual education and education based on competences. It also highlights the way the VCPH conceives teaching and learning in the virtual environment and describes the lines of educational innovation that the VCPH is currently studying within the framework of technical cooperation. The publication is not intended as an exhaustive review of the conceptual discussions surrounding virtual education or the use of technology in education. Instead, it seeks to establish the frameworks that guide the VCPH educational approaches which are dynamic and require periodic updating.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Health Human Resource Training
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-12. (PAHO/CDE/VT/21-0021).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55980

ABSTRACT

The Intergovernmental Commission of the Amazon Countries Initiative for the Surveillance and Control of Chagas Disease (AMCHA) held its 11th Annual Meeting and First Virtual Meeting on 27-28 May 2021. This meeting report lists the recommendations, conclusions and resolutions agreed. Representatives from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Siriname and Venezuela and other partners on Chagas participated in the meeting and presented the epidemiological situation of Chagas disease in their countries. Due to the particular Amazonian situation of vectorial transmission based mostly on the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi with diversity of triatomine vectors involved in effective transmission, and the variety of eco-epidemiological situations that facilitate such transmission, the countries of the Amazon agreed that the development and strengthening of preventive actions based on comprehensive surveillance and detection of effective vectorial transmission, based on mandatory notification of acute or chronic cases, was required. In addition, it was recommended that surveillance and prevention and/or vector control actions should be implemented through local governments (minimum administrative and territorial units of each country), which Colombia adopted as an approach strategy, as a tool that can be useful in complex situations of different types and entities; implementation of all necessary capacities to diagnose Chagas disease, in all clinical symptoms that are compatible with it, especially febrile syndromes without diagnostic confirmation of malaria and dengue (in urban environments); and use the detection of acute cases of Chagas disease, and even of chronic cases when possible, as an indicator for a concomitant epidemiological investigation, and eventual adoption of measures for prevention, control and clinical care of the cases in the situation studied.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Communicable Diseases , Amazonian Ecosystem , Technical Cooperation , Americas
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-11. (PAHO/NMH/MH/22-0010).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55978

ABSTRACT

Alcoholic beverages are the only harmful products widely consumed for which there are no requirements or standards related to the content, quality, nutritional value, and other information commonly seen on other products. This fact sheet presents evidence on alcohol warning labels for alcoholic beverages and highlights key points on why its adoption should be considered by countries. It also provides recommendations for its implementation and information on the harms associated with alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Violence , Mental Health , Alcohols
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-11.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55976

ABSTRACT

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained at low levels. In Canada, influenza activity increased above the average of previous seasons for this period at low intensity levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased and remained at low levels. In Mexico, influenza activity remained stable below the average of previous seasons, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In the United States, influenza activity varied within regions and continued to increase in some states with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained at low levels, with predominating influenza A(H3N2), and overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline. In Belize, influenza activity and percent positivity increased. In Jamaica and Saint Lucia, SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity increased at low levels compared to the previous seasons. In Puerto Rico, the percentage of visits for influenza-like illness continued to increase to high levels for this time of year. Central America: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased in most countries. In El Salvador, influenza activity remained above-average levels at low-intensity levels. In Panama, SARS-CoV-2 activity and percent positivity increased compared to previous seasons. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline in most countries. In Ecuador, influenza activity decreased to above-average baseline levels for previous years; and RSV activity was higher than in previous years, except in 2015 and 2016. In Peru, influenza activity increased but remained at low levels compared to previous weeks. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza activity decreased with the predominance of A(H3N2). SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In Brazil, RSV percent positivity increased to high-intensity levels above the levels observed in 2021, but below the levels of 2016-17 and 2019; and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained above the levels observed in 2021. In Argentina, influenza activity increased at high intensity levels and SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza y de SARS-CoV-2 se mantienen en niveles bajos. En Canadá, la actividad de la influenza aumentó por encima del promedio de temporadas anteriores para esta época del año en nivel de intensidad bajo y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó y se mantiene en niveles bajos. En México, la actividad de la influenza se mantiene estable por debajo del promedio de temporadas anteriores y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza varía según la región y sigue aumentando en algunas zonas del país con predominio de los virus influenza A(H3N2). Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en disminución. En Belice aumentó la actividad y porcentaje de positividad de influenza. En Jamaica y Santa Lucía el porcentaje de positividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó en nivel de intensidad bajo con respecto a los registrados previamente. En Puerto Rico, el porcentaje de visitas por enfermedad tipo influenza continúa en aumento a niveles altos para esta época del año. América Central: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En El Salvador la actividad de la influenza permaneció por encima de los niveles promedio en niveles de intensidad bajos. En Panamá la actividad y porcentaje de positividad para el SARS-CoV-2 aumentaron en comparación con periodos previos. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza continuó baja con predominio de A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo en la mayoría de los países. En Ecuador, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó a los niveles de referencia por encima del promedio de los años anteriores. La actividad del VRS fue mayor que en años anteriores, excepto en 2015 y 2016. En Perú, la actividad de influenza aumentó en las últimas semanas, pero se mantiene en niveles de baja intensidad Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, la actividad de la influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) y SARS-CoV-2 tienden a la disminución. En Brasil el porcentaje de positividad de virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo en niveles altos por encima de los niveles observados a finales de 2021, pero por debajo de los niveles de las temporadas 2016-17 y 2019 y la actividad y porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV2 se mantuvo en niveles altos por encima de lo observado a fines de 2021. En Argentina la actividad y porcentaje de positividad para influenza aumentaron a niveles de intensidad alta y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 aumentó levemente.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region
11.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-10. (PAHO/HSS/SF/22-0017).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55975

