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1.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(8): 968-977, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise has been recently reported to be a new therapeutic exercise method that can help improve swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. However, due to the differences in exercise protocols, methods and the tools used across studies of CTAR exercise, an overall systematic review of these studies is necessary. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the exercise protocols, methods and tools used in various studies of CTAR exercise and summarised their findings. METHODS: We searched for studies related to CTAR exercise using electronic databases and selected nine articles for review. The articles were categorised on the basis of four criteria: study design and quality, training protocol, outcome measures and clinical effect. RESULTS: Four articles reported that CTAR exercise not only helped activate the suprahyoid muscle in healthy adults, but also activated the sternocleidomastoid muscle less than Shaker exercise. In addition, five articles reported that CTAR exercise was effective in improving swallowing function and oral diet stage in the pharyngeal phase, including reduction of airway aspiration in patients with dysphagia after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: CTAR exercise more selectively activates the suprahyoid muscle and is an effective therapeutic exercise for improving swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. Because it is less strenuous than Shaker exercise, it requires less physical burden and effort, allowing greater compliance.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Resistance Training , Adult , Chin , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Exercise Therapy , Humans
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1049-1055, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000951

ABSTRACT

A novel compound 1 and nine known compounds (2-10) were isolated by open column chromatography analysis of the root bark of Ulmus davidiana. Pure compounds (1-10) were tested in vitro to determine the inhibitory activity of the catalytic reaction of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 6-8, and 10 had IC50 values ranging from 11.4 ± 2.3 to 36.9 ± 2.6 µM. We used molecular docking to simulate inhibitor binding of each compound and estimated the binding pose of the catalytic site of sEH. From this analysis, the compound 2 was revealed to be a potential inhibitor of sEH in vitro and in silico. Additionally, molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed to find detailed interaction signals of inhibitor 2 with enzyme. Finally, compound 2 is promising candidates for the development of a new sEH inhibitor from natural plants.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Epoxide Hydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ulmus/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Epoxide Hydrolases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/chemistry , Solubility , Structure-Activity Relationship
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803909

ABSTRACT

The operation of wearable robots, such as gait rehabilitation robots, requires real-time classification of the standing or walking state of the wearer. This report explains a technique that measures the ground reaction force (GRF) using an insole device equipped with force sensing resistors, and detects whether the insole wearer is standing or walking based on the measured results. The technique developed in the present study uses the waveform length that represents the sum of the changes in the center of pressure within an arbitrary time window as the determining factor, and applies this factor to a conventional threshold method and an artificial neural network (ANN) model for classification of the standing and walking states. The results showed that applying the newly developed technique could significantly reduce classification errors due to shuffling movements of the patient, typically noticed in the conventional threshold method using GRF, i.e., real-time classification of the standing and walking states is possible in the ANN model. The insole device used in the present study can be applied not only to gait analysis systems used in wearable robot operations, but also as a device for remotely monitoring the activities of daily living of the wearer.

4.
ACS Nano ; 15(1): 288-308, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395264

ABSTRACT

Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy (GLC-EM), a cutting-edge liquid-phase EM technique, has become a powerful tool to directly visualize wet biological samples and the microstructural dynamics of nanomaterials in liquids. GLC uses graphene sheets with a one carbon atom thickness as a viewing window and a liquid container. As a result, GLC facilitates atomic-scale observation while sustaining intact liquids inside an ultra-high-vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber. Using GLC-EM, diverse scientific results have been recently reported in the material, colloidal, environmental, and life science fields. Here, the developments of GLC fabrications, such as first-generation veil-type cells, second-generation well-type cells, and third-generation liquid-flowing cells, are summarized. Moreover, recent GLC-EM studies on colloidal nanoparticles, battery electrodes, mineralization, and wet biological samples are also highlighted. Finally, the considerations and future opportunities associated with GLC-EM are discussed to offer broad understanding and insight on atomic-resolution imaging in liquid-state dynamics.


