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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011558, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cholangiohydatidosis (CH) is an evolutionary complication of hepatic cystic echinococcosis, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the available evidence regarding clinical characteristics of CH, postoperative complications and hospital mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Systematic review. Studies related to CH with no language or publication restriction were included. Sensitive searches were performed in Trip Database, SciELO, BIREME-BVS, WoS, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS. MeSH and free terms were used, including articles up to April 2023. The main outcome variables were postoperative complications and hospital mortality; the secondary ones were publication year, origin and design of primary studies, main clinical manifestation, anatomical location and type of cysts, hospital stay, surgical procedure performed, reinterventions; and methodological quality of primary studies, which was assessed using MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales. Descriptive statistics, calculation of weighted averages and their comparison by least squares logistic regression were applied. 446 studies were retrieved from the searches performed, 102 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies analyzed represent 1241 patients. The highest proportion of articles was published in the last decade (39.2%). Reports are mainly from Turkey (28.4%), Greece (9.8%), Morocco and Spain (8.8% each). With a weighted mean of 14.3 days of hospital stance; it was verified that 26.2% of patients developed postoperative complications (74,3% Clavien y Dindo III y IV), 6.7% needed re-interventions, and 3.7% died. When comparing the variables age, postoperative complications, hospital mortality, and reinterventions in two periods of time (1982-2006 vs. 2007-2023), no statistically significant differences were found. When applying the MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales, the methodological quality of the primary studies was 9.6±1.1 and 14.5±4.3 points, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CH is associated with severe postoperative complications and significant hospital mortality, independent of the development of therapeutic support associated with the passage of time.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Postoperative Complications , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Morbidity
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 111-116, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528817

ABSTRACT

El cáncer gástrico (CG), es la primera causa de muerte por cáncer, en hombres, y la tercera en mujeres, en Chile. No obstante ello, el CG bifocal (CGB) es una situación poco frecuente. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar un caso de CGB, con linfonodos negativos en un paciente con cirrosis hepática, que fue intervenido quirúrgicamente; y revisar la evidencia existente respecto de sus características morfológicas, terapéuticas y pronósticas. Caso clínico: Hombre de 74 años diabético, hipertenso, insuficiente cardíaco y cirrótico; portador de CGB (subcardial y antro-pilórico), diagnosticado por endoscopia y con confirmación histológica de ambas lesiones; operado en Clínica RedSalud Mayor Temuco en septiembre de 2023. En el intraoperatorio se verificó además la coexistencia de una lesión de aspecto metastásico en el segmento III del hígado, y adhesión de la región antro-pilórica a la vesícula biliar. Se realizó gastrectomía total, linfadenectomía D2, esófago-yeyuno anastomosis término-lateral, resección segmentaria hepática (segmento III) y colecistectomía. El paciente permaneció 6 días en la UCI debido a que desarrolló insuficiencia hepática (encefalopatía leve y ascitis). Se alimentó vía enteral por sonda naso-yeyunal. Posteriormente inició alimentación oral progresiva, la que fue bien tolerada. Completó 11 días de hospitalización en servicio médico-quirúrgico, donde mejoró actividad neurológica, hasta su alta domiciliaria. Actualmente, lleva dos meses desde su operación, se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales, y el Comité Oncológico decidió no dar quimioterapia adyuvante. Se presenta un caso inusual de CG de tipo bifocal, respecto de lo cual hay escasa información disponible. Se logró realizar cirugía con intención curativa en un paciente de alto riesgo, con un resultado exitoso.