ABSTRACT

This advocacy brief provides high-level, clear information for the general public on the PAHO Strategic Fund for Essential Medicines and Supplies.


Subject(s)
Group Purchasing , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , National Health Programs , COVID-19
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-09. (PAHO/NMH/MH/COVID-19/22-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55972

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 HEalth caRe wOrkErs Study (HEROES): Regional Report from the Americas is a multicenter prospective cohort study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of health care workers in 26 countries on four continents and how it is affected by several factors at different interrelated levels: individual, family, occupational, and social. This brief report presents the evidence generated from the baseline survey of 11 participating countries in the Region of the Americas. Using validated scales, the findings show high rates of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and psychological distress in several countries of the Region. The spirit of the project is not only to generate quality scientific evidence on the mental health of health care workers, but also to help develop interventions (both individual and institutional) and policies to address the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Noncommunicable Diseases , Health Workforce , Surveillance of Working Environment , Americas
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-09. (PAHO/IMS/EIH/COVID-19/22-0012).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55968

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large number of clinical trials have been planned and developed to assess the effectiveness and safety of various interventions that could prevent hospitalizations and progression to severe disease in people infected with SARS-CoV-2. Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommend the use of corticosteroids, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and casirivimab e imdevimab (the latter in seronegative COVID-19 patients) and propose the use of sotrovimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, and molnupiravir in patients with non-severe illness who are at high risk for complications. Other potential therapeutic interventions are currently undergoing study or evaluation by WHO and PAHO. The interventions recommended at present and those that will be recommended at a later date pose challenges in terms of route of administration (e.g., oral or intravenous); efficacy, which depends on the viral variant; establishment of high-risk status (e.g., relative to vaccination status); cost; resources required to administer them; and other implementation-related aspects (e.g., distribution, drug safety monitoring, contraindications, interactions, etc.). To support decision-making for patient management, in this document PAHO presents considerations on the rational use of antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and other interventions in light of the most current evidence, vaccination status, access, and the costs to countries of the Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Evidence-Based Medicine , Translational Medical Research , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Patient Care Management , Americas , Caribbean Region
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-06.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55967

ABSTRACT

De Internationale normen voor de behandeling van drugsgebruik stoornissen werden ontwikkeld door de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie (WHO) en het Bureau voor Drugs en Criminaliteit van de Verenigde Naties (UNODC) om de lidstaten te ondersteunen bij het opzetten en uitbreiden van effectieve, empirisch onderbouwde en ethische behandeling van drugsgebruik stoornissen, met name in omgevingen met minder middelen. Ze bieden belangrijke principes voor de organisatie van behandelingsdiensten voor drugsgebruik stoornissen en beschrijven de belangrijkste componenten van behandelingssystemen, inclusief behandelingsinstellingen, modaliteiten en interventies. Daarnaast bevatten ze overwegingen voor groepen met speciale behandelings- en zorgbehoeften.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Health Promotion , Noncommunicable Diseases
15.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05. (PAHO/HSS/HR/22-0015).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55960

ABSTRACT

Nurses are key players in health promotion and disease prevention and the backbone of health care systems worldwide. Nurses work on the front lines of disease prevention, health promotion, and health management and are often the unsung heroes in health care facilities and emergency response. Despite the critical role they play in health care, there is a nursing shortage across the world that will affect the delivery of competent nursing care. This fact sheet highlights key action points for targeted investment in the nursing workforce and calls on Member States to strengthen nursing within the context of their own country efforts. Suggestions for action and strategies for strengthening the nursing workforce in primary health care services are through investment in education, jobs, leadership, and service delivery are provided.