Subject(s)
Graphite , Nanoparticles , Electric Power Supplies , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
5.
Dysphagia ; 36(1): 73-82, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279120

ABSTRACT

Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is generally used to diagnose dysphagia and oropharyngeal aspiration during swallowing movement. Patients and bolus-feeding operators (such as occupational therapist and speech language pathologist) may undergo multiple VFSS procedure, placing them at risk for more radiation exposure due to increased scan time. The present study investigated the dose-area product, effective dose of various protocols, and summarized dose reports from various studies of VFSS. The PubMed database searched for relevant publications reporting radiation dose in the VFSS procedure. 13 articles were selected to be reviewed. This systematic review involved 13 peer-reviewed articles that reported the specific dose of the VFSS procedure. The articles were categorized into three types: operator radiation dose, adult patient radiation dose, and pediatric radiation dose. The operator dose reports showed that the operators' scattering exposure, equivalent dose (across the whole body, eyes, and hands), and annual effective dose were significantly lower than the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Both adult and pediatric patient dose reports showed that the effective dose, which was estimated from recorded dose-area product, was significantly lower than the annual background exposure of 2.4 mSv in various protocols. The present literature review suggested that the radiation dose of VFSS by modified barium swallowing is acceptable in both operators and patients. However, various radiation protection strategies should be conducted during the procedure to reduce the risk of stochastic effect.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(23)2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266314

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the time-efficiency and the clinical effectiveness of chairside-fabricated lithium disilicate single crowns by digital impressions compared to the conventional method. Thirteen patients requiring a single crown on the maxillary or mandibular premolar or first molar were assigned as study subjects. The impressions were obtained using the conventional method and two digital methods with intraoral scanners: AEGIS.PO (Digital Dentistry Solution, Seoul, Korea) and CEREC Omnicam (Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). Two types of lithium disilicate single crowns were obtained; a reference crown (by conventional workflow) and a chairside crown (by digital workflow). The total time taken for fabricating the chairside crown was recorded. The replica technique was performed to compare the marginal and internal fit of the two types of crowns. In addition, accuracy of the intraoral scanners was evaluated by the best-fit alignment method. The difference between the groups was analyzed using the two-tailed paired t-test or one-way ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05 for all statistical tests. The time required to obtain the impressions by the AEGIS (7:16 ± 1:50 min:s) and CEREC (7:29 ± 2:03 min:s) intraoral scans was significantly lower than the conventional method (12:41 ± 1:16 min:s; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the intraoral scanners. The total working time to fabricate the chairside crown averaged 30:58 ± 4:40 min:s. The average marginal gap was not significantly different between the reference (107.86 ± 42.45 µm) and chairside (115.52 ± 38.22 µm) crowns (p > 0.05), based on results of replica measurement. The average internal gaps were not significantly different. The average value of the root mean square between the AEGIS (31.7 ± 12.3 µm) and CEREC (32.4 ± 9.7 µm) scans was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Intraoral scans required a significantly shorter impression time than the conventional method, and it was possible to fabricate a lithium disilicate crown in a single visit. There were no statistically significant differences in the fit of the restorations and accuracy of the intraoral scanners compared to the conventional workflow.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that suprahyoid muscle exercise using kinesiology taping (KT) increases the activation of the suprahyoid muscle in healthy adults, suggesting a potential therapeutic clinical exercise for dysphagia rehabilitation. This study investigated the effect of dysphagia rehabilitation using KT in stroke patients with dysphagia. METHODS: Thirty subjects in South Korea were enrolled in this prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and sham groups. In the experimental group, the tape was attached to the hyolaryngeal complex, pulled downward with approximately 70% tension, and then attached to the sternum and the clavicle bilaterally. In the sham group, the tape was applied similarly but without the tension. Both groups performed voluntary swallowing 50 times (10 times swallowing per set, times 5 sets) a day for 4 weeks with KT applied. Outcome measures were assessed using portable ultrasound equipment. The parameter measured was the change in thickness of the tongue muscle, mylohyoid muscle, and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. RESULTS: The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in the thickness of the tongue muscle, mylohyoid muscle, and anterior belly of the digastric muscle than the sham group (p = 0.007, 0.002, and 0.001). CONCLUSION: Dysphagia rehabilitation using KT is a technique that may promote oropharyngeal muscle thickness in patients with dysphagia after stroke.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22136, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957335

