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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 695, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines commonly recommend adopting a biopsychosocial (BPS) framework by practitioners managing musculoskeletal pain. However, it remains unclear how osteopaths implement a BPS framework in the management of musculoskeletal pain. Hence, the objective of this review was to systematically appraise the literature on the current practices, barriers and facilitators experienced by osteopaths in implementing a BPS framework of care when managing people with musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: The following electronic databases from January 2005 to August 2020 were searched: PubMed, CINAHL, Science Direct, Google Scholar, ProQuest Central and SCOPUS. Two independent reviewers reviewed the articles retrieved from the databases to assess for eligibility. Any studies (quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods) that investigated the use or application of the BPS approach in osteopathic practice were included in the review. The critical appraisal skills program (CASP) checklist was used to appraise the qualitative studies and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to appraise quantitative or mixed methods studies. Advanced convergent meta-integration was used to synthesise data from quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies (two quantitative, three qualitative and one mixed methods) were included in the final review. While two key concepts (current practice and embracing a BPS approach) were generated using advanced meta-integration synthesis, two concepts (barriers and enablers) were informed from qualitative only data. DISCUSSION: Our review finding showed that current osteopathic practice occurs within in the biomedical model of care. Although, osteopaths are aware of the theoretical underpinnings of the BPS model and identified the need to embrace it, various barriers exist that may prevent osteopaths from implementing the BPS model in clinical practice. Ongoing education and/or workshops may be necessary to enable osteopaths to implement a BPS approach.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Pain , Osteopathic Physicians , Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Personnel , Humans , Musculoskeletal Pain/therapy , Qualitative Research
4.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 47(9): 617-627, 2017 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704625

ABSTRACT

Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Spinal manipulation (SM) can trigger a cascade of responses involving multiple systems, including the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system, specifically, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. However, no manual therapy study has investigated the neuroendocrine response to SM (ie, sympathetic nervous system-hypothalamic-pituitary axis) in the same trial. Objective To determine short-term changes in sympathetic nervous system activity, heart rate variability, and endocrine activity (cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone-cortisol [T/C] ratio) following a thoracic SM. Methods Twenty-four healthy men aged between 18 and 45 years were randomized into 2 groups: thoracic SM (n = 12) and sham (n = 12). Outcome measures were salivary cortisol (micrograms per deciliter), salivary testosterone (picograms per milliliter), T/C ratio, heart rate variability, and changes in oxyhemoglobin concentration of the right calf muscle (micromoles per liter). Measurements were done before and at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and approximately 6 hours after intervention. Results A statistically significant group-by-time interaction was noted for T/C ratio (P<.05) and salivary cortisol (P<.01) concentrations. Significant between-group differences were noted for salivary cortisol concentration at 5 minutes (mean difference, 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.6; interaction: P<.01) and for T/C ratio at 6 hours postintervention (mean difference, -0.09; 95% confidence interval: -0.16, -0.04; P = .02). However, SM did not differentially alter oxyhemoglobin, testosterone, or heart rate variability relative to responses in the sham group. Conclusion Thoracic SM resulted in an immediate decrease in salivary cortisol concentration and reduced T/C ratio 6 hours after intervention. A pattern of immediate sympathetic excitation was also observed in the SM group. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):617-627. Epub 13 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7348.


Subject(s)
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiology , Manipulation, Spinal/methods , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology , Adult , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Male , Oxyhemoglobins/metabolism , Saliva/metabolism , Testosterone/metabolism , Thoracic Vertebrae
6.
Clin Rehabil ; 30(12): 1141-1155, 2016 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether manual therapy or exercise therapy or both is beneficial for people with hip osteoarthritis in terms of reduced pain, improved physical function and improved quality of life. METHODS: Databases such as Medline, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTSDiscus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and SCOPUS were searched from their inception till September 2015. Two authors independently extracted and assessed the risk of bias in included studies. Standardised mean differences for outcome measures (pain, physical function and quality of life) were used to calculate effect sizes. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for assessing the quality of the body of evidence for each outcome of interest. RESULTS: Seven trials (886 participants) that met the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. There was high quality evidence that exercise therapy was beneficial at post-treatment (pain-SMD-0.27,95%CI-0.5to-0.04;physical function-SMD-0.29,95%CI-0.47to-0.11) and follow-up (pain-SMD-0.24,95%CI- 0.41to-0.06; physical function-SMD-0.33,95%CI-0.5to-0.15). There was low quality evidence that manual therapy was beneficial at post-treatment (pain-SMD-0.71,95%CI-1.08to-0.33; physical function-SMD-0.71,95%CI-1.08to-0.33) and follow-up (pain-SMD-0.43,95%CI-0.8to-0.06; physical function-SMD-0.47,95%CI-0.84to-0.1). Low quality evidence indicated that combined treatment was beneficial at post-treatment (pain-SMD-0.43,95%CI-0.78to-0.08; physical function-SMD-0.38,95%CI-0.73to-0.04) but not at follow-up (pain-SMD0.25,95%CI-0.35to0.84; physical function-SMD0.09,95%CI-0.5to0.68). There was no effect of any interventions on quality of life. CONCLUSION: An Exercise therapy intervention provides short-term as well as long-term benefits in terms of reduction in pain, and improvement in physical function among people with hip osteoarthritis. The observed magnitude of the treatment effect would be considered small to moderate.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy , Musculoskeletal Manipulations , Osteoarthritis, Hip/rehabilitation , Humans
7.
Clin Rehabil ; 30(6): 559-76, 2016 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26198892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to illustrate whether people with multiple sclerosis engage in more physical activity following behaviour change interventions. DATA RESOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, EMBASE and PEDro were searched from their inception till 30 April 2015. TRIAL SELECTION: Randomized and clinical controlled trials that used behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis were selected, regardless of type or duration of multiple sclerosis or disability severity. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extraction was conducted by two independent reviewers and the Cochrane Collaboration's recommended method was used to assess the risk of bias of each included study. RESULTS: A total of 19 out of 573 studies were included. Focusing on trials without risk of bias, meta-analysis showed that behaviour change interventions can significantly increase physical activity participation (z = 2.20, p = 0.03, standardised main difference 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 1.22, 3 trials, I(2) = 68%) (eight to 12 weeks' duration). Behaviour change interventions did not significantly impact on the physical components of quality of life or fatigue. CONCLUSION: Behaviour change interventions provided for relatively short duration (eight to 12 weeks) may increase the amount of physical activity people with multiple sclerosis engage in, but appear to have no effect on the physical components of quality of life and fatigue. Further high quality investigations of the efficacy of behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity participation that focus on dose, long-term impact and method of delivery are warranted for people with multiple sclerosis.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/methods , Exercise , Multiple Sclerosis/rehabilitation , Bias , Humans , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data
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