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1.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 29: e54827, 2024. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1529189

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o conhecimento de crianças e pré-adolescentes em relação aos termos que designam as forças de caráter e compreender como percebem a expressão desses traços nos próprios comportamentos e nos de outras pessoas. Foram entrevistados 17 participantes, de oito a 13 anos (M = 10,6; DP = 1,5). Para cada força foram feitas sete perguntas, que investigavam a definição do termo e exemplos da expressão da força nos outros e nos próprios entrevistados. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas para análise de conteúdo, ao fim gerando categorias para cada força. As forças descritas com maior facilidade pelos participantes e suas respectivas definições foram criatividade (capacidade de criar coisas), curiosidade e amor ao aprendizado (busca de conhecimento e novas experiências), honestidade (falar a verdade), amor (comportamento de dar carinho), bondade (ajudar e cuidar do outro), trabalho em equipe (realização de trabalhos colaborativos em brincadeiras ou atividades escolares), perdão (08 categorias a respeito de sua definição, sem destaque para alguma) e esperança (desejar acontecimento futuro). Esses achados podem tornar mais acessível o desenvolvimento e a avaliação das forças nessa faixa etária.


RESUMEN. Este estudio buscó analizar el conocimiento de niños y pre-adolescentes sobre los términos que fueron designados como fortalezas de carácter, y comprender cómo perciben estos rasgos en sus proprios comportamientos y en los de otras personas. Diecisiete participantes entre ocho y trece años fueron entrevistados (M = 10.6; SD = 1.5). Para cada fortaleza, se hicieron siete preguntas, que investigaron la definición del término y ejemplos prácticos de su expresión. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas para el análisis de contenido, creando categorías para cada fortaleza. Las fortalezas descritas por los participantes con mayor facilidad y sus respectivas definiciones fueron: creatividad (capacidad de crear cosas), curiosidad y amor por el aprendizaje (búsqueda de conocimiento y nuevas experiencias), honestidad (decir la verdad), amor (comportamientos afectivos), amabilidad (ayudar y cuidar a los demás), trabajo en equipo (desempeño del trabajo colaborativo en juegos o actividades escolares), perdón (ocho categorías con respecto a su definición, sin énfasis en ninguna) y esperanza (deseo por un evento futuro). Estos hallazgos pueden facilitar el desarrollo y la evaluación de las fortalezas con este grupo de edad.


ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze the children and pre-adolescents' knowledge regarding terms that designate character strengths and to understand how they perceive the expression of these traits in their and other people's behavior. Seventeen participants aged eight to thirteen were interviewed (M = 10.6; SD = 1.5). For each strength, seven questions were asked, which investigated the definition and examples of the strength expression. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for content analysis, generating categories for each strength. The strengths most easily described by the participants and their respective definitions were: creativity (ability to create things), curiosity and love for learning (searching for knowledge and new experiences), honesty (speaking the truth), love (acts involving affection), kindness (helping and caring for others), teamwork (collaborative works in games or school activities), forgiveness (eight categories regarding their definition, without highlighting any) and hope (longing for a future event). These findings may make developing and evaluating character strengths in this age group more accessible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Character , Child , Comprehension , Behavior , Creativity , Education, Primary and Secondary , Exploratory Behavior , Forgiveness , Hope , Psychology, Positive/education , Group Dynamics/psychology , Learning , Love
2.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1270287, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38022933

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Low back pain is one of the most prevalent public health problems in the world, generating psychosocial impacts on quality of life and a high demand for medical care. Self-compassion may be beneficial for low back pain control, however, studies in the area are scarce. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to investigate the benefits of self-compassion-related interventions on low back pain and mental health in adults. Methods: The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO and the method was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Searches were conducted using the keywords "self-compassion" and "low back pain" in Portuguese, English, and Spanish in the following databases: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PePSIC, PsycInfo, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane. Additional searches were also conducted through the references of the included studies. Results: Thirty-three articles were identified and analyzed by two independent reviewers using Rayyan. Four of these studies were included. RoB 2 was used to assess the risk of bias of each study. The main findings suggest that self-compassion-related interventions demonstrate benefits in the treatment of low back pain, as well as reduction in pain intensity, psychological stress, and improvement of pain acceptance. Discussion: However, these positive data must be analyzed carefully, as only two studies presented a low risk of bias. Despite growing interest in this field, more research self-compassion-related interventions for low back pain are suggested, since biopsychosocial aspects associated with low back pain can impact the outcome of treatment. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier (CRD42022376341).

3.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 336, 2023 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37838747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to present and discuss the psychometric properties of executive functions, which were measured using the TDI-FE instrument. The analysis encompasses its internal structure, potential sensitivity to fatigue factors, relationships with external criteria, and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: The study sample comprised 382 students from Brazil, aged 6-8 years. Child development variables were screened using the TDI-FE and gold standard tests (Cancellation Attention and Trail Making Tests). The proposed scale comprised four activities: a test with fruit images with three tasks, and one memory game. RESULTS: The one-factor model of EF of the TDI-FE failed to fit to the data. However, fit substantially improved once a latent fatigue factor was controlled in the model. The latent factor of EF assessed by the TDI-FE tasks was coherently associated with a series of external variables, including two popular collateral measures of EF. The diagnostic accuracy was reasonable, and a cut-off of 37 points produced 70% of sensitivity and 60% of specificity. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that the TDI-FE demonstrated sound psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy, then consisting of an efficient alternative for the assessment of EFs in early childhood education. The study also proved the need to control for response biases such as fatigue in the latent variable models of EF. The TDI-FE is notable because of its low cost and easy application, and it might fulfill a need for instruments for individuals from different contexts at this stage of development in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Attention , Executive Function , Child , Humans , Attention/physiology , Child Development , Executive Function/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychometrics
4.
Psico USF ; 28(3): 619-632, jul.-set. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1521361