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the jaw opening exercise (JOE) on the thickness of the suprahyoid muscle and hyoid bone movement compared with the head lift exercise (HLE) in patients with dysphagia after strokeThis study recruited 30 patients with dysphagia after stroke. The JOE group performed a JOE using a resistance bar. The HLE group performed the traditional HLE. The total intervention duration was 6 weeks. We measured the thickness of the digastric and mylohyoid muscles using ultrasound. Two-dimensional motion analysis of the hyoid bone was performed using Image J software. The Borg rating of the perceived exertion scale was used to assess the intensity level of physical activity during the 2 exercises.Both groups showed a significant increase in the thickness of the digastric and mylohyoid muscles (P < .05). Hyoid bone motion was significantly increased in the anterior and superior movement in both groups (P < .05). After the intervention, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for the JOE group was significantly lower than that of the HLE group (P < .05).In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the JOE and the HLE had similar effects with respect to increasing suprahyoid muscle thickness and improving hyoid bone movement. However, the JOE required less perceived exertion than the HLE.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Stroke/complications , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hyoid Bone/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Muscles/physiology , Pilot Projects , Republic of Korea
10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932997

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality-based cognitive-motor rehabilitation (VRCMR) on the rehabilitation motivation and cognitive function in older adults. This study enrolled 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), living in the community. The subjects were randomly assigned to a VRCMR group (n = 20) or a conventional cognitive rehabilitation (CCR) group (n = 20). The VRCMR group underwent VRCMR using MOTOcog, a computer recognition program, whereas the CCR group underwent conventional cognitive rehabilitation, which included puzzles, wood blocks, card play, stick construction activity, and maze activity. Both interventions were performed 30 min per day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. This study performed a cognitive assessment using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A/B), and Digit Span Test forward and backward (DST-forward/backward). In addition, a 0-to-10 numeric rating self-report scale was used to assess interest and motivation during the rehabilitation training. After the intervention, the VRCMR group showed a significantly greater improvement in the MoCA (p = 0.045), TMT-A (p = 0.039), TMT-B (p = 0.040), and DST-forward (p = 0.011) scores compared to the CCR group, but not in the DST-backward score (p = 0.424). In addition, subjects in the experimental group had significantly higher interest (p = 0.03) and motivation (p = 0.03) than those in the control group. Cohen's d effect size was 0.4, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, and 0.5 for the MoCA, TMT-A, TMT-B, DST-forward, and DST-backward tests, respectively. This study demonstrates that VRCMR enhances motivation for rehabilitation and cognitive function in older adults with MCI better than CCR.

11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977651

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Occupational therapy (OT) practice has a unique perspective that addresses the complex needs of cancer survivors. Despite the expanded research and application of OT services using telehealth (TH) to promote clients' health and well-being, studies on OT services using TH for cancer survivors are rare. This study aimed to review the TH approaches in the scope of OT and the outcome of factors affecting occupational engagement in adult cancer survivors. (2) Materials and Methods: This systematic review performed a literature search of five databases (Medline Complete, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science) using a combination of keywords and cross-referencing. Studies were included if they described a TH intervention within the scope of OT practice to improve occupational engagement. (3) Results: Fifteen studies (12 randomized controlled trials, three quasiexperimental studies) were reviewed. Physical activity had a positive effect on physical and cognitive function. Symptom self-management showed positive effects on the relief of symptom burden. Psychosocial interventions, which included cognitive behavioral therapy, problem-solving, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, mind-body training, reduced sleep disturbance, and improved physical activity. Lifestyle behavior change interventions improved participation in moderate-intensity physical activity and diet quality. In addition, these interventions reduced cancer-related symptoms such as pain, depression, fatigue, distress, and improved quality of life. There were no direct outcomes of occupational engagement, excluding sleep, that could be confirmed through this review. (4) Conclusion: This review explored and confirmed the usefulness of TH approaches in the scope of OT practice in adult cancer survivors. It also supports the notion that OT-specific research using TH interventions for cancer survivors will be needed in the future.

12.
Lab Chip ; 20(15): 2796-2803, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633750

ABSTRACT

Graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy allows in situ observation of nanomaterial dynamics in a liquid environment. However, this method suffers from both random formation and small size of liquid pockets. Here, we introduce facile and mass-producible graphene-sealed well-type liquid cells with rational designs. The developed liquid cell structure and its formation mechanism depending on hole diameter (d)/spacer thickness (h) ratio are systematically analyzed. Finally, we show its high-resolution imaging and chemical analysis capability for nanoparticles and biomaterial applications. This work will provide an enhanced liquid cell platform for diverse liquid environmental studies.

