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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 109, 2024 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The work of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health has been fundamental to provide a conceptual framework of the social determinants of health. Based on this framework, this study assesses the relationship of income inequality as a determinant of neonatal mortality in the Americas and relates it to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal target 3.2 (reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 deaths per 1,000 live births). The rationale is to evaluate if income inequality may be considered a social factor that influences neonatal mortality in the Americas. METHODS: Yearly data from 35 countries in the Americas during 2000-2019 was collected. Data sources include the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the neonatal mortality rate (measured as neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births) and the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research for the Gini index (measured in a scale from 0 to 100). This is an ecological study that employs a linear regression model that relates the neonatal mortality rate (dependent variable) to the Gini index (independent variable), while controlling for other factors that influence neonatal mortality. Coefficient estimates and their robust standard errors were obtained using panel data techniques. RESULTS: A positive relationship between income inequality and neonatal mortality is found in countries in the Americas during the period studied. In particular, the analysis suggests that a unit increase in a country's Gini index during 2000-2019 is associated with a 0.27 (95% CI [- 0.04, 0.57], P =.09) increase in the neonatal mortality rate. CONCLUSION: The analysis suggests that income inequality may be positively associated with the neonatal mortality rate in the Americas. Nonetheless, given the modest magnitude of the estimates and Gini values and trends during 2000-2019, the findings suggest a potential limited scope for redistributive policies to support reductions in neonatal mortality in the region. Thus, policies and interventions that address higher coverage and quality of services provided by national health systems and reductions in socio-economic inequalities in health are of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
Income , Infant Mortality , Sustainable Development , Humans , Infant Mortality/trends , Sustainable Development/trends , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Income/statistics & numerical data , Americas/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Female , Health Status Disparities
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011558, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cholangiohydatidosis (CH) is an evolutionary complication of hepatic cystic echinococcosis, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the available evidence regarding clinical characteristics of CH, postoperative complications and hospital mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Systematic review. Studies related to CH with no language or publication restriction were included. Sensitive searches were performed in Trip Database, SciELO, BIREME-BVS, WoS, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS. MeSH and free terms were used, including articles up to April 2023. The main outcome variables were postoperative complications and hospital mortality; the secondary ones were publication year, origin and design of primary studies, main clinical manifestation, anatomical location and type of cysts, hospital stay, surgical procedure performed, reinterventions; and methodological quality of primary studies, which was assessed using MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales. Descriptive statistics, calculation of weighted averages and their comparison by least squares logistic regression were applied. 446 studies were retrieved from the searches performed, 102 of which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies analyzed represent 1241 patients. The highest proportion of articles was published in the last decade (39.2%). Reports are mainly from Turkey (28.4%), Greece (9.8%), Morocco and Spain (8.8% each). With a weighted mean of 14.3 days of hospital stance; it was verified that 26.2% of patients developed postoperative complications (74,3% Clavien y Dindo III y IV), 6.7% needed re-interventions, and 3.7% died. When comparing the variables age, postoperative complications, hospital mortality, and reinterventions in two periods of time (1982-2006 vs. 2007-2023), no statistically significant differences were found. When applying the MInCir-T and MInCir-P scales, the methodological quality of the primary studies was 9.6±1.1 and 14.5±4.3 points, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CH is associated with severe postoperative complications and significant hospital mortality, independent of the development of therapeutic support associated with the passage of time.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Postoperative Complications , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Morbidity
3.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59188

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To analyze temporal trends and inequalities in neonatal mortality between 2000 and 2020, and to set neonatal mortality targets for 2025 and 2030 in the Americas. Methods. A descriptive ecological study was conducted using 33 countries of the Americas as units of anal- ysis. Both the percentage change and average annual percentage change in neonatal mortality rates were estimated. Measurements of absolute and relative inequality based on adjusted regression models were used to assess cross-country social inequalities in neonatal mortality. Targets to reduce neonatal mortality and cross-country inequalities were set for 2025 and 2030. Results. The estimated regional neonatal mortality rate was 12.0 per 1 000 live births in 2000–2004 and 7.4 per 1 000 live births in 2020, representing a percentage change of –38.3% and an average annual per- centage change of –2.7%. National average annual percentage changes in neonatal mortality rates between 2000–2004 and 2020 ranged from –5.5 to 1.9 and were mostly negative. The estimated excess neonatal mor- tality in the 20% most socially disadvantaged countries, compared with the 20% least socially disadvantaged countries, was 17.1 and 9.8 deaths per 1 000 live births in 2000–2004 and 2020, respectively. Based on an extrapolation of recent trends, the regional neonatal mortality rate is projected to reach 7.0 and 6.6 neonatal deaths per 1 000 live births by 2025 and 2030, respectively. Conclusions. National and regional health authorities need to strengthen their efforts to reduce persistent social inequalities in neonatal mortality both within and between countries.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar las desigualdades en la mortalidad neonatal y las tendencias en el transcurso del tiempo entre el 2000 y el 2020, y establecer metas en materia de mortalidad neonatal para el 2025 y el 2030 en la Región de las Américas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio ecológico descriptivo con información de 33 países de la Región de las Américas que se usaron como unidades de análisis. Se calculó tanto la variación porcentual como la varia- ción porcentual anual media de las tasas de mortalidad neonatal. Se utilizaron mediciones de la desigualdad absoluta y relativa basadas en modelos de regresión ajustados, para evaluar las desigualdades sociales en los diversos países en cuanto a la mortalidad neonatal. Se establecieron metas de reducción de la mortalidad neonatal y de las desigualdades en los diversos países para el 2025 y el 2030. Resultados. La tasa de mortalidad neonatal en la Región fue de 12,0 por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el período 2000-2004 y de 7,4 por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el 2020, lo que representa una variación porcentual del –38,3% y una variación porcentual anual media del –2,7%. Las variaciones porcentuales anuales medias de las tasas de mortalidad neonatal a nivel nacional entre el período 2000-2004 y el 2020 oscilaron entre –5,5 y 1,9, y fueron en su mayor parte negativas. El exceso de mortalidad neonatal estimado en el 20% de los países más desfavorecidos socialmente, en comparación con el 20% de los países menos desfavorecidos socialmente, fue de 17,1 muertes por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el período 2000-2004 y de 9,8 muertes por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el 2020. Al extrapolar las tendencias más recientes, se prevé que la tasa de mortalidad neonatal de la Región alcance valores de 7,0 y 6,6 muertes neonatales por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el 2025 y el 2030, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Las autoridades de salud nacionales y regionales deben fortalecer las medidas para reducir las desigualdades sociales que aún persisten en materia de mortalidad neonatal, tanto entre los distintos países como dentro de cada país.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Analisar as tendências temporais e desigualdades em mortalidade neonatal entre 2000 e 2020 e estabelecer metas de mortalidade neonatal para 2025 e 2030 na Região das Américas. Métodos. Estudo ecológico descritivo examinando 33 países das Américas como unidades de análise. Foram estimadas a variação percentual e a variação percentual anual média das taxas de mortalidade neonatal. Foram usadas medidas de desigualdade absoluta e relativa baseadas em modelos de regressão ajustados para avaliar desigualdades sociais entre países em termos de mortalidade neonatal. Foram definidas metas de redução da mortalidade neonatal e das desigualdades entre países para 2025 e 2030. Resultados. A taxa regional estimada de mortalidade neonatal foi de 12,0 por mil nascidos vivos em 2000– 2004, e de 7,4 por mil nascidos vivos em 2020, representando uma variação percentual de -38,3%, e uma variação percentual anual média de -2,7%. As variações percentuais anuais médias nacionais das taxas de mortalidade neonatal entre 2000–2004 e 2020 variaram entre -5,5 e 1,9 e, em sua maioria, foram negativas. O excesso estimado de mortalidade neonatal nos países que estavam entre os 20% mais desfavorecidos socialmente, em comparação com os países entre os 20% menos desfavorecidos, foi de 17,1 e 9,8 mortes por mil nascidos vivos em 2000–2004 e 2020, respectivamente. Com base em extrapolação das tendências recentes, estima-se que a taxa de mortalidade neonatal regional deve atingir 7,0 e 6,6 mortes neonatais por mil nascidos vivos em 2025 e 2030, respectivamente. Conclusões. As autoridades de saúde nacionais e regionais precisam intensificar seus esforços para reduzir desigualdades sociais persistentes na mortalidade neonatal, tanto dentro dos países quanto entre eles.