ABSTRACT

Este estudo busca identificar e analisar os estudos que associam a Psicologia Positiva e seus construtos com os transtornos relacionados ao uso de substâncias psicoativas. Foi feita uma revisão integrativa sobre o tema. De 64 resultados encontrados, 13 artigos foram selecionados para descrição e análise. Identificou-se baixa produção científica sobre o tema, ainda que esteja em expansão. Apenas sete estudos tinham como objetivo principal a relação entre a Psicologia Positiva e o uso de substâncias psicoativas, sendo apenas dois experimentais. Evidenciou-se também a concentração de publicações nos EUA e a falta de estudos brasileiros. Os construtos da Psicologia Positiva mais abordados são a felicidade e a espiritualidade, estando associados a um menor uso de substâncias psicoativas. Fica demonstrado o potencial desse campo de estudo para a prevenção e tratamento desses transtornos, sugerindo-se o aumento da produção cientifica. (AU)


This study aims to identify and analyze studies that associate Positive Psychology and its constructs with disorders related to the use of psychoactive substances. Method: An integrative review on the subject was conducted. Of the 64 results found, 13 articles were selected for description and analysis. Results: Although expanding, a low scientific production on the subject was identified. There were only seven studies focused on the relationship between Positive Psychology and the use of psychoactive substances, and only two were experimental. The concentration of publications in the USA and the lack of Brazilian studies were also evident. The most discussed constructs of Positive Psychology are happiness and spirituality, which are associated with a reduced use of psychoactive substances. Conclusions: This field of study has demonstrated potential for the prevention and treatment of these disorders, suggesting an increase in scientific production. (AU)


Este estudio busca identificar y analizar estudios que asocien la Psicología Positiva y sus constructos con trastornos relacionados con el uso de sustancias psicoactivas. Método: Se realizó una revisión integrativa sobre el tema. De 64 resultados encontrados, 13 artículos fueron seleccionados para su descripción y análisis. Resultados: Se identificó una baja producción científica sobre el tema, aunque se encuentra en expansión. Solo siete estudios tuvieron como objetivo principal la relación entre la Psicología Positiva y el uso de sustancias psicoactivas, de los cuales, solo dos fueron experimentales. También fue evidente la concentración de publicaciones en los EE. UU. y la falta de estudios brasileños. Los constructos más discutidos de la Psicología Positiva son la felicidad y la espiritualidad, asociándose a un menor consumo de sustancias psicoactivas. Conclusiones: Se demuestra el potencial de este campo de estudio para la prevención y tratamiento de estos trastornos, sugiriendo un incremento en la producción científica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Review Literature as Topic , Database , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37510660

ABSTRACT

Emotional self-regulation is a relevant factor for human development capable of minimizing emotional difficulties in the face of adverse events, as was particularly useful during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed to evaluate emotional self-regulation in Brazilian health science university students and its relationship with positive psychology constructs (subjective well-being, hope, optimism, spirituality, self-compassion, and self-efficacy) and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress). This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational, analytic study of 1062 Brazilian undergraduate students with data collected using self-administered online questionnaires. Students in the first years of their undergraduate degree programs had significantly higher dysregulation scores than those in the final years. Multiple linear regression yielded a model that explained 71.8% of the variation in emotion dysregulation. The correlations of emotion dysregulation were significant and strong, scoring negatively with self-compassion, optimism, and subjective well-being and positively with psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Psychological Distress , Humans , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students/psychology
6.
Psicol Reflex Crit ; 36(1): 2, 2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression in aging may lead to loss of autonomy and worsening of comorbidities. Understanding how positive attributes contribute to healthier and happier aging has been one of the purposes of Positive Psychology. However, the literature still lacks studies that evaluate how depression in the elderly is related to constructs considered positive. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed comparing scores of constructs of spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, affection, optimism, and hope in the elderly with minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression and healthy controls in order to investigate possible indirect and mediated relationships between positive constructs and depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with elderly, 62 of whom were diagnosed with different severity of Major Depression (DSM-V) (minimum, mild, moderate, and severe according to the Beck Depression Inventory - BDI) and 66 healthy controls matched by age, sex and schooling. The instruments used were adapted and validated versions of the Spirituality Self-Rating Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Medical Outcomes Social Scale of Support, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. After comparing the means of scores between groups, an analysis of normalized partial association networks was performed to investigate the direct and mediated relationships between depression and other evaluated constructs. RESULTS: Scores of spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affects, and hope differed significantly between the control group and the degrees of depression (p < 0.001). The analysis of normalized partial association networks has shown that the relations of depression with the constructs of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social support are mediated, while the constructs of dispositional hope, positive affect, spiritual well-being, and optimism are indirectly related to depression. The social class was also positively related to depression. CONCLUSION: Depression in different degrees is associated with a reduction in the scores of instruments that evaluate positive attributes. The constructs directly associated with depression are spiritual well-being, optimism, positive affect, and dispositional hope. The others had mediated relationship. These results may contribute to the planning of future interventions for the prevention of depression among the elderly.