13.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636243

ABSTRACT

Biofilm-forming bacteria, including the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cause multiple types of chronic infections and are responsible for serious health burdens in humans, animals, and plants. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to induce biofilm dispersal via triggering a reduction in cyclic-di-GMP levels in a variety of bacteria. However, how NO, at homeostatic levels, also facilitates biofilm formation is unknown. Here, we found that complestatin, a structural analog of vancomycin isolated from Streptomyces, inhibits P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by upregulating NO production via nitrite reductase (NIR) induction and c-di-GMP degradation via phosphodiesterase (PDE) stimulation. The complestatin protein target was identified as a nitrite transporter from a genome-wide screen using the Keio Escherichia coli knockout library and confirmed using nitrite transporter knockout and overexpression strains. We demonstrated that the nitrite transporter stimulated biofilm formation by controlled NO production via appropriate NIR suppression and subsequent diguanylate cyclase (DGC) activation, not PDE activity, and c-di-GMP production in E. coli and P. aeruginosa Thus, this study provides a mechanism for NO-mediated biofilm formation, which was previously not understood.IMPORTANCE Bacterial biofilms play roles in infections and avoidance of host defense mechanisms of medically important pathogens and increase the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) is reported to be involved in both biofilm formation and dispersal, which are conflicting processes. The mechanism by which NO regulates biofilm dispersal is relatively understood, but there are no reports about how NO is involved in biofilm formation. Here, by investigating the mechanism by which complestatin inhibits biofilm formation, we describe a novel mechanism for governing biofilm formation in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nitrite transporter is required for biofilm formation via regulation of NO levels and subsequent c-di-GMP production. Additionally, the nitrite transporter contributes more to P. aeruginosa virulence than quorum sensing. Thus, this study identifies nitrite transporters as new antibiofilm targets for future practical and therapeutic agent development.

14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646041

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at investigating the effects of synchronized neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and chewing exercises on bite force and the masseter muscle thickness in community-dwelling older adults. Material and methods: Forty older adults were enrolled in South Korea and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group performed chewing exercises using the No-Sick Exerciser equipment synchronized with NMES applied to the bilateral masseter muscles, while the control group performed only chewing exercises. Both groups received interventions for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. Bite force was measured using the OCCLUZER device, and masseter muscle thickness was measured using a portable ultrasound. Results: Both groups showed a significant increase in bite force and masseter muscle thickness compared to baseline measurements (p < 0.05). The experimental group showed a significantly higher increase in bite force and masseter muscle thickness than the control group after combined intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that NMES synchronized with chewing exercises is more efficient in increasing bite force and masseter muscle thickness than chewing exercises alone in community-dwelling older adults.


Subject(s)
Bite Force , Electric Stimulation , Masseter Muscle , Mastication/physiology , Masticatory Muscles/physiopathology , Aged , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Masseter Muscle/anatomy & histology , Masseter Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Republic of Korea , Ultrasonography
15.
Brain Sci ; 10(8)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726991

ABSTRACT

In daily living, people are challenged to focus on their goal while eliminating interferences. Specifically, this study investigated the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) activity while attention control was tested using the self-made color-word interference test (CWIT) with a functional near-infrared spectroscopy device (fNIRS). Among 11 healthy Korean university students, overall the highest scores were obtained in the congruent Korean condition 1 (CKC-1) and had the least vascular response (VR) as opposed to the incongruent Korean condition 2 (IKC-2). The individual's automatic reading response caused less brain activation while IKC-2 involves color suppression. Across the three trials per each condition, no significant differences (SD) in scores and in VR since there was no intervention did. Meanwhile, SD was observed between CKC-1 and English Congruent Condition 3 (ECC-3) across trials. However, SD was only observed on the third trial of VR. In the connectivity analysis, right and left PFC are activated on ECC-3. In CKC-1 and IKC-2, encompassing dorsomedial and dorsolateral although CKC-1 has less connection and connectivity due to less brain activation as compared. Therefore, aside from VR, brain connectivity could be identified non-invasively using fNIRS without ionizing radiation and at low-cost.

16.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(11): 6996-7001, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604548

ABSTRACT

Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) arrays, which are installed on the roofs of buildings as part of urban solar power generation, have created a demand for high-power and high-density photovoltaic (PV) modules to produce high-output power in a limited area. In this paper, a high-power PV module using a shingles technology is designed. When the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the module were 201.78 cm × 96.75 cm in the same area as that of the conventional PV module, the number of cell strips reached 390. When six 65-interconnection shingled strings were connected in series, the output power of 367.8 W was achieved. Compared with a conventional PV module of the same area, the output power was 8% greater.