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality , Perinatal Death , Health Inequities , Social Determinants of Health , Sustainable Development , Americas , Infant Mortality , Perinatal Death , Health Inequities , Social Determinants of Health , Sustainable Development , Americas , Infant Mortality , Perinatal Death , Health Inequities , Social Determinants of Health , Sustainable Development , Americas
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38259254

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze temporal trends and inequalities in neonatal mortality between 2000 and 2020, and to set neonatal mortality targets for 2025 and 2030 in the Americas. Methods: A descriptive ecological study was conducted using 33 countries of the Americas as units of analysis. Both the percentage change and average annual percentage change in neonatal mortality rates were estimated. Measurements of absolute and relative inequality based on adjusted regression models were used to assess cross-country social inequalities in neonatal mortality. Targets to reduce neonatal mortality and cross-country inequalities were set for 2025 and 2030. Results: The estimated regional neonatal mortality rate was 12.0 per 1 000 live births in 2000-2004 and 7.4 per 1 000 live births in 2020, representing a percentage change of -38.3% and an average annual percentage change of -2.7%. National average annual percentage changes in neonatal mortality rates between 2000-2004 and 2020 ranged from -5.5 to 1.9 and were mostly negative. The estimated excess neonatal mortality in the 20% most socially disadvantaged countries, compared with the 20% least socially disadvantaged countries, was 17.1 and 9.8 deaths per 1 000 live births in 2000-2004 and 2020, respectively. Based on an extrapolation of recent trends, the regional neonatal mortality rate is projected to reach 7.0 and 6.6 neonatal deaths per 1 000 live births by 2025 and 2030, respectively. Conclusions: National and regional health authorities need to strengthen their efforts to reduce persistent social inequalities in neonatal mortality both within and between countries.

5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 48: e4, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536671

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To analyze temporal trends and inequalities in neonatal mortality between 2000 and 2020, and to set neonatal mortality targets for 2025 and 2030 in the Americas. Methods. A descriptive ecological study was conducted using 33 countries of the Americas as units of analysis. Both the percentage change and average annual percentage change in neonatal mortality rates were estimated. Measurements of absolute and relative inequality based on adjusted regression models were used to assess cross-country social inequalities in neonatal mortality. Targets to reduce neonatal mortality and cross-country inequalities were set for 2025 and 2030. Results. The estimated regional neonatal mortality rate was 12.0 per 1 000 live births in 2000-2004 and 7.4 per 1 000 live births in 2020, representing a percentage change of -38.3% and an average annual percentage change of -2.7%. National average annual percentage changes in neonatal mortality rates between 2000-2004 and 2020 ranged from -5.5 to 1.9 and were mostly negative. The estimated excess neonatal mortality in the 20% most socially disadvantaged countries, compared with the 20% least socially disadvantaged countries, was 17.1 and 9.8 deaths per 1 000 live births in 2000-2004 and 2020, respectively. Based on an extrapolation of recent trends, the regional neonatal mortality rate is projected to reach 7.0 and 6.6 neonatal deaths per 1 000 live births by 2025 and 2030, respectively. Conclusions. National and regional health authorities need to strengthen their efforts to reduce persistent social inequalities in neonatal mortality both within and between countries.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Analizar las desigualdades en la mortalidad neonatal y las tendencias en el transcurso del tiempo entre el 2000 y el 2020, y establecer metas en materia de mortalidad neonatal para el 2025 y el 2030 en la Región de las Américas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio ecológico descriptivo con información de 33 países de la Región de las Américas que se usaron como unidades de análisis. Se calculó tanto la variación porcentual como la variación porcentual anual media de las tasas de mortalidad neonatal. Se utilizaron mediciones de la desigualdad absoluta y relativa basadas en modelos de regresión ajustados, para evaluar las desigualdades sociales en los diversos países en cuanto a la mortalidad neonatal. Se establecieron metas de reducción de la mortalidad neonatal y de las desigualdades en los diversos países para el 2025 y el 2030. Resultados. La tasa de mortalidad neonatal en la Región fue de 12,0 por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el período 2000-2004 y de 7,4 por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el 2020, lo que representa una variación porcentual del -38,3% y una variación porcentual anual media del -2,7%. Las variaciones porcentuales anuales medias de las tasas de mortalidad neonatal a nivel nacional entre el período 2000-2004 y el 2020 oscilaron entre -5,5 y 1,9, y fueron en su mayor parte negativas. El exceso de mortalidad neonatal estimado en el 20% de los países más desfavorecidos socialmente, en comparación con el 20% de los países menos desfavorecidos socialmente, fue de 17,1 muertes por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el período 2000-2004 y de 9,8 muertes por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el 2020. Al extrapolar las tendencias más recientes, se prevé que la tasa de mortalidad neonatal de la Región alcance valores de 7,0 y 6,6 muertes neonatales por 1 000 nacidos vivos en el 2025 y el 2030, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Las autoridades de salud nacionales y regionales deben fortalecer las medidas para reducir las desigualdades sociales que aún persisten en materia de mortalidad neonatal, tanto entre los distintos países como dentro de cada país.


RESUMO Objetivo. Analisar as tendências temporais e desigualdades em mortalidade neonatal entre 2000 e 2020 e estabelecer metas de mortalidade neonatal para 2025 e 2030 na Região das Américas. Métodos. Estudo ecológico descritivo examinando 33 países das Américas como unidades de análise. Foram estimadas a variação percentual e a variação percentual anual média das taxas de mortalidade neonatal. Foram usadas medidas de desigualdade absoluta e relativa baseadas em modelos de regressão ajustados para avaliar desigualdades sociais entre países em termos de mortalidade neonatal. Foram definidas metas de redução da mortalidade neonatal e das desigualdades entre países para 2025 e 2030. Resultados. A taxa regional estimada de mortalidade neonatal foi de 12,0 por mil nascidos vivos em 2000-2004, e de 7,4 por mil nascidos vivos em 2020, representando uma variação percentual de -38,3%, e uma variação percentual anual média de -2,7%. As variações percentuais anuais médias nacionais das taxas de mortalidade neonatal entre 2000-2004 e 2020 variaram entre -5,5 e 1,9 e, em sua maioria, foram negativas. O excesso estimado de mortalidade neonatal nos países que estavam entre os 20% mais desfavorecidos socialmente, em comparação com os países entre os 20% menos desfavorecidos, foi de 17,1 e 9,8 mortes por mil nascidos vivos em 2000-2004 e 2020, respectivamente. Com base em extrapolação das tendências recentes, estima-se que a taxa de mortalidade neonatal regional deve atingir 7,0 e 6,6 mortes neonatais por mil nascidos vivos em 2025 e 2030, respectivamente. Conclusões. As autoridades de saúde nacionais e regionais precisam intensificar seus esforços para reduzir desigualdades sociais persistentes na mortalidade neonatal, tanto dentro dos países quanto entre eles.

6.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47: e108, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37489238

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the homicide trends among young people (10-24 years), adolescents (10-19 years), and young adults (20-24 years) in 33 countries in the Americas between 2000 and 2019, with a focus on inequalities between countries in the burden of homicides. Methods: An ecological study was performed using estimated deaths from 33 countries. Age-adjusted rates, percentage change (PC), average annual percentage change (AAPC), and relative risk (RR) were estimated; besides, analysis on social inequalities was performed. Results: In the Americas between 2000 and 2019, homicide has been the leading cause of death with 54 515 deaths on average each year and an age-adjusted rate of 23.6 per 100 000 among young people. The highest rate was found in the Andean subregion (41.1 per 100 000 young people), which also produced the highest decrease (PC = -37.1% and AAPC = -2.4%) in the study period. The risk of homicide in young men is 8.1 times the risk in young women, and the risk in young adults is 2.5 times the risk in adolescents. The three countries with highest risk of homicide for young people are Venezuela (relative risk [RR] = 35.1), El Salvador (RR = 28.1), and Colombia (RR = 26.7). The estimated excess mortality was 26.8 homicides per 100 000 in the poorest 20% of countries compared to the richest 20% of countries in the period 2000-2009, and it decreased to 13.9 in the period 2010-2019. Conclusions: The results of this study add to the knowledge of homicide among young people and can be used to inform policy and programming in countries. Given the great burden of homicide on young people in the region, it is critical that prevention opportunities are maximized, beginning early in life.