7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e278525, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1529222

ABSTRACT

O Sistema de Avaliação de Testes Psicológicos (SATEPSI) recebeu notoriedade entre brasileiros e estrangeiros por oferecer um complexo sistema de qualificação dos testes psicológicos, pouco visto em âmbito mundial. Sua elaboração dependeu de uma autarquia, que o financiou, normatizou e o mantém, mas também de pesquisadores docentes de avaliação psicológica, que trouxeram a expertise da área para que houvesse o pleno estabelecimento de seus parâmetros. Passadas duas décadas de seu lançamento, o SATEPSI foi tema de artigos, capítulos, lives e diálogos digitais, nos quais foram destaque, de modo geral, as Resoluções do Conselho Federal de Psicologia, que o normatiza, e seus impactos para a área de avaliação psicológica - como, por exemplo, o aumento do número de pesquisas e de testes brasileiros qualificados. O que se pretende neste artigo é mencionar sua construção, à luz dos autores que vivenciaram o SATEPSI em funções e tempos distintos. Atenção especial será dada aos Métodos Projetivos, cuja história ainda é pouco revelada.(AU)


The system to evaluate psychological tests (Satepsi) received notoriety among Brazilians and foreigners for offering a complex system of qualification of psychological tests, which is rarely seen worldwide. Its development depended on an autarchy (which financed, standardized, and maintains it) and on researchers teaching psychological assessment, who brought their expertise to the area so its parameters could be fully established. After two decades of its launch, Satepsi was the subject of articles, chapters, lives, and digital dialogues, which usually highlighted the Resolutions of the Federal Council of Psychology that normatize psychological evaluation and their impacts, such as the increase in the number of qualified Brazilian tests. This study aims to mention its construction in the light of the authors who experienced Satepsi in different functions and times, giving special attention to Projective Methods, whose history remains to be shown.(AU)


El Sistema de Evaluación de Tests Psicológicos (SATEPSI) ganó notoriedad entre los brasileños y los extranjeros por ofrecer un complejo sistema de calificación de los tests psicológicos, poco frecuente a nivel mundial. Su elaboración dependió de una autarquía, que lo financió, lo estandarizó y lo mantiene, pero también de investigadores docentes de evaluación psicológica, que trajeron la experiencia del área para que hubiera el pleno establecimiento de sus parámetros. Tras dos décadas de su lanzamiento, SATEPSI fue tema de artículos, capítulos, en directo y diálogos digitales, en los cuales destacaron, de modo general, las Resoluciones del Consejo Federal de Psicología que lo normatiza y sus impactos para el área de evaluación psicológica, como el aumento del número de investigaciones y de pruebas brasileñas calificadas. Lo que se pretende en este artículo es mencionar su construcción, a la luz de los autores que vivieron el SATEPSI en funciones y tiempos distintos. Se prestará especial atención a los métodos proyectivos cuya historia aún no se ha revelado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Psychological Tests , Psychometrics , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Personality Assessment , Personality Tests , Aptitude Tests , Professional Competence , Professional Practice , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Psychology , Safety , Audiovisual Aids , Self-Evaluation Programs , Social Control, Formal , Societies , Students , Vocational Guidance , Behavior , Professional Review Organizations , Body Image , Computer Systems , Mental Health , Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Liability, Legal , Treatment Outcome , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Total Quality Management , Commerce , Lecture , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Internet , Credentialing , Musculoskeletal Manipulations , Diagnosis , Employee Performance Appraisal , Science, Technology and Society , Ethics , Professional Training , Courses , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Expert Testimony , Self Report , Test Taking Skills , Quality Improvement , Pandemics , Social Skills , Data Accuracy , Behavior Rating Scale , Work Engagement , Internet Access , Web Archives as Topic , Internet-Based Intervention , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Psychological Well-Being , Human Rights , Intelligence , Intelligence Tests , Manuals as Topic , Neuropsychological Tests
8.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 36: 2, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1431152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Depression in aging may lead to loss of autonomy and worsening of comorbidities. Understanding how positive attributes contribute to healthier and happier aging has been one ofthe purposes of Positive Psychology. However, the literature still lacks studies that evaluate how depression in the elderly is related to constructs considered positive. Objective The present study aimed comparing scores of constructs of spiritual well-being, social support, selfesteem, life satisfaction, affection, optimism, and hope in the elderly with minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression and healthy controls in order to investigate possible indirect and mediated relationships between positive constructs and depression. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with elderly, 62 of whom were diagnosed with different severity of Major Depression (DSM-V) (minimum, mild, moderate, and severe according to the Beck Depression Inventory - BDI) and 66 healthy controls matched by age, sex and schooling. The instruments used were adapted and validated versions of the Spirituality Self-Rating Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Medical Outcomes Social Scale of Support, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale. After comparing the means of scores between groups, an analysis of normalized partial association networks was performed to investigate the direct and mediated relationships between depression and other evaluated constructs. Results Scores of spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affects, and hope differed significantly between the control group and the degrees of depression (p < 0.001). The analysis of normalized partial association networks has shown that the relations of depression with the constructs of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social support are mediated, while the constructs of dispositional hope, positive affect, spiritual well-being, and optimism are indirectly related to depression. The social class was also positively related to depression. Conclusion Depression in different degrees is associated with a reduction in the scores of instruments that evaluate positive attributes. The constructs directly associated with depression are spiritual well-being, optimism, positive affect, and dispositional hope. The others had mediated relationship. These results may contribute to the planning of future interventions for the prevention of depression among the elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Psychology, Positive , Personal Satisfaction , Self Concept , Social Support , Cross-Sectional Studies , Affect , Spirituality , Optimism , Psychological Well-Being
9.
Psicol. (Univ. Brasília, Online) ; 39(spe): e39nspe10, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1440773