Subject(s)
Solar Energy
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481740

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used medical imaging modality for diagnosing various diseases. Among CT techniques, 4-dimensional CT perfusion (4D-CTP) of the brain is established in most centers for diagnosing strokes and is considered the gold standard for hyperacute stroke diagnosis. However, because the detrimental effects of high radiation doses from 4D-CTP may cause serious health risks in stroke survivors, our research team aimed to introduce a novel image-processing technique. Our singular value decomposition (SVD)-based image-processing technique can improve image quality, first, by separating several image components using SVD and, second, by reconstructing signal component images to remove noise, thereby improving image quality. For the demonstration in this study, 20 4D-CTP dynamic images of suspected acute stroke patients were collected. Both the images that were and were not processed via the proposed method were compared. Each acquired image was objectively evaluated using contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise ratios. The scores of the parameters assessed for the qualitative evaluation of image quality improved to an excellent rating (p < 0.05). Therefore, our SVD-based image-denoising technique improved the diagnostic value of images by improving their quality. The denoising technique and statistical evaluation can be utilized in various clinical applications to provide advanced medical services.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Stroke , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Algorithms , Brain/pathology , Humans , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
18.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(9): 1103-1109, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589302

ABSTRACT

Chewing exercises have been applied in clinical settings to improve the occlusal force and function of the masseter muscle in elderly individuals. However, the clinical relevance and effects of chewing exercises are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of bilateral chewing exercises on the occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness in community-dwelling Koreans aged 65 years. Forty community-dwelling healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study. They were assigned to the experimental or the control group. The experimental group performed chewing exercises using medical equipment developed to facilitate such exercises. The chewing exercises were divided into isometric and isotonic types and were performed for 20 min/d, 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. The control group did not perform any chewing exercises. The outcome measures were occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness, which were evaluated using an occlusometer and ultrasound device, respectively. A paired t test and an independent t test were used to evaluate the training effects. Within-group comparisons showed that occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness improved significantly in the experimental group (P < .001 for both), while the control group showed no significant improvements (P = .098 and .130). Between-group comparisons showed that the experimental group had a greater increase in occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness (P < .05 for both) compared to the control group. These results suggest that chewing exercises are effective in improving occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness in healthy elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Bite Force , Exercise Therapy , Masseter Muscle , Mastication , Aged , Electromyography , Humans , Independent Living , Republic of Korea
19.
Technol Health Care ; 28(S1): 311-319, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can help modulate cortical excitability by transmitting direct current (DC) between a pair of scalp electrodes. To date, most studies on tDCS have been relatively short-lived, and the DC stimulations only lasted a few minutes. Conventional tDCS devices usually have some problems such as needing a lot of patches and lead lines. OBJECTIVE: Since conventional tDCS devices are unsuitable for use in long-term stimulations, we developed a new tDCS which can easily be used by unskilled persons. METHODS: We developed a new tDCS device that does not have lead lines for tDCS electrodes and has a simple structure. RESULT: This device can achieve stimulation with polarity interchangeable DC without physically swapping the anode and cathode. The performance of the proposed device was verified through an experiment. CONCLUSION: The developed tDCS device can contribute to long-term research as it uses neuroelectric stimulation.


Subject(s)
Electrodes , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/instrumentation , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Humans
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466588

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force among healthy community-dwelling elderly persons older than 65 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. In the experimental group, NMES was applied to both masseter muscles, and electrical signals were gradually increased until the participants felt a grabbing sensation (range 6.0-7.5 mA) in the masseter muscle. The placebo group, in contrast, underwent NMES in the same manner and procedure as the experimental group with less electrical intensity (0.5 mA). All interventions were administered five times a week for six weeks, 20 min per day. The outcomes were masseter muscle thickness assessed using ultrasound and maximal bite force using a bite force meter. The level of significance was set as p < 0.05. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significant increase in both masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.002 and 0.019, respectively). Moreover, the degree of change in the masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force significantly increased in the experimental and placebo groups (p < 0.001, both). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that NMES could be an effective modality for increasing masseter muscle thickness and maximal bite force in healthy older adults.


Subject(s)
Bite Force , Independent Living , Masseter Muscle , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Electric Stimulation , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Male , Masseter Muscle/physiology
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