7.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 125, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37393277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although most Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries made important progress in maternal and child health indicators from the 1990s up to 2010, little is known about such progress in the last decade. This study aims at documenting progress for each country as a whole, and to assess how within-country socioeconomic inequalities are evolving over time. METHODS: We identified LAC countries for which a national survey was available between 2011-2015 and a second comparable survey in 2018-2020. These included Argentina, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Peru, and Suriname. The 16 surveys included in the analysis collected nationally representative data on 221,989 women and 152,983 children using multistage sampling. Twelve health-related outcomes were studied, seven of which related to intervention coverage: the composite coverage index, demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods, antenatal care (four or more visits and eight or more visits), skilled attendant at birth, postnatal care for the mother and full immunization coverage. Five additional impact indicators were also investigated: stunting prevalence among under-five children, tobacco use by women, adolescent fertility rate, and under-five and neonatal mortality rates. For each of these indicators, average annual relative change rates were calculated between the baseline and endline national level estimates, and changes in socioeconomic inequalities over time were assessed using the slope index of inequality. RESULTS: Progress over time and the magnitude of inequalities varied according to country and indicator. For countries and indicators where baseline levels were high, as Argentina, Costa Rica and Cuba, progress was slow and inequalities small for most indicators. Countries that still have room for improvements, such as Guyana, Honduras, Peru and Suriname, showed faster progress for some but not all indicators, although also had wider inequalities. Among the countries studied, Peru was the top performer in terms of increasing coverage and reducing inequalities over time, followed by Honduras. Declines in family planning and immunization coverage were observed in some countries, and the widest inequalities were present for adolescent fertility and antenatal care coverage with eight or more visits. CONCLUSIONS: Although LAC countries are well placed in terms of current levels of health indicators compared to most low- and middle-income countries, important inequalities remain, and reversals are being observed in some areas. More targeted efforts and actions are needed in order to leave no one behind. Monitoring progress with an equity lens is essential, but this will require further investment in conducting surveys routinely.


Subject(s)
Child Health , Ethnicity , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Infant, Newborn , Child , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Family
8.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57786

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To examine the homicide trends among young people (10–24 years), adolescents (10–19 years), and young adults (20–24 years) in 33 countries in the Americas between 2000 and 2019, with a focus on inequalities between countries in the burden of homicides. Methods. An ecological study was performed using estimated deaths from 33 countries. Age-adjusted rates, percentage change (PC), average annual percentage change (AAPC), and relative risk (RR) were estimated; besides, analysis on social inequalities was performed. Results. In the Americas between 2000 and 2019, homicide has been the leading cause of death with 54 515 deaths on average each year and an age-adjusted rate of 23.6 per 100 000 among young people. The highest rate was found in the Andean subregion (41.1 per 100 000 young people), which also produced the highest decrease (PC = –37.1% and AAPC = –2.4%) in the study period. The risk of homicide in young men is 8.1 times the risk in young women, and the risk in young adults is 2.5 times the risk in adolescents. The three countries with highest risk of homicide for young people are Venezuela (relative risk [RR] = 35.1), El Salvador (RR = 28.1), and Colombia (RR = 26.7). The estimated excess mortality was 26.8 homicides per 100 000 in the poorest 20% of countries compared to the richest 20% of countries in the period 2000–2009, and it decreased to 13.9 in the period 2010–2019. Conclusions. The results of this study add to the knowledge of homicide among young people and can be used to inform policy and programming in countries. Given the great burden of homicide on young people in the region, it is critical that prevention opportunities are maximized, beginning early in life.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Examinar las tendencias de los homicidios entre la población joven (10-24 años), los adolescentes (10-19 años) y los adultos jóvenes (20-24 años) en 33 países de las Américas entre el 2000 y el 2019, con particular atención a las desigualdades entre los países en materia de cifras de homicidios. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio ecológico utilizando las muertes estimadas de 33 países. Se estimaron las tasas ajustadas en función de la edad, el cambio porcentual (CP), el cambio porcentual anual promedio (CPAP) y el riesgo relativo (RR). Además, se realizó un análisis sobre las desigualdades sociales. Resultados. Entre el 2000 y el 2019, el homicidio ha sido la principal causa de muerte en las Américas, con un promedio anual de 54 515 muertes y una tasa ajustada en función de la edad de 23,6 por cada 100 000 habitantes en la población joven. La tasa más alta se observó en la subregión andina (41,1 por cada 100 000 habitantes para la población joven), en la cual también se observó la mayor disminución (CP = -37,1% y CPAP = -2,4%) en el período de estudio. El riesgo de homicidio entre los hombres jóvenes es 8,1 veces mayor que entre las mujeres jóvenes, y el riesgo entre los adultos jóvenes es 2,5 veces mayor que el riesgo en adolescentes. Los tres países con mayor riesgo de homicidio para los jóvenes son Venezuela (riesgo relativo [RR] = 35,1), El Salvador (RR = 28,1) y Colombia (RR = 26,7). El exceso de mortalidad estimado fue de 26,8 homicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en el 20% de los países más pobres, en comparación con el 20% de los países más ricos, durante el período 2000-2009, y disminuyó a 13,9 durante el período 2010-2019. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio se suman a los conocimientos sobre el homicidio entre la población joven, y pueden utilizarse para fundamentar las políticas y los programas de los países. Dada la enorme carga de homicidios que sufre la población joven de la región, es fundamental impulsar al máximo las oportunidades de prevención desde las primeras etapas de la vida.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Examinar as tendências de homicídios entre pessoas jovens (10 a 24 anos), adolescentes (10 a 19 anos) e adultas jovens (20 a 24 anos) em 33 países das Américas entre 2000 e 2019, com foco em desigual- dades da carga de homicídios entre países. Métodos. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico usando estimativas de óbitos de 33 países. Foram estimadas taxas ajustadas por idade, variação percentual (VP), variação percentual anual média (VPAM) e risco relativo (RR); além disso, foi realizada uma análise das desigualdades sociais. Resultados. Entre 2000 e 2019, o homicídio foi a principal causa de morte nas Américas, com uma média de 54.515 óbitos por ano e uma taxa ajustada por idade de 23,6 por 100 mil pessoas entre pessoas jovens. A taxa mais alta foi encontrada na sub-região andina (41,1 por 100 mil jovens), que também registrou a redução mais acentuada (VP = -37,1% e VPAM = -2,4%) no período do estudo. O risco de homicídio entre homens jovens é 8,1 vezes maior que o risco em mulheres jovens, e o risco entre pessoas adultas jovens é 2,5 vezes maior que o risco em adolescentes. Os três países com maior risco de homicídio entre pessoas jovens são Venezuela (RR = 35,1), El Salvador (RR = 28,1) e Colômbia (RR = 26,7). Nos países, o excesso de mortalidade estimado foi de 26,8 homicídios por 100 mil habitantes nos 20% mais pobres comparados aos 20% mais ricos no período de 2000 a 2009. Esse número diminuiu para 13,9 no período de 2010 a 2019. Conclusões. Os resultados deste estudo se somam às informações sobre homicídios entre jovens e podem ser usados para embasar políticas e programas nacionais. Dado o grande ônus que os homicídios represen- tam para as pessoas jovens da região, é fundamental que as oportunidades de prevenção sejam maximizadas desde cedo em suas vidas.


Subject(s)
Homicide , Mortality Registries , Socioeconomic Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Americas , Homicide , Mortality Registries , Socioeconomic Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Americas , Homicide , Mortality Registries , Socioeconomic Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Americas
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 121, 2023 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37381010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The enduring threat of maternal mortality to health worldwide and in the Americas has been recognized in the global and regional agendas and their targets to 2030. To inform the direction and amount of effort needed to meet those targets, a set of equity-sensitive regional scenarios of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) reduction based on its tempo or speed of change from baseline year 2015 was developed. METHODS: Regional scenarios by 2030 were defined according to: i) the MMR average annual rate of reduction (AARR) needed to meet the global (70 per 100,000) or regional (30 per 100,000) targets and, ii) the horizontal (proportional) or vertical (progressive) equity criterion applied to the cross-country AARR distribution (i.e., same speed to all countries or faster for those with higher baseline MMR). MMR average and inequality gaps -absolute (AIG), and relative (RIG)- were scenario outcomes. RESULTS: At baseline, MMR was 59.2 per 100,000; AIG was 313.4 per 100,000 and RIG was 19.0 between countries with baseline MMR over twice the global target and those below the regional target. The AARR needed to meet the global and regional targets were -7.60% and -4.54%, respectively; baseline AARR was -1.55%. In the regional MMR target attainment scenario, applying horizontal equity would decrease AIG to 158.7 per 100,000 and RIG will remain invariant; applying vertical equity would decrease AIG to 130.9 per 100,000 and RIG would decrease to 13.5 by 2030. CONCLUSION: The dual challenge of reducing maternal mortality and abating its inequalities will demand hefty efforts from countries of the Americas. This remains true to their collective 2030 MMR target while leaving no one behind. These efforts should be mainly directed towards significantly speeding up the tempo of the MMR reduction and applying sensible progressivity, targeting on groups and territories with higher MMR and greater social vulnerabilities, especially in a post-pandemic regional context.