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazilian psychological assessment possesses several indicators that prove its quality, although by the early 1990s, the use of psychological tests in evaluative processes had fallen into disrepute in society. The present article recounts the history of Brazilian psychological assessment, told through the lens of the creation of a working group (WG) of the Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Pós-graduação em Psicologia (ANPEPP, National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology) and its subsequent achievements. The construction of the Sistema de Avaliação dos Testes Psicológicos (SATEPSI, Psychological Testing Assessment System) and its deployment, collectively, by the profession's regulating agency with the collaboration of scientific associations as well as of the WG and ANPEPP are also mentioned. Many initiatives were reunited, rehabilitating the credibility of the practice of assessment. The authors stress the advances that still need to be made, such as widening research with minority groups and including new statistical analyses and technologies that will impact the development of psychological assessment.


Resumo A área de avaliação psicológica brasileira possui qualidade comprovada por vários indicadores, embora até o início da década de 1990, o uso de testes psicológicos em processos avaliativos tenha caído no descrédito da sociedade. O presente artigo explicita a história da avaliação psicológica brasileira, narrada à luz da criação de um grupo de trabalho da Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Pós-graduação em Psicologia e das conquistas subsequentes. A construção do Sistema de Avaliação dos Testes Psicológicos (SATEPSI) e seus desdobramentos, coletivamente, pelo órgão de classe, com a colaboração das associações científicas e do GT da ANPEPP, também são mencionados. Diversas iniciativas foram reunidas, trazendo de volta a credibilidade da prática de avaliação. As autoras destacam os avanços que ainda se fazem necessários, como a ampliação de pesquisas com grupos minoritários, a inclusão de novas análises estatísticas e de tecnologias, que seguramente, impactarão no desenvolvimento da avaliação psicológica.

10.
Aval. psicol ; 21(2): 150-162, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1447460

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetivou apresentar a construção da Bateria Multidisciplinar de Triagem do Desenvolvimento Infantil (TDI) e suas evidências de validade de conteúdo. A elaboração do TDI seguiu as recomendações internacionais com cinco etapas: definição da fundamentação teórica, construção da versão preliminar do instrumento, análise dos itens por juízes especialistas, análise semântica pela população-alvo e estudo piloto. Para o embasamento da construção dos itens, realizou-se revisão de literatura sobre o desenvolvimento infantil na fase de escolarização inicial, considerando os construtos envolvidos na prontidão escolar, incluindo artigos, instrumentos existentes, livros e manuais. As áreas selecionadas foram linguagem, funções executivas e habilidades motoras. Na versão preliminar, 110 itens foram elaborados. Após a realização das três últimas etapas, a versão final totalizou 81 itens, destinados à avaliação de crianças entre 6 e 8 anos de idade. A TDI apresentou evidências de validade de conteúdo, sendo de relevância nas áreas da saúde e educação brasileira.(AU)


This study aimed to present the development of the Multidisciplinary Battery for Child Development Screening (TDI) and its content validity evidence. The TDI construction followed international recommendations, consisting of five stages: description of the theoretical foundation; development of the preliminary version of the instrument; analysis of the items by experts; semantic analysis of the items by the target population; and a pilot study. To support the construction of the items, a literature review was conducted regarding child development in the initial education stage, considering the constructs involved in school readiness. Articles, existing instruments, books and manuals were included. The selected areas were language, executive functions and motor skills. In the preliminary version, 110 items were developed. After completing the last three stages, the final version totaled 81 items, directed toward the assessment of children between 6 and 8 years of age. The TDI presented content validity evidence, being relevant in the Brazilian health and education areas.(AU)


El estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar la construcción de la Batería Multidisciplinar para la Selección del Desarrollo Infantil (TDI) y sus evidencias de validez de contenido. La elaboración siguió las recomendaciones internacionales con cinco etapas: fundamentación teórica; desarrollo de la versión preliminar; análisis de los ítems por expertos; análisis semántico por la población-objetivo; y estudio piloto. Para apoyar la construcción se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre el desarrollo infantil en la fase inicial de escolarización, considerando los constructos implicados en la preparación escolar, incluyendo artículos, instrumentos existentes, libros y manuales. Las áreas seleccionadas fueron lenguaje, funciones ejecutivas y habilidades motoras. La versión preliminar tuve 110 items preparados. Después de las últimas tres etapas, la versión final totalizó 81 ítems, destinados a la evaluación de niños entre 6 y 8 años, La TDI presentó evidencia de validez de contenido, siendo relevante en las áreas de salud y educación brasileñas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child Development , Executive Function , Semantics , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Qualitative Research
12.
Aval. psicol ; 21(1): 84-92, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1447451