Subject(s)
Workforce , Nurses , Health Promotion , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Prevention , Americas
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55958

ABSTRACT

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity remained at low levels, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline, and percent positivity for SARS-Cov2 remained at low levels. In Canada, influenza activity and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained at low levels. In Mexico, influenza activity has increased but remained below the average of previous seasons, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In the United States, influenza activity varied within regions and continued to increase in some states with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained at low levels, with predominating influenza A(H3N2), and overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline. In Dominica, SARI activity increased and remains below baseline levels. In Puerto Rico, the percentage of visits for influenza-like illness continued to increase to high levels for this time of year. Central America: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased in most countries. In El Salvador, influenza activity remained above-average levels at low-intensity levels. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline in most countries. In Ecuador, influenza activity decreased to above-average baseline levels for previous years; and RSV activity was higher than in previous years, except in 2015 and 2016. In Peru, influenza activity increased with A(H3N2) predominance. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza activity tends to decrease with the predominance of A(H3N2). SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased, except in Brazil, where SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity increased to high-intensity levels above the levels observed in 2021. Global: Influenza activity remained low, with a further decrease in some areas. In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity seems to decrease. In Europe, overall influenza activity appeared to decline, with influenza A(H3N2) predominant. In Central Asia, sporadic influenza B detections were reported in Kazakhstan. In East Asia, influenza activity with mainly influenza B/Victoria lineage detections continued to decrease in China. ILI rate and pneumonia hospitalizations remained elevated in Mongolia. Elsewhere, influenza illness indicators and activity remained low. In Northern Africa, decreased detections of influenza A(H3N2) were reported in Tunisia. In Western Asia, Georgia reported increased detections of influenza A(H3N2). In tropical Africa, influenza activity was informed mainly from Eastern Africa, with influenza A(H3N2) predominating, followed by influenza B viruses. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections were at low levels overall. Only Malaysia reported influenza detections of influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses in South-East Asia. In the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low overall. However, detections of influenza A viruses (with A(H3N2) predominant among the subtyped viruses) continued to be reported in South Africa. SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity from sentinel surveillance decreased below 10% in all WHO regions during this reporting period. Overall positivity from non-sentinel sites also showed a decreasing trend.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo y el porcentaje de positividad de SARS-Cov2 se mantiene en niveles bajos. En Canadá, la actividad de la influenza y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene en niveles bajos En México, la actividad de la influenza ha aumentado pero se mantiene por debajo del promedio de temporadas anteriores y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza varía según la región y sigue aumentando en algunas zonas del país con predominio de los virus influenza A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 siguió en disminución. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en disminución. En Dominica, la actividad de las IRAG aumentó y se mantiene por debajo de los niveles de referencia. En Puerto Rico, el porcentaje de visitas por enfermedad tipo influenza continúa en aumento a niveles altos para esta época del año. América Central: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En El Salvador la actividad de la influenza permaneció por encima de los niveles promedio en niveles de intensidad bajos. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza continuó baja con predominio de A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo en la mayoría de los países. En Ecuador, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó a los niveles de referencia por encima del promedio de los años anteriores. La actividad del VRS fue mayor que en años anteriores, excepto en 2015 y 2016. En Perú, la actividad de influenza aumentó con predominio de A(H3N2). Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, la actividad de la influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) y SARS-CoV-2 tienden a la disminución, excepto en Brasil en donde el porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV2 aumentó a niveles altos por encima de los niveles observados a fines de 2021. Global: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja, con una disminución adicional en algunas áreas. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza parece disminuir. En Europa, la actividad general de la influenza pareció disminuir, predominando la influenza A(H3N2). En Asia Central, se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza B en Kazajstán. En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza principalmente con detecciones de influenza B linaje Victoria continuó disminuyendo en China. La tasa de ETI y las hospitalizaciones por neumonía permanecieron elevadas en Mongolia. En otros lugares, los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza permanecieron bajos. En el norte de África, se informó una disminución de las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) en Túnez. En Asia Occidental, Georgia informó un aumento en las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2). En África tropical, se notificó la actividad de la influenza principalmente en África oriental, predominando la influenza A(H3N2), seguida por los virus de la influenza B. En el sur de Asia, las detecciones del virus de la influenza estuvieron en niveles bajos en general. Solo Malasia notificó detecciones de virus de la influenza A(H3N2) y B en el sudeste asiático. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja en general. Sin embargo, continuó la notificación de detecciones de virus influenza A(H3N2) (predominante entre los virus a los que se les determinó el subtipo) en Sudáfrica. El porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV-2 en la vigilancia centinela disminuyó por debajo del 10% en todas las regiones durante este período de informe. La positividad general de los sitios no centinela también mostró una tendencia a la baja.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05. (PAHO/HSS/HR/22-0012).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55957