Subject(s)
Maternal Mortality , Humans , Americas/epidemiology , Female
10.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 7(6): 392-404, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37208093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Latin America and the Caribbean present the second highest adolescent fertility rate in the world, only after sub-Saharan Africa, and have reached the third position globally in the incidence of motherhood in adolescence. We aimed to explore trends and inequities in adolescent childbearing in the region. METHODS: We used nationally representative household surveys from Latin American and Caribbean countries to address trends in early childbearing (proportion of women having their first livebirth before age 18 years) over generations and in adolescent fertility rates (AFRs; livebirths per 1000 women aged 15-19 years) over time. For early childbearing, we analysed the most recent survey conducted since 2010 from 21 countries (2010-20); for AFR, we analysed nine countries with two or more surveys, with the most recent being conducted from 2010 onwards. For both indicators, variance-weighted least-square regression was used to estimate the average absolute changes (AACs) at the national level and by wealth (bottom 40% vs top 60%), urban versus rural residence, and ethnicity. FINDINGS: Among 21 countries studied, we noted a decrease in early childbearing along generations in 13 of them, with declines varying from -0·6 percentage points (95% CI -1·1 to -0·1) in Haiti to -2·7 percentage points (-4·0 to -1·4) in Saint Lucia. We observed increases over generations in Colombia (1·2 percentage points [0·8 to 1·5]) and Mexico (1·3 percentage points [0·5 to 2·0]) and no changes in Bolivia and Honduras. The fastest early childbearing decline occurred among rural women, whereas no clear pattern was observed for wealth groups. Decreasing estimates from oldest to youngest generations were found among Afro-descendants and non-Afro-descendant and non-indigenous groups, but results were mixed for indigenous people. All nine countries with data for AFR presented reductions over time (-0·7 to -6·5 births per 1000 women per year), with the steepest declines observed in Ecuador, Guyana, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic. In general, adolescents in rural areas and the poorest adolescents had the largest reductions in AFR. If current trends persist, by 2030 most countries will present AFR values ranging between 45 and 89 births per 1000 women, with notable wealth-related inequalities. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate a reduction in AFR in Latin American and Caribbean countries that was not necessarily accompanied by a decrease in early childbearing overall. Large inequalities both between countries and within countries were observed, with no clear reduction over time. Understanding trends in adolescent childbearing and its determinants is essential for planning and designing programmes to ensure the desired reductions in rates and gaps across population subgroups. FUNDING: PAHO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Wellcome Trust. TRANSLATIONS: For the Spanish and Portuguese translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Rural Population , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Latin America/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37047871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Violent deaths (i.e., those due to road traffic injury, homicide, and suicide) are among the most important causes of premature and preventable mortality in young people. This study aimed at exploring inequalities in violent death across income levels between males and females aged 10 to 24 years from the Americas in 2015, the SDG baseline year. METHODS: In a cross-sectional ecological study design, eleven standard summary measures of health inequality were calculated separately for males and females and for each cause of violent death, using age-adjusted mortality rates and average income per capita for 17 countries, which accounted for 87.9% of the target population. RESULTS: Premature mortality due to road traffic injury and homicide showed a pro-poor inequality pattern, whereas premature mortality due to suicide showed a pro-rich inequality pattern. These inequalities were statistically significant (p < 0.001), particularly concentrated among young males, and dominated by homicide. The ample array of summary measures of health inequality tended to generate convergent results. CONCLUSIONS: Significant inequalities in violent death among young people seems to be in place across countries of the Americas, and they seem to be socially determined by both income and gender. These findings shed light on the epidemiology of violent death in young people and can inform priorities for regional public health action. However, further investigation is needed to confirm inequality patterns and to explore underlying mechanisms, age- and sex-specific vulnerabilities, and gender-based drivers of such inequalities.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Suicide , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Homicide , Americas/epidemiology , Cause of Death
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e108, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To examine the homicide trends among young people (10-24 years), adolescents (10-19 years), and young adults (20-24 years) in 33 countries in the Americas between 2000 and 2019, with a focus on inequalities between countries in the burden of homicides. Methods. An ecological study was performed using estimated deaths from 33 countries. Age-adjusted rates, percentage change (PC), average annual percentage change (AAPC), and relative risk (RR) were estimated; besides, analysis on social inequalities was performed. Results. In the Americas between 2000 and 2019, homicide has been the leading cause of death with 54 515 deaths on average each year and an age-adjusted rate of 23.6 per 100 000 among young people. The highest rate was found in the Andean subregion (41.1 per 100 000 young people), which also produced the highest decrease (PC = -37.1% and AAPC = -2.4%) in the study period. The risk of homicide in young men is 8.1 times the risk in young women, and the risk in young adults is 2.5 times the risk in adolescents. The three countries with highest risk of homicide for young people are Venezuela (relative risk [RR] = 35.1), El Salvador (RR = 28.1), and Colombia (RR = 26.7). The estimated excess mortality was 26.8 homicides per 100 000 in the poorest 20% of countries compared to the richest 20% of countries in the period 2000-2009, and it decreased to 13.9 in the period 2010-2019. Conclusions. The results of this study add to the knowledge of homicide among young people and can be used to inform policy and programming in countries. Given the great burden of homicide on young people in the region, it is critical that prevention opportunities are maximized, beginning early in life.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Examinar las tendencias de los homicidios entre la población joven (10-24 años), los adolescentes (10-19 años) y los adultos jóvenes (20-24 años) en 33 países de las Américas entre el 2000 y el 2019, con particular atención a las desigualdades entre los países en materia de cifras de homicidios. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio ecológico utilizando las muertes estimadas de 33 países. Se estimaron las tasas ajustadas en función de la edad, el cambio porcentual (CP), el cambio porcentual anual promedio (CPAP) y el riesgo relativo (RR). Además, se realizó un análisis sobre las desigualdades sociales. Resultados. Entre el 2000 y el 2019, el homicidio ha sido la principal causa de muerte en las Américas, con un promedio anual de 54 515 muertes y una tasa ajustada en función de la edad de 23,6 por cada 100 000 habitantes en la población joven. La tasa más alta se observó en la subregión andina (41,1 por cada 100 000 habitantes para la población joven), en la cual también se observó la mayor disminución (CP = -37,1% y CPAP = -2,4%) en el período de estudio. El riesgo de homicidio entre los hombres jóvenes es 8,1 veces mayor que entre las mujeres jóvenes, y el riesgo entre los adultos jóvenes es 2,5 veces mayor que el riesgo en adolescentes. Los tres países con mayor riesgo de homicidio para los jóvenes son Venezuela (riesgo relativo [RR] = 35,1), El Salvador (RR = 28,1) y Colombia (RR = 26,7). El exceso de mortalidad estimado fue de 26,8 homicidios por cada 100 000 habitantes en el 20% de los países más pobres, en comparación con el 20% de los países más ricos, durante el período 2000-2009, y disminuyó a 13,9 durante el período 2010-2019. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio se suman a los conocimientos sobre el homicidio entre la población joven, y pueden utilizarse para fundamentar las políticas y los programas de los países. Dada la enorme carga de homicidios que sufre la población joven de la región, es fundamental impulsar al máximo las oportunidades de prevención desde las primeras etapas de la vida.