SUMMARY: Gastric cancer (GC) is the first cause of death from cancer in men, and the third one in women, in Chile. However, a bifocal GC (BGC) is uncommon. The aim of this study was to report a case of CGB, with negative-lymph nodes in a patient with liver cirrhosis, who underwent surgery; and review the existing evidence regarding its morphological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics. Clinical case: A 74-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis underwent surgical intervention for GC located in subcardial and antro- pyloric regions. The diagnosis was established via endoscopy and confirmed histologically. Surgery was performed at the RedSalud Mayor Temuco Clinic in September 2023. During intraoperative assessment, the coexistence of a lesion with metastatic-like characteristics in segment III of the liver was also verified, along with adhesions between the antro-pyloric region and the gallbladder. Surgical approach encompassed total gastrectomy, D2 lymphadenectomy, esophago-jejunostomy, segmental hepatic resection, and cholecystectomy. Subsequently, the patient required a six-day stay in ICU due to the development of hepatic insufficiency, characterized by mild encephalopathy and ascites. Enteral nutrition was administered via a naso-jejunal tube, followed by a gradual transition to oral feeding, which was well-tolerated. The patient completed an 11-day hospitalization period in the medical-surgical ward, during which his neurological function improved significantly, resulting in his discharge. At present, 2 months post-surgery, the patient remains in satisfactory general health, and the Oncology Committee decided not to proceed with adjuvant chemotherapy. This case represents a rare instance of bifocal GC, for which there is limited available literature. Surgical intervention with curative intent was successfully carried out in a high-risk patient, yielding a positive outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Gastrectomy
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(12): e0011813, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in southern Chile. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of CE among relatives of patients who underwent surgical intervention for this disease in Cautín, a province of southern Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study. Relatives of patients who underwent surgery for hepatic echinococcosis (HE), who lived at the same address, during the period 2000-2020 were studied. A total of 288 relatives of 322 patients who underwent surgery for HE participated in a CE screening. All these relatives were interviewed and underwent abdominal ultrasonography, chest X-ray and immunodiagnostic studies (relatives who had been diagnosed with or had undergone surgery for CE were excluded). Descriptive statistics were applied. Prevalence calculation, odds ratio (OR), and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined. Abdominal or thoracic CE was verified in 42 relatives of subjects operated on for HE (mean age 41±8 years; 73.8% women; 38.1% of cases had two or more cysts), all of them new and asymptomatic cases. CE was detected in the lungs, liver, peritoneum, and spleen in 16.7%; 71.4%; 7.1%; and 4.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of EQ during the studied time period was 14,6% (17.9% and 12.3% in relatives of first and second degree respectively (OR:1.56; CI 95%: 0.81; 3.01). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of CE in relatives of patients undergoing surgery by this disease in the province of Cautín, Chile.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Echinococcosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/surgery , Echinococcosis/diagnosis
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1550-1557, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521030

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma de células renales (CCR) a nivel mundial presenta una incidencia de 431.288 casos anuales, causando 179.368 muertes en 2020. Sin embargo, a pesar de su incidencia, el desarrollo de metástasis pancreática (MP) de un RCC es un hecho inusual. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue reportar el caso de una paciente con una MP metacrónica de un CCR. Se trata de una paciente de 56 años, sexo femenino, nefrectomizada derecha hace 132 meses por un CCR, en adyuvancia con inmunoterapia. En un control imagenológico de rutina, se le pesquisó una lesión de aspecto tumoral en el cuerpo y cola del páncreas. Se intervino quirúrgicamente, realizándose una pancreatectomía córporo-caudal con preservación esplénica. Evolucionó de forma satisfactoria, sin complicaciones, siendo dada de alta al 4º día de su cirugía. El informe del estudio de la pieza operatoria con estudio inmunohistoquímico concluyó que se trataba de una MP de CCR. La paciente se encuentra en buenas condiciones generales y reinició quimioterapia con anticuerpos monoclonales. El seguimiento frecuente y prolongado de pacientes con antecedentes de CCR, facilita un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de MP facilitando el mejor pronóstico de los pacientes, con tasas más altas de supervivencia.


SUMMARY: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) worldwide has an incidence of 431,288 cases per year, causing 179,368 deaths in 2020. However, despite its incidence, the development of pancreatic metastasis (MP) from RCC is unusual. The aim of this manuscript was to report the case of a patient with a PM of a RCC. This is a 56-year-old female patient, underwent right nephrectomy 132 months earlier for RCC. While she was in adjuvant immunotherapy, in a routine imaging control, it was found a tumor lesion in the body and the tail of the pancreas. So, she underwent surgery, performing a corpora-caudal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation. Postoperative evolution was correct, without complications, and she was discharged on the 4th day after surgery. The report of the study of the surgical piece with an immunohistochemical study included, conclusive of PM of RCC. Currently, the patient is in good general condition and restarted chemotherapy with monoclonal antibodies. Frequent and prolonged follow-up of patients with a history of RCC facilitates timely diag- nosis and treatment of PM, facilitating the best prognosis for patients, with higher survival rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1452-1460, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521031

ABSTRACT

Lograr determinar el volumen total de un hígado (VHT), o volumetría hepática, pasa a ser de relevancia en diversas situaciones, tales como, vigilancia del progreso de una enfermedad de carácter crónico, planificación de resecciones y trasplantes hepáticos; y observación del clearance hepático de algunos fármacos hepatotropos. La VHT se puede realizar utilizando métodos de segmentación en el curso de una tomografía computarizada (TC), ya sean estos manual, automáticos, y semiautomáticos; mediante resonancia nuclear (RN), utilizando softwares de distintas generaciones (1ª a 4ª). La medición de VHT está indicada en pacientes sometidos a resecciones hepáticas mayores, en el contexto del tratamiento de neoplasias (carcinoma hepatocelular, colangiocarcinoma, metástasis hepáticas o tumores benignos de gran tamaño), abscesos (piogénicos, amebianos), y después de un traumatismo hepático complejo; así como también en la etapa preoperatoria de un trasplante hepático. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio sobre métodos para determinar volumetría hepática.