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se buscar evidências de validade baseadas em critérios externos do Teste Informatizado e Dinâmico de Escrita - TIDE, em relação à ortografia e cognição. Participaram 304 alunos, entre 10 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados o TIDE, o instrumento Ditado Balanceado de Moojen e os subtestes: "Dígitos, Informação, Compreensão e Vocabulário" do WISC III. Em relação ao critério ortográfico, o módulo pré-teste esteve negativamente associado aos erros do Ditado, com exceção dos erros relacionados a irregularidades da língua. O módulo instrucional correlacionou-se de forma significativa negativa com os três tipos de erro do ditado. Em relação aos aspectos cognitivos, o módulo pré-teste não esteve associado. O módulo instrucional correlacionou-se com os quatro subtestes do WISC-III, demonstrando relação com aspectos cognitivos, memória, atenção, julgamento e o conhecimento lexical dos sujeitos. (AU)


The aim of this study was to investigate evidence of validity based on external criteria for the Computerized and Dynamic Writing Test - TIDE, in relation to spelling and cognition. Participants were 304 students, aged between 10 and 17 years. The TIDE, the Moojen Balanced Dictation instrument and the "Digits, Information, Understanding and Vocabulary" subtests of the WISC III were used. Regarding the orthographic criterion, the TIDE pre-test module was negatively associated with Dictation errors, with the exception of errors related to language irregularities. The instructional module presented significant negative correlations with the three types of dictation error. The pre-test module was not associated with the cognitive aspects. The instructional module correlated with the four WISC-III subtests, demonstrating a relation with cognitive aspects, memory, attention, judgment and the lexical knowledge of the subjects. (AU)


Se objetivó buscar evidencias de validez basadas en criterios externos del Test de Escritura Computarizada y Dinámica - TIDE, con relación a la ortografía y la cognición. Participaron 304 estudiantes, entre 10 y 17 años. Se utilizaron TIDE, el instrumento de Dictado Equilibrado de Moojen y las subpruebas "Dígitos, Información, Comprensión y Vocabulario" de WISC III. En cuanto a los criterios ortográficos, el módulo de prueba previa se asoció negativamente con los errores del Dictado, a excepción de los errores relacionados con las irregularidades del idioma. El módulo de instrucción se correlacionó significativamente de manera negativa con los tres tipos de errores del dictado. Con respecto a los aspectos cognitivos, el módulo de prueba previa no se ha asociado. El módulo de instrucción se correlacionó con las cuatro subpruebas de WISC-III, demostrando una relación con los aspectos cognitivos, la memoria, la atención, el juicio y el conocimiento léxico de los sujetos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Wechsler Scales , Cognition , Handwriting , Learning , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Aval. psicol ; 20(3): 390-399, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1345374

ABSTRACT

A regulamentação da avaliação psicológica, e mais especificamente dos testes psicológicos, é motivo de preocupação e debate no cenário nacional há várias décadas. O objetivo deste artigo foi ponderar e problematizar sobre a possível ausência de regulamentação no que diz respeito ao uso e comercialização dos testes psicológicos e suas consequências para os indivíduos, sociedade e resultado da avaliação psicológica. Para isso o artigo traz um breve histórico da avaliação psicológica no Brasil, perpassando pela construção e estruturação do sistema de avaliação de testes psicológicos (Satepsi), o julgamento da Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade (ADI) 3481 pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal, e ponderando acerca da necessidade, razoabilidade e adequação da regulamentação do uso e acesso aos testes psicológicos. Os autores concluem que a restrição de acesso aos testes psicológicos não possui potencial lesivo para os indivíduos, sociedade ou instrumento psicológico, mas seu acesso ou comercialização indiscriminada sim. (AU)


The regulation of psychological assessments, and more specifically of psychological tests, has been a matter of concern and debate in the national context for several decades. The aim of this article was to consider and discuss the possible lack of regulation regarding the use and commercialization of psychological tests and the consequences for individuals, society and the results of the psychological assessment. For this, the article provides a brief history of psychological assessment in Brazil, passing through the construction and structuring of the psychological test assessment system (Satepsi), the judgment of the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality (ADI) 3481 by the Supreme Court, and considering the need, reasonableness and adequacy of regulation of the use of and access to psychological tests. The authors conclude that the restriction of access to psychological tests is not potentially harmful for individuals, society or psychological instrument, however, open access or indiscriminate commercialization could be. (AU)


La regulación de la evaluación psicológica y, más específicamente, de los tests psicológicos, ha sido un tema de preocupación y debate en el escenario nacional durante varias décadas. El objetivo de este artículo fue considerar y discutir la posible falta de regulación sobre el uso y comercialización de tests psicológicos y sus consecuencias para los individuos, la sociedad y resultado de la evaluación psicológica. Para ello, el artículo brinda una breve historia de la evaluación psicológica en Brasil, pasando por la construcción y estructuración del sistema de evaluación de tests psicológicos (Satepsi), la sentencia de Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad (ADI) 3481 del Supremo Tribunal Federal, y ​​considerando la necesidad, razonabilidad y adecuación de la regulación del uso y acceso a los tests psicológicos. Los autores concluyen que la restricción del acceso a los tests psicológicos no tiene potencial dañoso para los individuos, la sociedad o el instrumento psicológico, pero sí su acceso o comercialización indiscriminada. (AU)