RESUMO Objetivo. Examinar as tendências de homicídios entre pessoas jovens (10 a 24 anos), adolescentes (10 a 19 anos) e adultas jovens (20 a 24 anos) em 33 países das Américas entre 2000 e 2019, com foco em desigualdades da carga de homicídios entre países. Métodos. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico usando estimativas de óbitos de 33 países. Foram estimadas taxas ajustadas por idade, variação percentual (VP), variação percentual anual média (VPAM) e risco relativo (RR); além disso, foi realizada uma análise das desigualdades sociais. Resultados. Entre 2000 e 2019, o homicídio foi a principal causa de morte nas Américas, com uma média de 54.515 óbitos por ano e uma taxa ajustada por idade de 23,6 por 100 mil pessoas entre pessoas jovens. A taxa mais alta foi encontrada na sub-região andina (41,1 por 100 mil jovens), que também registrou a redução mais acentuada (VP = -37,1% e VPAM = -2,4%) no período do estudo. O risco de homicídio entre homens jovens é 8,1 vezes maior que o risco em mulheres jovens, e o risco entre pessoas adultas jovens é 2,5 vezes maior que o risco em adolescentes. Os três países com maior risco de homicídio entre pessoas jovens são Venezuela (RR = 35,1), El Salvador (RR = 28,1) e Colômbia (RR = 26,7). Nos países, o excesso de mortalidade estimado foi de 26,8 homicídios por 100 mil habitantes nos 20% mais pobres comparados aos 20% mais ricos no período de 2000 a 2009. Esse número diminuiu para 13,9 no período de 2010 a 2019. Conclusões. Os resultados deste estudo se somam às informações sobre homicídios entre jovens e podem ser usados para embasar políticas e programas nacionais. Dado o grande ônus que os homicídios representam para as pessoas jovens da região, é fundamental que as oportunidades de prevenção sejam maximizadas desde cedo em suas vidas.

13.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e201, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382245

ABSTRACT

Every Woman Every Child Latin America and the Caribbean (EWEC-LAC) was established in 2017 as a regional inter-agency mechanism. EWEC-LAC coordinates the regional implementation of the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including adaptation to region specific needs, to end preventable deaths, ensure health and well-being and expand enabling environments for the health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. To advance the equitable achievement of these objectives, EWEC-LAC's three working groups collectively support LAC countries in measuring and monitoring social inequalities in health, advocating for their reduction, and designing and implementing equity-oriented strategies, policies and interventions. This support for data-driven advocacy, capacity building, and policy and program solutions toward closing current gaps ensures that no one is left behind. Members of EWEC-LAC include PAHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN WOMEN, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, USAID, LAC Regional Neonatal Alliance, and the LAC Regional Task Force for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality. To date, EWEC-LAC has developed and collected innovative tools and resources and begun to engage with countries to utilize them to reduce equity gaps. These resources include a framework for the measurement of social inequalities in health, data use and advocacy tools including a data dashboard to visualize trends in social inequalities in health in LAC countries, a methodology for setting targets for the reduction of inequalities, and a compendium of tools, instruments and methods to identify and address social inequalities in health. EWEC-LAC has also engaged regionally to emphasize the importance of recognizing these inequalities at social and political levels, and advocated for the reduction of these gaps. Attention to closing health equity gaps is ever more critical in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic which has exploited existing vulnerabilities. More equitable health systems will be better prepared to confront future health shocks.


A iniciativa "Todas as mulheres, todas as crianças da América Latina e Caribe" (EWEC-LAC, na sigla em inglês) foi criada em 2017 como um mecanismo interinstitucional regional. Coordena a implementação regional da Estratégia Mundial para a Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente 2016-2030 na América Latina e Caribe (ALC), incluindo sua adaptação a necessidades específicas da região, para acabar com as mortes evitáveis, garantir a saúde e o bem-estar e expandir ambientes propícios para a saúde e o bem-estar de mulheres, crianças e adolescentes. Para promover o alcance equitativo desses objetivos, os três grupos de trabalho da EWEC-LAC apoiam coletivamente os países da ALC com a medição e o monitoramento das desigualdades sociais de saúde, a promoção de sua redução, e o delineamento e a implementação de estratégias, políticas e intervenções voltadas para a equidade. Esse apoio para fechar as lacunas atuais assegura que ninguém seja deixado para trás. Os membros da iniciativa EWEC-LAC incluem UNFPA, OPAS, ONU Mulheres, UNAIDS, UNICEF, Banco Mundial, Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, USAID, Aliança Neonatal Regional para ALC e Grupo de Trabalho Regional para a Redução da Mortalidade Materna. Até o momento, a EWEC-LAC desenvolveu e compilou ferramentas e recursos inovadores e começou a colaborar com os países para utilizá-los a fim de reduzir as lacunas de equidade. Isso inclui uma estrutura de medição das desigualdades sociais de saúde, ferramentas de promoção de dados (como um painel de dados para visualizar tendências nas desigualdades sociais de saúde), uma metodologia para estabelecer metas para reduzir as desigualdades e um compêndio de ferramentas e métodos para identificar e abordar as desigualdades sociais de saúde. A EWEC-LAC trabalhou na região para enfatizar a importância de reconhecer essas desigualdades nos níveis social e político, e defendeu sua redução. A atenção para o fechamento das lacunas de equidade na saúde é cada vez mais crítica frente à pandemia de COVID-19, que exacerbou as vulnerabilidades existentes. Sistemas de saúde mais equitativos estarão mais bem preparados para lidar com futuras crises de saúde.

14.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 15: 100345, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405302

ABSTRACT

Background: Afrodescendants are systematically affected by discrimination in the Americas and few multi-country studies addressed ethnic inequalities in health and wellbeing in the region. We aimed to investigate gaps in coverage of key health outcomes and socioeconomic inequalities between Afrodescendants and non-Afrodescendants populations in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Methods: Using national household surveys (2011-2019) from ten countries, we analyzed absolute inequalities between Afrodescendants and a comparison group that includes non-Afrodescendants and non-Indigenous individuals (henceforth non-Afrodescendants) across 17 indicators in the continuum of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health. These include indicators of family planning, antenatal care, delivery assistance, child nutrition, immunization coverage, child protection, access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene, adolescent fertility, and early childhood mortality. Inequalities between country-specific subgroups of Afrodescendants were also explored. The slope index of inequality was used to assess wealth-based inequalities within each ethnic group. Findings: Afrodescendants represented from 2·8% (Honduras) to 59·1% (Brazil) of the national samples. Of the 128 combinations of country and indicators with data, Afrodescendants fared worse in 78 (of which 33 were significant) and performed better in 50 (15 significant). More systematic disadvantages for Afrodescendants were found for demand for family planning satisfied, early marriage, and household handwashing and sanitation facilities. In contrast, Afrodescendants tended to present lower c-section rates and lower stunting prevalence. Honduras was the only country where Afrodescendants performed better than non-Afrodescendants in several indicators. Wealth gaps among Afrodescendants were wider than those observed for non-Afrodescendants for most indicators and across all countries. Interpretation: Gaps in health outcomes between Afrodescendants and non-Afrodescendants were observed in most countries, with more frequent disadvantages for the former although, in many cases, the gaps were reversed. Wealth inequalities within Afrodescendants tended to be wider than for non-Afrodescendants. Funding: Pan American Health Organization, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust.

15.
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56628

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN]. La iniciativa Todas las Mujeres Todos los Niños América Latina y el Caribe (EWEC-LAC, por su sigla en inglés) se estableció en el 2017 como un mecanismo interinstitucional regional. Coordina la implementación regional de la Estrategia Mundial para la Salud de la Mujer, el Niño y el Adolescente 2016-2030 en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), lo que incluye su adaptación a necesidades específicas de la Región, para poner fin a las muertes evitables, garantizar la salud y el bienestar, y ampliar los entornos propicios para la salud y el bienestar de mujeres, niños y adolescentes. Para promover el logro equitativo de estos objetivos, los tres grupos de trabajo de EWEC-LAC apoyan colectivamente a los países de ALC en la medición y el monitoreo de las desigualdades sociales en la salud, la promoción de la disminución de estas y el diseño e implementación de estrategias, políticas e intervenciones orientadas a la equidad. Este apoyo para cerrar las brechas actuales asegura que nadie se quede atrás. Los miembros de la iniciativa EWEC-LAC incluyen al UNFPA, la OPS, ONU-Mujeres, ONUSIDA, UNICEF, el Banco Mundial, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, USAID, la Alianza Regional Neonatal para ALC y el Grupo de Trabajo Regional para la Reducción de la Mortalidad Materna. A la fecha, EWEC-LAC ha desarrollado y recopilado herramientas y recursos innovadores, y ha comenzado a colaborar con los países para utilizarlos a fin de reducir las brechas en la equidad. Estos incluyen un marco de medición de las desigualdades sociales en la salud, herramientas de promoción de datos, como un tablero de datos para visualizar tendencias en las desigualdades sociales en la salud, una metodología para establecer metas en la disminución de las desigualdades, y un compendio de herramientas y métodos para identificar y abordar las desigualdades sociales en la salud. EWEC-LAC ha trabajado en la Región para enfatizar la importancia de reconocer estas desigualdades a los niveles sociales y políticos, y ha abogado por su disminución. La atención para cerrar las brechas de equidad en la salud es cada vez más crítica frente a la pandemia de COVID-19, que ha agudizado las vulnerabilidades existentes. Los sistemas de salud más equitativos estarán mejor preparados para hacer frente a futuras crisis de salud.