ABSTRACT

Nurses are key players in health promotion and disease prevention and the backbone of health care systems worldwide. Nurses work on the front lines of disease prevention, health promotion, and health management and are often the unsung heroes in health care facilities and emergency response. Despite the critical role they play in health care, there is a nursing shortage across the world that will affect the delivery of competent nursing care. This document highlights key action points for targeted investment in the nursing workforce and calls on Member States to strengthen nursing within the context of their own country efforts. Suggestions for action and strategies for strengthening the nursing workforce in primary health care services through investment in education, jobs, leadership, and service delivery are provided. It also provides information for country stakeholders with a strategic role in addressing health access barriers and attending to the health needs of the population, especially groups living in conditions of vulnerability, in rural and remote communities, and in places with a low density of other health professionals.The objective is to facilitate the efforts of stakeholders in implementing resources required to help countries in the Region of the Americas advance universal health and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by advancing nursing workforce capacity. This includes governments and policymakers as well as academic institutions and educators; nursing professionals; nursing unions, councils, and professional associations; and regulatory bodies. This policy brief was developed by PAHO through new analyses, expert consensus, and reference to existing PAHO and WHO guidance and literature on investments in the nursing workforce in the Region of the Americas.


Subject(s)
Workforce , Nursing , Health Promotion , Disease Prevention , Health Care Costing Systems , Health Management , Americas
18.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55956

ABSTRACT

De Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) werd voor de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie (WGO) ontwikkeld door een internationale groep onderzoekers en clinici als een technisch instrument om te helpen bij de vroegtijdige identificatie van gezondheidsrisico's en stoornissen in verband met middelengebruik in de eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg, de algemene medische zorg en andere omgevingen. Het WHO ASSIST-project is gericht op de ondersteuning en bevordering van screening en korte interventies door gezondheidswerkers ten aanzien van het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen om stoornissen door middelengebruik te voorkomen, bijtijds te herkennen en te beheersen in de gezondheidszorg, met als uiteindelijk doel de ziektelast die wereldwijd aan het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen kan worden toegeschreven, te verminderen.


Subject(s)
Substance Abuse Detection , Primary Health Care , Substance-Related Disorders , Diagnosis
19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55955

ABSTRACT

Het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen heeft diverse sociale en gezondheidsgevolgen, die vanuit het perspectief van volksgezondheid en maatschappelijk welzijn kunnen worden aangepakt door middel van beleid dat door overheidsinstanties wordt geformuleerd overeenkomstig hun specifieke mandaten. Met een expliciet beleid ten aanzien van de gezondheid en het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen kunnen de benodigde oplossingen worden ontwikkeld ter bescherming en bevordering van het recht op gezondheid van de bevolking in verband met dit complexe probleem. Deze handleiding is een instrument dat is gebaseerd op technieken en methoden voor beleidsanalyse en ontwikkeld met het doel de toepassing van de beginselen van de volksgezondheid te faciliteren bij het vinden van antwoorden op problemen in verband met het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen. Daarom bevat de handleiding voorbeelden en oefeningen die de verschillende fases van het planningsproces illustreren en die kunnen worden gebruikt in workshops en andere opleidingsactiviteiten. Het is bedoeld voor degenen die verantwoordelijk zijn voor het formuleren, uitvoeren en evalueren van beleid, plannen en programma's gericht op het verminderen van de effecten van middelengebruik op de collectieve gezondheid, van volksgezondheidsinstanties en andere relevante sectoren tot de burgermaatschappij.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Substance-Related Disorders , Public Health , Public Policy , Health Policy
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-04. (PAHO/FPL/IM/21-0043).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55954

ABSTRACT

This factsheet provides important information related to frequently asked questions on the following rotavirus vaccines: RotaSIIL (Serum Institute of India) and RotaVac (Bharat Biotech).


Subject(s)
Immunization , Rotavirus , Vaccines
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