Subject(s)
Psychological Tests/standards , Psychometrics/standards , Psychometrics/legislation & jurisprudence
14.
Psico USF ; 26(2): 369-380, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1287603

ABSTRACT

A Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP) é uma escala de autorrelato que avalia a utilização de habilidades de mindfulness na relação entre pais e filhos. O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar a IMP para o contexto brasileiro e investigar suas propriedades psicométricas. A adaptação para o português brasileiro foi realizada por psicólogas com características do público-alvo do instrumento. Na etapa de busca por evidências de validade, a amostra foi composta por 221 mães de crianças entre seis e 12 anos. Utilizou-se um questionário de caracterização da amostra, IMP e Questionário de Cinco Facetas de Mindfulness (FFMQ-BR). Os resultados indicaram que os itens apresentaram composição fatorial adequada, e a escala demonstrou consistência interna adequada e se correlacionou de forma positiva com escores gerais de mindfulness (FFMQ-BR). Recomenda-se o uso da IMP em futuras investigações brasileiras que tenham como objetivo a mensuração do nível de mindful parenting em mães. (AU)


The Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP) is a self-report scale that assesses the use of mindfulness skills in the relationship between parents and children. This study aimed to adapt the IMP to the Brazilian context and to investigate its psychometric properties. The adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese was conducted by psychologists using characteristics of the instrument's target audience. In the search for evidence of validity, the sample consisted of 221 mothers of children between six and twelve years old. A sample characterization questionnaire, IMP, and Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) were used. The results indicated that the items showed adequate factor composition, and the scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and was positively correlated with overall mindfulness scores (FFMQ-BR). We recommend the use of IMP in future Brazilian investigations aimed at measuring the level of mindful parenting in mothers. (AU)


La Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP) es una escala de autoinforme que evalúa el uso de las habilidades de mindfulness en la relación entre padres e hijos. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar la IMP al contexto brasileño e investigar sus propiedades psicométricas. La adaptación al portugués brasileño fue realizada por psicólogos con características del público objetivo del instrumento. En la búsqueda de evidencias de validez, la muestra estuvo conformada por 221 madres de niños entre seis y doce años. Se utilizó un cuestionario de caracterización de la muestra, la IMP y el Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR). Los resultados indicaron que los ítems tenían una composición factorial adecuada y la escala demostró una consistencia interna adecuada y se correlacionó positivamente con los escores generales de atención plena (FFMQ-BR). Se recomienda el uso de la IMP en futuras investigaciones brasileñas direccionadas a la medición de mindful parenting en las madres. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adult , Mindfulness , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Psychometrics , Translating , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Self Report
15.
Aval. psicol ; 20(1): 33-42, jan.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1249042

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetiva buscar evidências de precisão e de validade com base na estrutura interna do Teste Informatizado e Dinâmico de Escrita, utilizando a Teoria de Resposta ao Item. Foram incluídos 304 participantes de Porto Alegre, entre 10 e 17 anos. Utilizou-se o TIDE, cujo objetivo é avaliar o potencial de aprendizagem em escrita narrativa de adolescentes. Verificou-se a dimensionalidade dos módulos em análise por meio de análise fatorial, satisfazendo critério para a realização das análises por meio da TRI. O módulo pré-teste foi ajustado para o modelo Logístico de dois parâmetros, com alfa de Cronbach de 0,82. Todos os itens apresentaram valores adequados de discriminação, entre 1,88 e 3,49. A dificuldade dos itens variou de -0,01 a 1,27. O módulo instrucional foi ajustado pelo modelo de resposta gradual de Samejima, apresentando alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91. Observou-se, portanto, evidências de validade com base na estrutura interna do TIDE. (AU)


This study aimed to investigate evidence of accuracy and validity based on the internal structure of the Computerized and Dynamic Writing Test, using the Item Response Theory. A total of 304 participants from Porto Alegre, aged between 10 and 17 years, were included. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adolescents' potential for learning in narrative writing. The dimensionality of the modules under analysis was verified by means of factorial analysis, satisfying criterion for the accomplishment of the analyses through IRT. The pre-test module was adjusted for the two-parameter logistic model, with Cronbach's Alpha of .82. All items presented adequate discrimination values ​​between 1.88 and 3.49. The difficulty of the items ranged from -0.01 to 1.27. The instructional module was adjusted using Samejima's graded response model, presenting a Cronbach's alpha of .91. Accordingly, evidence of validity based on the internal structure of the CDWT was observed. (AU)


Este estudio objetiva buscar evidencias de precisión y de validez con base en la estructura interna del Test Informatizado y Dinámico de Escritura, utilizando la Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem. Participaron 304 participantes de Porto Alegre, entre 10 y 17 años. El TIDE fue utilizado con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial de aprendizaje en la escritura narrativa de adolescentes. La dimensionalidad de los módulos en análisis se averiguó por medio de análisis factorial, satisfaciendo los criterios para la realización de los análisis por medio de la TRI. El módulo pre-test se ajustó al modelo Logístico de dos parámetros, con Alpha de Cronbach de 0,82. Todos los ítems presentaron valores adecuados de discriminación, entre 1,88 y 3,49. La dificultad de los ítems sufrió variación de -0,01 a 1,27. El módulo instruccional fue ajustado por el modelo de respuesta gradual de Samejima, presentando Alpha de Cronbach de 0,91. Por lo tanto, se observaron evidencias de validez con base en la estructura interna del TIDE. (AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Handwriting , Learning , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41(spe1): e252730, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1287660