[ABSTRACT]. Every Woman Every Child Latin America and the Caribbean (EWEC-LAC) was established in 2017 as a regio- nal inter-agency mechanism. EWEC-LAC coordinates the regional implementation of the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including adapta- tion to region specific needs, to end preventable deaths, ensure health and well-being and expand enabling environments for the health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. To advance the equitable achievement of these objectives, EWEC-LAC’s three working groups collectively support LAC countries in measuring and monitoring social inequalities in health, advocating for their reduction, and designing and implementing equity-oriented strategies, policies and interventions. This support for data-driven advocacy, capacity building, and policy and program solutions toward closing current gaps ensures that no one is left behind. Members of EWEC-LAC include PAHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN WOMEN, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, USAID, LAC Regional Neonatal Alliance, and the LAC Regional Task Force for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality. To date, EWEC-LAC has developed and collected innovative tools and resources and begun to engage with countries to utilize them to reduce equity gaps. These resources include a framework for the measurement of social inequalities in health, data use and advocacy tools including a data dashboard to visualize trends in social inequalities in health in LAC countries, a methodology for setting targets for the reduction of inequalities, and a compendium of tools, instruments and methods to identify and address social inequalities in health. EWEC-LAC has also engaged regionally to emphasize the importance of recogni- zing these inequalities at social and political levels, and advocated for the reduction of these gaps. Attention to closing health equity gaps is ever more critical in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic which has exploited existing vulnerabilities. More equitable health systems will be better prepared to confront future health shocks.


[RESUMO]. A iniciativa “Todas as mulheres, todas as crianças da América Latina e Caribe” (EWEC-LAC, na sigla em inglês) foi criada em 2017 como um mecanismo interinstitucional regional. Coordena a implementação regio- nal da Estratégia Mundial para a Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente 2016-2030 na América Latina e Caribe (ALC), incluindo sua adaptação a necessidades específicas da região, para acabar com as mortes evitáveis, garantir a saúde e o bem-estar e expandir ambientes propícios para a saúde e o bem-estar de mulheres, crianças e adolescentes. Para promover o alcance equitativo desses objetivos, os três grupos de trabalho da EWEC-LAC apoiam coletivamente os países da ALC com a medição e o monitoramento das desigualdades sociais de saúde, a promoção de sua redução, e o delineamento e a implementação de estra- tégias, políticas e intervenções voltadas para a equidade. Esse apoio para fechar as lacunas atuais assegura que ninguém seja deixado para trás. Os membros da iniciativa EWEC-LAC incluem UNFPA, OPAS, ONU Mulheres, UNAIDS, UNICEF, Banco Mundial, Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, USAID, Aliança Neonatal Regional para ALC e Grupo de Trabalho Regional para a Redução da Mortalidade Materna. Até o momento, a EWEC-LAC desenvolveu e compilou ferramentas e recursos inovadores e começou a colaborar com os países para utilizá-los a fim de reduzir as lacunas de equidade. Isso inclui uma estrutura de medição das desigualdades sociais de saúde, ferramentas de promoção de dados (como um painel de dados para visualizar tendências nas desigualdades sociais de saúde), uma metodologia para estabelecer metas para reduzir as desigualdades e um compêndio de ferramentas e métodos para identificar e abordar as des- igualdades sociais de saúde. A EWEC-LAC trabalhou na região para enfatizar a importância de reconhecer essas desigualdades nos níveis social e político, e defendeu sua redução. A atenção para o fechamento das lacunas de equidade na saúde é cada vez mais crítica frente à pandemia de COVID-19, que exacerbou as vulnerabilidades existentes. Sistemas de saúde mais equitativos estarão mais bem preparados para lidar com futuras crises de saúde.


Subject(s)
Comprehensive Health Care , Health Inequality Monitoring , Sustainable Development , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Comprehensive Health Care , Health Inequality Monitoring , Sustainable Development , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Comprehensive Health Care , Health Inequality Monitoring , Sustainable Development , Caribbean Region , COVID-19
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e100, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016836

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries have made important progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to health (SDG3) at the national level. However, vast within-country health inequalities remain. We present a baseline of health inequalities in the region, against which progress towards the SDGs can be monitored. Setting: We studied 21 countries in LAC using data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey carried out from 2011 to 2016. Participants: The surveys collect nationally representative data on women and children using multistage sampling. In total, 288 207 women and 195 092 children made part of the surveys in the 21 countries. Outcome measures: Five health intervention indicators were studied, related to reproductive and maternal health, along with adolescent fertility and neonatal and under-five mortality rates. Inequalities in these indicators were assessed through absolute and relative measures. Results: In most countries, subnational geographical health gradients were observed for nearly all women, child, and adolescent (WCA) indicators. Coverage of key interventions was higher in urban areas and among the richest, compared with rural areas and poorer quintiles. Analyses by woman's age showed that coverage was lower in adolescent girls than older women for family planning indicators. Pro-urban and pro-rich inequalities were also seen for mortality in most countries. Conclusions: Regional averages hide important health inequalities between countries, but national estimates hide still greater inequalities between subgroups of women, children and adolescents. To achieve the SDG3 targets and leave no one behind, it is essential to close health inequality gaps within as well as between countries.


Objetivos: Os países da América Latina e do Caribe obtiveram avanços significativos rumo à consecução do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável relacionado à saúde (ODS 3) no nível nacional. No entanto, enormes desigualdades em saúde persistem nos países. Apresenta-se uma linha de base das desigualdades em saúde na região, com referência à qual é possível monitorar o progresso rumo aos ODS. Contexto: Foram estudados 21 países da América Latina e do Caribe usando dados de pesquisas de demografia e saúde e pesquisas de grupos de indicadores múltiplos feitas de 2011 a 2016. Participantes: As pesquisas coletam dados nacionalmente representativos sobre mulheres e crianças, por meio de amostragem multietápica. No total, 288.207 mulheres e 195.092 crianças participaram das pesquisas nos 21 países. Medição dos resultados: Foram estudados cinco indicadores de intervenções de saúde relacionadas à saúde reprodutiva e materna, à fertilidade das adolescentes e às taxas de mortalidade neonatal e de menores de cinco anos. As desigualdades nesses indicadores foram então avaliadas, empregando medidas absolutas e relativas. Resultados: Gradientes geográficos de saúde nos níveis subnacionais foram observados na maioria dos países para quase todos os indicadores referentes às mulheres e à população infantil e adolescente. A cobertura das principais intervenções foi maior nas áreas urbanas e nos quintis mais ricos do que nas áreas rurais e nos quintis mais pobres. As análises por idade das mulheres mostraram que a cobertura das adolescentes era inferior à cobertura das mulheres adultas no que se refere aos indicadores de planejamento familiar. Além disso, foram observadas desigualdades na mortalidade que favoreciam as áreas urbanas e os ricos, na maioria dos países. Conclusões: As médias regionais mascaram desigualdades significativas na saúde entre os países, mas as estimativas nacionais mascaram desigualdades ainda maiores entre os subgrupos de mulheres, crianças e adolescentes. Para alcançar as metas do ODS 3 e não deixar ninguém para trás, é essencial abordar não apenas as lacunas da desigualdade em saúde entre os países, mas também dentro deles.