SUMMARY: Being able to determine the total hepatic volume (THV), or THV, becomes relevant in various situations, such as monitoring the progress of a chronic disease, planning resections and liver transplants; and observation of the hepatic clearance of some hepatotropic drugs. THV can be performed using segmentation methods in the course of a computed tomography (CT), whether manual, automatic, or semi-automated; by nuclear resonance (NR), using software from different generations (1st to 4st). THV measurement is indicated in patients undergoing major liver resections, in the context of treatment of neoplasms (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, liver metastases or large benign tumors), abscesses (pyogenic, amoebic), and after liver trauma complex, as well as in the preoperative stage of a liver transplant. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document regarding methods for determine hepatic volumetry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1240-1253, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514343

ABSTRACT

La expansión y consolidación de la práctica clínica basada en la evidencia ha llevado entre otras, a la necesidad de realizar una variedad cada vez mayor de tipos de revisión de la literatura científica; lo que permite avanzar en el conocimiento y comprender la amplitud de la investigación sobre un tema de interés, teniendo en cuenta que una de las propiedades del conocimiento es su carácter acumulativo. Sin embargo, la diversidad de la terminología utilizada genera confusión de términos y conceptos. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar un listado de los tipos de revisiones de la literatura más frecuentemente utilizados con sus características y algunos ejemplos de ellas. Revisión cualitativa. Se examinaron de forma dirigida las bases de datos PubMed, WoS y Scopus, en búsqueda de términos asociados a tipos de revisiones y síntesis de la literatura científica. Se encontraron 21 tipos de revisión; y 29 variantes y sinonimias asociadas; las que ilustran los procesos de cada una de ellas. Se da una descripción general de las características de cada cual, junto con las fortalezas y debilidades percibidas. No obstante, se verificó que sólo algunos tipos de revisión poseen metodologías propias y explícitas. Este enfoque, proporciona un punto de referencia para quienes realizan o interpretan revisiones en el ámbito sanitario, y sugiere dos tipos de propuestas de clasificación.


SUMMARY: The expansion and consolidation of evidence-based clinical practice has led, among other things, to the need to carry out an increasing variety of types of literature reviews, which allows advancing in knowledge and understanding the breadth of research on a topic of interest. However, the diversity of the terminology used generates confusion of terms and concepts. The aim of this manuscript was to provide a list of the most frequently used review types with their characteristics and some examples. Qualitative review. PubMed, WoS and Scopus databases were examined in a directed way, searching for terms associated with types of reviews and syntheses of the scientific literature. Twenty-one types of review, and 29 variants and associated synonymies were found; those that illustrate the processes of each of them. An overview of the characteristics of each is given, along with perceived strengths and weaknesses. However, it was verified that only some types of review have their own explicit methodologies. This approach, provides a point of reference for those who perform or interpret reviews in the health field and suggests two classification proposals.


Subject(s)
Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2)abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440317

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), is a tapeworm that spreads between intermediate and definitive hosts through the ingestion of fecal matter contaminated with the parasite's eggs. The life cycle consists of differentiation from eggs to oncospheres to embryos, which eventually form cysts in organs like the liver, lungs and others. Within these cysts are protoscolices, an intermediate stage of the parasite which develop into adult tapeworms once they infect their definitive hosts. When these hydatid cysts form in humans, it is known as Cystic Echinococcosis (CE). This disease is treated through surgical excision of the cysts and or chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. Understanding the morphology of the intermediate developmental stage of E. granulosus, protoscolex stage, can allow researchers to identify defining structural changes and protein functions that could be used to develop treatment modalities for CE. Unique characteristics in the tegumental surface during the protoescolex stage and proteins associated with cyst fertility have all been identified in previous research studies and bring researchers closer to understanding the underlying mechanisms of E. granulosus development, and consequently, means to disrupt it to achieve better control of the disease.


El Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), es un cestodo que se propaga entre huéspedes intermedios y definitivos a través de la ingestión de materia fecal contaminada con los huevos del parásito. El ciclo de vida consiste en la diferenciación de huevos a oncosferas y embriones, que finalmente forman quistes en órganos como el hígado, los pulmones y otros. Dentro de estos quistes hay protoescólices, una etapa intermedia del parásito que se convierte en su forma adulta (tenia), una vez que infectan a sus huéspedes definitivos. Cuando estos quistes hidatídicos se desarrollan en seres humanos, se les conoce como equinococosis quística (EC). Esta enfermedad se trata mediante la extirpación quirúrgica de los quistes o la quimioterapia con compuestos benzimidazólicos. La comprensión de la morfología de la etapa de desarrollo intermedia del E. granulosus y la etapa de protosclex, puede permitir a los investigadores identificar cambios estructurales definidos y funciones de proteínas que podrían usarse para desarrollar modalidades de tratamiento para la CE. Las características únicas en la superficie tegumentaria durante la etapa de protoescolex y las proteínas asociadas con la fertilidad del quiste se han identificado en estudios de investigación anteriores y acercan a los investigadores a la comprensión de los mecanismos subyacentes del desarrollo del E. granulosus y, en consecuencia, los medios para interrumpirlo para lograr un mejor control de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Echinococcus granulosus/pathogenicity , Echinococcosis
8.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Quito) ; 48(1): 27-31, Ene 01, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526677

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipertensión postparto de inicio tardío se presenta desde las 48 horas hasta las 6 semanas postparto, afectando al 2% de los embarazos relacionados o no con antecedentes de hipertensión gestacional. La preeclampsia posparto tiene una incidencia del 5,7% a las 72 horas del parto y está asociada a varios factores maternos como la edad (≥ 35 años), etnia (negra) y obesidad (IMC ≥ 30), presentando mayor riesgo en embarazos múltiples, madres añosas (mayores de 35 años) hogares con bajos ingresos económicos. Los síntomas más frecuentes de esta patología son cefalea, disnea, trastornos visuales y edema periférico.Objetivo: Describir la experiencia en un centro de salud de atención primaria, el manejo de una paciente diagnosticada de preeclampsia posparto de inicio tardío, así como las caracte-rísticas clínicas y factores de riesgo.Presentación del caso: Se presenta el caso de una paciente indígena de 32 años con antece-dente de parto gemelar quien en su control del puerperio a las 72 horas presentó hipertensión arterial, cefalea frontal, edema periférico y proteinuria estableciéndose el diagnóstico de pree-clampsia posparto de inicio tardío. No fue posible la referencia a un segundo nivel de atención por las características culturales de la paciente por lo cual recibió manejo clínico y tratamiento en el primer nivel de atención presentando una evolución favorable sin complicaciones. Conclusiones y recomendaciones: La hipertensión posparto de inicio tardío es una patolo-gía poco frecuente en el puerperio, infradiagnosticada, con complicaciones cardiovasculares a corto y largo plazo, por lo cual su diagnóstico, diferenciación y manejo debe ser óptimo en base a las recomendaciones existentes.


Introduction: Late-onset postpartum hypertension occurs from 48 hours to 6 weeks pos-tpartum, affecting 2% of pregnancies related or not to a history of gestational hypertension. Postpartum preeclampsia has an incidence of 5.7% at 72 hours postpartum and is associa-ted with several maternal factors such as age (≥ 35 years), ethnicity (black) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30), presenting higher risk in multiple pregnancies, elderly mothers (older than 35 years) low-income households. The most frequent symptoms of this pathology are headache, dysp-nea, visual disturbances and peripheral edema.Objective: To describe the experience in a primary care health center, the management of a patient diagnosed with late-onset postpartum preeclampsia, as well as the clinical characte-ristics and risk factors.Case presentation: We present the case of a 32-year-old indigenous patient with a history of twin birth who in her puerperium control at 72 hours presented arterial hypertension, frontal headache, peripheral edema and proteinuria establishing the diagnosis of late-onset pos-tpartum preeclampsia, after which treatment was initiated at the first level of care, making referral difficult due to cultural characteristics. Conclusions and recomendations: Late-onset postpartum hypertension is an infrequent pathology in the puerperium, underdiagnosed, with short and long-term cardiovascular com-plications, so its diagnosis, differentiation and management should be optimal based on existing recommendations


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pre-Eclampsia , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , Late Onset Disorders
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