ABSTRACT

Resumo Recentemente, o inciso III da Resolução n. 002/2003 do Conselho Federal de Psicologia (CFP) foi parcialmente considerado inconstitucional pelo Supremo Tribuna Federal a partir do julgamento da Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade (ADI 3481). Por sete votos a quatro, o Supremo decidiu pela liberar a comercialização dos testes psicológicos para a população em geral. Após apresentar informações, memoriais, medida cautelar e Ação de Embargo Declaratório, o CFP aguarda agora a modulação da decisão do STF. Desse modo, entende-se que é necessário desenvolver estratégias para que o acesso à informação científica possa ser disponibilizado, sem inviabilizar o uso dessa tecnologia profissional. Nesse artigo, enfatiza-se como a liberação da comercialização dos testes psicológicos possui potencial de gerar prejuízos para o indivíduo, para os profissionais da área, bem como pode vir a desnaturar os resultados que levaram anos de estudos científicos para ser alcançados, impactando na produção de conhecimento psicológico, mas, sobretudo, na sociedade que, em última instância, é a beneficiária dos serviços prestados pela psicologia. Para um melhor entendimento dessa problemática, o artigo detalha a ADI 3481 e seu histórico, como o uso inadequado dos testes e a falta de competência para o uso podem gerar consequências prejudiciais tanto para o indivíduo, no que se refere à autoaplicação do teste, quanto para a sociedade. (AU)


Abstract The Direct Action of Unconstitutionality (DAU 3481) originated from the establishment of Item III of Resolution no. 002/2003 of the Federal Council of Psychology (CFP) as partially unconstitutional. By seven votes against four, the Brazilian Supreme Court (STF) regulated the commercialization of psychological tests to the population. After providing information, memorials, precautionary measure, and a Judgment Amendment Action, the CFP awaits the modulation of the STF decision. In this scenario, strategies for enabling access to scientific information while ensuring constitutional principles must be developed, without making the use of this professional technology unfeasible. This article emphasizes the negative effects of the psychological tests commercialization for both the individual and professionals in the field. Moreover, such measure also compromises instruments validity, a process that takes years of scientific studies to be achieved, impacting not only the production of psychological knowledge, but mainly the overall society - the beneficiary of the services provided by psychology. For a better understanding of this problem, this article details how the inappropriate use of the tests generates harmful consequences for the individual, regarding the self-use of the test, and for society, considering that psychological practice involves different assessments and testings. (AU)


Resumen El punto III de la Resolución n.º 002/2003 del Consejo Federal de Psicología brasileño (CFP) fue considerado parcialmente inconstitucional por el Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) a partir de la Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad (ADI 3481). Por siete votos contra cuatro, el STF aprobó la venta de pruebas psicológicas a la población en general. Tras presentada información, memoriales, medida cautelar y Acción Declaratoria de Embargo, el CFP espera la modulación de la decisión del STF. Así se entiende que es necesario desarrollar estrategias para que el acceso a la información científica pueda estar disponible, sin que esto haga inviable el uso de esta tecnología profesional. En este artículo, se enfatiza cómo la liberación de la comercialización de pruebas psicológicas tiene un fuerte potencial de generar daño al individuo, a los profesionales en el campo, así como puede desnaturalizar los resultados, que llevan años de estudios científicos para lograrlos, incidiendo en la producción de conocimiento psicológico, sobre todo en la sociedad que, en última instancia, es la que se beneficiaría de los servicios que brinda la psicología. Para una mejor comprensión de esta problemática, se detalló la ADI 3481 y su histórico sobre cómo el uso inadecuado de las pruebas y la falta de competencia para el uso pueden generar consecuencias nocivas tanto para el individuo, en lo que respecta al uso propio de la prueba, como para la sociedad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aptitude , Practice, Psychological , Psychological Tests , Commerce , Psychology , Clinical Competence , Constitution and Bylaws , Judiciary , Products Commerce , Jurisprudence
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236693, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870909

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and diet therapy plays a key role in treating this disease. Since most patients show difficulties in adhering to nutritional interventions, research on the association of positive psychological characteristics with greater engagement in physical health is relevant to this field. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between positive psychology attributes (optimism, hope, self-esteem, positive/negative affect and life satisfaction) and changes in diet quality and anthropometric parameters of individuals with MetS who received nutritional counseling. The study assessed 63 patients at a nutrition outpatient clinic. Anthropometric parameters and 24-hour food recall data (for evaluation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised-BHEI-R) were collected at the first visit and subsequent return visit (on average five months later). Psychological data were collected at the first visit using validated and standardized scales. The results were adjusted in relation to the depression scores of the patients, which were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Changes in anthropometric factors and in the BHEI-R were assessed, and their associations with the psychological attributes were investigated. The results indicated that positive affect and hope were associated with improvement in the BHEI-R scores (Cohen effect sizes -0.65 and -0.58; p = 0.012 and 0.025, respectively). A significant association was also observed between optimism and a reduction in abdominal circumference (Cohen effect size 0.56; p = 0.031). The associations remained significant even after adjusting for the BDI-II scores (p = 0.022, p = 0.037 and p = 0.05, respectively). No statistically significant associations were observed for the other attributes assessed.The study suggests that some attributes may have a greater influence on the nutritional treatment of MetS and that future studies should be conducted in order to enable effective multidisciplinary interventions to treat MetS.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/psychology , Optimism , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , Brazil/epidemiology , Diet , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Waist Circumference
18.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(2): 261-267, 2020 Jun.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667453