17.
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56250

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Los países de América Latina y el Caribe han realizado importantes avances hacia la consecución de las metas del Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible relacionado con la salud (ODS 3) a escala nacional. Sin embargo, persisten enormes desigualdades en salud en los países. Se presenta una línea de base de las desigualdades en salud en la región, contra la cual se puede monitorear el progreso hacia los ODS. Contexto. Se estudiaron 21 países de América Latina y el Caribe usando datos de encuestas de demografía y salud y encuestas de indicadores múltiples por conglomerados realizadas del 2011 al 2016. Participantes. En las encuestas se recopilan datos representativos a nivel nacional de mujeres y niños por medio del muestreo polietápico. En total, 288 207 mujeres y 195 092 niños participaron en las encuestas en los 21 países. Medición de los resultados. Se estudiaron cinco indicadores de intervenciones de salud relacionadas con la salud reproductiva y materna, la fecundidad de las adolescentes y las tasas de mortalidad neonatal y de menores de 5 años. Después se evaluaron las desigualdades en estos indicadores por medio de mediciones absolutas y relativas. Resultados. En la mayoría de los países se observaron gradientes geográficos en salud a escala subnacional en casi todos los indicadores correspondientes a las mujeres y la población infantil y adolescente. La cobertura de las principales intervenciones fue mayor en las zonas urbanas y los quintiles más ricos que en las zonas rurales y los quintiles más pobres. Los análisis por edad de la mujer mostraron que la cobertura de las adolescentes era menor que la cobertura de las mujeres adultas en lo que se refiere a los indicadores de planificación familiar. En la mayoría de los países se observaron también desigualdades en la mortalidad que favorecían a las zonas urbanas y a los ricos. Conclusiones. Los promedios regionales ocultan importantes desigualdades en salud entre los países, pero las estimaciones nacionales ocultan desigualdades incluso mayores entre subgrupos de mujeres, niños y adolescentes. Para alcanzar las metas del ODS 3 y no dejar a nadie atrás es esencial subsanar no solo las brechas de la desigualdad en salud entre los países sino también dentro de ellos.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries have made important progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to health (SDG3) at the national level. However, vast within-country health inequalities remain. We present a baseline of health inequalities in the region, against which progress towards the SDGs can be monitored. Setting. We studied 21 countries in LAC using data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey carried out from 2011 to 2016. Participants. The surveys collect nationally representative data on women and children using multistage sampling. In total, 288 207 women and 195 092 children made part of the surveys in the 21 countries. Outcome measures. Five health intervention indicators were studied, related to reproductive and maternal health, along with adolescent fertility and neonatal and under-five mortality rates. Inequalities in these indicators were assessed through absolute and relative measures. Results. In most countries, subnational geographical health gradients were observed for nearly all women, child, and adolescent (WCA) indicators. Coverage of key interventions was higher in urban areas and among the richest, compared with rural areas and poorer quintiles. Analyses by woman’s age showed that coverage was lower in adolescent girls than older women for family planning indicators. Pro-urban and pro-rich inequalities were also seen for mortality in most countries. Conclusions. Regional averages hide important health inequalities between countries, but national estimates hide still greater inequalities between subgroups of women, children and adolescents. To achieve the SDG3 targets and leave no one behind, it is essential to close health inequality gaps within as well as between countries.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Os países da América Latina e do Caribe obtiveram avanços significativos rumo à consecução do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável relacionado à saúde (ODS 3) no nível nacional. No entanto, enormes desigualdades em saúde persistem nos países. Apresenta-se uma linha de base das desigualdades em saúde na região, com referência à qual é possível monitorar o progresso rumo aos ODS. Contexto. Foram estudados 21 países da América Latina e do Caribe usando dados de pesquisas de demografia e saúde e pesquisas de grupos de indicadores múltiplos feitas de 2011 a 2016. Participantes. As pesquisas coletam dados nacionalmente representativos sobre mulheres e crianças, por meio de amostragem multietápica. No total, 288.207 mulheres e 195.092 crianças participaram das pesquisas nos 21 países. Medição dos resultados. Foram estudados cinco indicadores de intervenções de saúde relacionadas à saúde reprodutiva e materna, à fertilidade das adolescentes e às taxas de mortalidade neonatal e de menores de cinco anos. As desigualdades nesses indicadores foram então avaliadas, empregando medidas absolutas e relativas. Resultados. Gradientes geográficos de saúde nos níveis subnacionais foram observados na maioria dos países para quase todos os indicadores referentes às mulheres e à população infantil e adolescente. A cobertura das principais intervenções foi maior nas áreas urbanas e nos quintis mais ricos do que nas áreas rurais e nos quintis mais pobres. As análises por idade das mulheres mostraram que a cobertura das adolescentes era inferior à cobertura das mulheres adultas no que se refere aos indicadores de planejamento familiar. Além disso, foram observadas desigualdades na mortalidade que favoreciam as áreas urbanas e os ricos, na maioria dos países. Conclusões. As médias regionais mascaram desigualdades significativas na saúde entre os países, mas as estimativas nacionais mascaram desigualdades ainda maiores entre os subgrupos de mulheres, crianças e adolescentes. Para alcançar as metas do ODS 3 e não deixar ninguém para trás, é essencial abordar não apenas as lacunas da desigualdade em saúde entre os países, mas também dentro deles.


Subject(s)
Sustainable Development , Health Inequality Indicators , Women , Child , Adolescent , Americas , Sustainable Development , Health Inequality Indicators , Women , Child , Adolescent , Americas , Sustainable Development , Health Inequality Indicators , Women , Child , Americas
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 83, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701816

ABSTRACT

The Every Woman Every Child Latin America and the Caribbean (EWEC-LAC) initiative was established in 2017 as a regional inter-agency mechanism. EWEC-LAC coordinates the regional implementation of the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including adaptation to region specific needs, to end preventable deaths, ensure health and well-being and expand enabling environments for the health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. To advance the equitable achievement of these objectives, EWEC-LAC's three working groups collectively support LAC countries in measuring and monitoring social inequalities in health, advocating for their reduction, and designing and implementing equity-oriented strategies, policies and interventions. This support for data-driven advocacy, capacity building, and policy and program solutions toward closing current gaps ensures that no one is left behind. Members of EWEC-LAC include PAHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN WOMEN, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, USAID, LAC Regional Neonatal Alliance, and the LAC Regional Task Force for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality. To date, EWEC-LAC has developed and collected innovative tools and resources and begun to engage with countries to utilize them to reduce equity gaps. These resources include a framework for the measurement of social inequalities in health, data use and advocacy tools including a data dashboard to visualize trends in social inequalities in health in LAC countries, a methodology for setting targets for the reduction of inequalities, and a compendium of tools, instruments and methods to identify and address social inequalities in health. EWEC-LAC has also engaged regionally to emphasize the importance of recognizing these inequalities at social and political levels, and advocated for the reduction of these gaps. Attention to closing health equity gaps is ever more critical in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic which has exploited existing vulnerabilities. More equitable health systems will be better prepared to confront future health shocks.


RESUMEN: La iniciativa Todas las mujeres, Todos los niños América Latina y el Caribe (EWEC-LAC, por su sigla en inglés) se estableció en 2017 como un mecanismo interinstitucional regional. Coordina la implementación regional de la Estrategia Mundial para la Salud de la Mujer, el Niño y el Adolescente en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), incluyendo la adaptación a necesidades específicas de la región, para poner fin a muertes evitables, garantizar la salud y el bienestar y ampliar entornos propicios para la salud y el bienestar de mujeres, niños, niñas y adolescentes. Para promover el logro equitativo de estos objetivos, los tres grupos de trabajo de EWEC-LAC colectivamente apoyan a los países de ALC en la medición y monitoreo de las desigualdades sociales en salud, la abogacía por la disminución de estas y el diseño e implementación de estrategias, políticas e intervenciones orientadas a la equidad. Este apoyo para cerrar brechas actuales asegura que nadie se quede atrás. Miembros de EWEC-LAC incluyen FPNU, OPS, ONU Mujeres, ONUSIDA, UNICEF, el Banco Mundial, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, USAID, la Alianza Regional Neonatal para ALC, y el Grupo de Trabajo Regional para la Reducción de la Mortalidad Materna. A la fecha, EWEC-LAC ha desarrollado y recopilado herramientas y recursos innovadores y ha comenzado a colaborar con los países para utilizarlos a fin de reducir brechas de equidad. Estos incluyen un marco de medición de desigualdades sociales en salud, herramientas de promoción de datos incluyendo un tablero de datos para visualizar tendencias en desigualdades sociales en salud, una metodología para establecer metas en la disminución de las desigualdades y un compendio de herramientas y métodos para identificar y abordar las desigualdades sociales en salud. EWEC-LAC ha trabajado en la región para enfatizar la importancia de reconocer estas desigualdades a niveles sociales y políticos, y ha abogado por la disminución de éstas. La atención para cerrar las brechas de equidad en salud es cada vez más crítica frente a la pandemia de COVID-19, que ha agudizado las vulnerabilidades existentes. Sistemas de salud más equitativos estarán mejor preparados para hacer frente a futuras crisis de salud.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Caribbean Region , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Latin America , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 46: e100, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432063

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Los países de América Latina y el Caribe han realizado importantes avances hacia la consecución de las metas del Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible relacionado con la salud (ODS 3) a escala nacional. Sin embargo, persisten enormes desigualdades en salud en los países. Se presenta una línea de base de las desigualdades en salud en la región, contra la cual se puede monitorear el progreso hacia los ODS. Contexto. Se estudiaron 21 países de América Latina y el Caribe usando datos de encuestas de demografía y salud y encuestas de indicadores múltiples por conglomerados realizadas del 2011 al 2016. Participantes. En las encuestas se recopilan datos representativos a nivel nacional de mujeres y niños por medio del muestreo polietápico. En total, 288 207 mujeres y 195 092 niños participaron en las encuestas en los 21 países. Medición de los resultados. Se estudiaron cinco indicadores de intervenciones de salud relacionadas con la salud reproductiva y materna, la fecundidad de las adolescentes y las tasas de mortalidad neonatal y de menores de 5 años. Después se evaluaron las desigualdades en estos indicadores por medio de mediciones absolutas y relativas. Resultados. En la mayoría de los países se observaron gradientes geográficos en salud a escala subnacional en casi todos los indicadores correspondientes a las mujeres y la población infantil y adolescente. La cobertura de las principales intervenciones fue mayor en las zonas urbanas y los quintiles más ricos que en las zonas rurales y los quintiles más pobres. Los análisis por edad de la mujer mostraron que la cobertura de las adolescentes era menor que la cobertura de las mujeres adultas en lo que se refiere a los indicadores de planificación familiar. En la mayoría de los países se observaron también desigualdades en la mortalidad que favorecían a las zonas urbanas y a los ricos. Conclusiones. Los promedios regionales ocultan importantes desigualdades en salud entre los países, pero las estimaciones nacionales ocultan desigualdades incluso mayores entre subgrupos de mujeres, niños y adolescentes. Para alcanzar las metas del ODS 3 y no dejar a nadie atrás es esencial subsanar no solo las brechas de la desigualdad en salud entre los países sino también dentro de ellos.


ABSTRACT Objectives. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries have made important progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to health (SDG3) at the national level. However, vast within-country health inequalities remain. We present a baseline of health inequalities in the region, against which progress towards the SDGs can be monitored. Setting. We studied 21 countries in LAC using data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey carried out from 2011 to 2016. Participants. The surveys collect nationally representative data on women and children using multistage sampling. In total, 288 207 women and 195 092 children made part of the surveys in the 21 countries. Outcome measures. Five health intervention indicators were studied, related to reproductive and maternal health, along with adolescent fertility and neonatal and under-five mortality rates. Inequalities in these indicators were assessed through absolute and relative measures. Results. In most countries, subnational geographical health gradients were observed for nearly all women, child, and adolescent (WCA) indicators. Coverage of key interventions was higher in urban areas and among the richest, compared with rural areas and poorer quintiles. Analyses by woman's age showed that coverage was lower in adolescent girls than older women for family planning indicators. Pro-urban and pro-rich inequalities were also seen for mortality in most countries. Conclusions. Regional averages hide important health inequalities between countries, but national estimates hide still greater inequalities between subgroups of women, children and adolescents. To achieve the SDG3 targets and leave no one behind, it is essential to close health inequality gaps within as well as between countries.


RESUMO Objetivos. Os países da América Latina e do Caribe obtiveram avanços significativos rumo à consecução do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável relacionado à saúde (ODS 3) no nível nacional. No entanto, enormes desigualdades em saúde persistem nos países. Apresenta-se uma linha de base das desigualdades em saúde na região, com referência à qual é possível monitorar o progresso rumo aos ODS. Contexto. Foram estudados 21 países da América Latina e do Caribe usando dados de pesquisas de demografia e saúde e pesquisas de grupos de indicadores múltiplos feitas de 2011 a 2016. Participantes. As pesquisas coletam dados nacionalmente representativos sobre mulheres e crianças, por meio de amostragem multietápica. No total, 288.207 mulheres e 195.092 crianças participaram das pesquisas nos 21 países. Medição dos resultados. Foram estudados cinco indicadores de intervenções de saúde relacionadas à saúde reprodutiva e materna, à fertilidade das adolescentes e às taxas de mortalidade neonatal e de menores de cinco anos. As desigualdades nesses indicadores foram então avaliadas, empregando medidas absolutas e relativas. Resultados. Gradientes geográficos de saúde nos níveis subnacionais foram observados na maioria dos países para quase todos os indicadores referentes às mulheres e à população infantil e adolescente. A cobertura das principais intervenções foi maior nas áreas urbanas e nos quintis mais ricos do que nas áreas rurais e nos quintis mais pobres. As análises por idade das mulheres mostraram que a cobertura das adolescentes era inferior à cobertura das mulheres adultas no que se refere aos indicadores de planejamento familiar. Além disso, foram observadas desigualdades na mortalidade que favoreciam as áreas urbanas e os ricos, na maioria dos países. Conclusões. As médias regionais mascaram desigualdades significativas na saúde entre os países, mas as estimativas nacionais mascaram desigualdades ainda maiores entre os subgrupos de mulheres, crianças e adolescentes. Para alcançar as metas do ODS 3 e não deixar ninguém para trás, é essencial abordar não apenas as lacunas da desigualdade em saúde entre os países, mas também dentro deles.

20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 46: e201, 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450181

ABSTRACT

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT Every Woman Every Child Latin America and the Caribbean (EWEC-LAC) was established in 2017 as a regional inter-agency mechanism. EWEC-LAC coordinates the regional implementation of the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including adaptation to region specific needs, to end preventable deaths, ensure health and well-being and expand enabling environments for the health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. To advance the equitable achievement of these objectives, EWEC-LAC's three working groups collectively support LAC countries in measuring and monitoring social inequalities in health, advocating for their reduction, and designing and implementing equity-oriented strategies, policies and interventions. This support for data-driven advocacy, capacity building, and policy and program solutions toward closing current gaps ensures that no one is left behind. Members of EWEC-LAC include PAHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN WOMEN, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, USAID, LAC Regional Neonatal Alliance, and the LAC Regional Task Force for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality. To date, EWEC-LAC has developed and collected innovative tools and resources and begun to engage with countries to utilize them to reduce equity gaps. These resources include a framework for the measurement of social inequalities in health, data use and advocacy tools including a data dashboard to visualize trends in social inequalities in health in LAC countries, a methodology for setting targets for the reduction of inequalities, and a compendium of tools, instruments and methods to identify and address social inequalities in health. EWEC-LAC has also engaged regionally to emphasize the importance of recognizing these inequalities at social and political levels, and advocated for the reduction of these gaps. Attention to closing health equity gaps is ever more critical in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic which has exploited existing vulnerabilities. More equitable health systems will be better prepared to confront future health shocks.


RESUMO A iniciativa "Todas as mulheres, todas as crianças da América Latina e Caribe" (EWEC-LAC, na sigla em inglês) foi criada em 2017 como um mecanismo interinstitucional regional. Coordena a implementação regional da Estratégia Mundial para a Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente 2016-2030 na América Latina e Caribe (ALC), incluindo sua adaptação a necessidades específicas da região, para acabar com as mortes evitáveis, garantir a saúde e o bem-estar e expandir ambientes propícios para a saúde e o bem-estar de mulheres, crianças e adolescentes. Para promover o alcance equitativo desses objetivos, os três grupos de trabalho da EWEC-LAC apoiam coletivamente os países da ALC com a medição e o monitoramento das desigualdades sociais de saúde, a promoção de sua redução, e o delineamento e a implementação de estratégias, políticas e intervenções voltadas para a equidade. Esse apoio para fechar as lacunas atuais assegura que ninguém seja deixado para trás. Os membros da iniciativa EWEC-LAC incluem UNFPA, OPAS, ONU Mulheres, UNAIDS, UNICEF, Banco Mundial, Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, USAID, Aliança Neonatal Regional para ALC e Grupo de Trabalho Regional para a Redução da Mortalidade Materna. Até o momento, a EWEC-LAC desenvolveu e compilou ferramentas e recursos inovadores e começou a colaborar com os países para utilizá-los a fim de reduzir as lacunas de equidade. Isso inclui uma estrutura de medição das desigualdades sociais de saúde, ferramentas de promoção de dados (como um painel de dados para visualizar tendências nas desigualdades sociais de saúde), uma metodologia para estabelecer metas para reduzir as desigualdades e um compêndio de ferramentas e métodos para identificar e abordar as desigualdades sociais de saúde. A EWEC-LAC trabalhou na região para enfatizar a importância de reconhecer essas desigualdades nos níveis social e político, e defendeu sua redução. A atenção para o fechamento das lacunas de equidade na saúde é cada vez mais crítica frente à pandemia de COVID-19, que exacerbou as vulnerabilidades existentes. Sistemas de saúde mais equitativos estarão mais bem preparados para lidar com futuras crises de saúde.

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