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional status of pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery after discharge from the intensive care unit, and to evaluate the correlations among clinical variables, functional status and surgical risk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including patients aged 1 month to less than 18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery between October 2017 and May 2018. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Status Scale, surgical risk classification was determined using the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 (RACHS-1), and clinical variables were collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The sample comprised 57 patients with a median age of 7 months (2 - 17); 54.4% were male, and 75.5% showed dysfunction, which was moderate in 45.6% of the cases. RACHS-1 category > 3 was observed in 47% of the sample, indicating higher surgical risk. There was a correlation between functional deficit and younger age, longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation and longer intensive care unit stay. Moreover, greater functional deficit was observed among patients classified as RACHS-1 category > 3. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of functional deficit was high among children and adolescents with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. Higher surgical risk, longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, longer intensive care unit stay and younger age were correlated with worse functional status.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Patient Discharge , Risk Factors , Time Factors
19.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 52, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To describe the process of elaboration and validation of the Scale of Perceptions about Alcohol Consumption in Higher Education Students in a Portuguese sample, considering the relationship between alcohol use rates and students' perceptions about the effects of this consumption. METHODS The validation study included 531 Portuguese college freshmen who answered the instrument, which is composed of five items that express positive perceptions and five items that express negative perceptions about the effects of alcohol consumption. RESULTS Evidence of content validity, internal structure and external variables were obtained. The results of the factor analysis confirm the distribution of positive and negative perceptions by two different factors according to the theoretical model. Adequate internal consistency indexes were obtained for each dimension. The data obtained showed expected correlations between the perceptions and consumption behaviors of the students, indicating evidence of criterion validity of the scale. Moreover, the study showed that different consumption patterns between men and women, with higher alcohol consumption in the students' households and restaurants or cafés by male students, in addition to the similarity in the consumption pattern between the two genders in parties and bars or nightclubs. CONCLUSION The data obtained show the validity of the instrument. In the discussion, the article presents considerations about the responsibility of higher education institutions in the prevention and reduction in consumption rates among their students.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Perception , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adolescent , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Health Risk Behaviors/drug effects , Humans , Male , Portugal , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sex Factors , Universities , Young Adult
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 261-267, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138498

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a funcionalidade de pacientes pediátricos submetidos à correção cirúrgica de cardiopatia congênita após a alta da unidade de terapia intensiva e as possíveis correlações com variáveis clínicas e risco cirúrgico. Métodos: Estudo transversal, que incluiu crianças entre 1 mês e 18 anos incompletos, que realizaram cirurgia para correção de cardiopatia congênita, no período de outubro de 2017 até maio de 2018. A avaliação da funcionalidade foi realizada por meio da Functional Status Scale, a avaliação do risco cirúrgico se deu pelo Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 (RACHS-1), e as variáveis clínicas foram obtidas do prontuário eletrônico. Resultados: A amostra foi composta de 57 crianças, com mediana de idade de 7 (2 - 17) meses, sendo 54,4% do sexo masculino. Dentre as crianças, 75,5% apresentaram alteração na funcionalidade, e 45,6% delas tiveram disfunção moderada. Cerca de 47% da amostra apresentou classificação RACHS-1 > 3, indicando maior risco cirúrgico. Maior déficit funcional foi associado a crianças mais novas, com maior duração da ventilação mecânica invasiva e do tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Além disso, maior grau de disfunção foi observado entre aqueles classificados com RACHS-1 > 3. Conclusão: A prevalência de disfunção foi elevada em crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia após cirurgia cardíaca. Maior risco cirúrgico, duração da ventilação mecânica invasiva, permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e os mais jovens apresentaram associação com pior desempenho funcional.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the functional status of pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery after discharge from the intensive care unit, and to evaluate the correlations among clinical variables, functional status and surgical risk. Methods: Cross-sectional study including patients aged 1 month to less than 18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery between October 2017 and May 2018. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Status Scale, surgical risk classification was determined using the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 (RACHS-1), and clinical variables were collected from electronic medical records. Results: The sample comprised 57 patients with a median age of 7 months (2 - 17); 54.4% were male, and 75.5% showed dysfunction, which was moderate in 45.6% of the cases. RACHS-1 category > 3 was observed in 47% of the sample, indicating higher surgical risk. There was a correlation between functional deficit and younger age, longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation and longer intensive care unit stay. Moreover, greater functional deficit was observed among patients classified as RACHS-1 category > 3. Conclusion: The prevalence of functional deficit was high among children and adolescents with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. Higher surgical risk, longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, longer intensive care unit stay and younger age were correlated with worse functional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Functional Status , Length of Stay
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