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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 20(1): 10, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130904

ABSTRACT

The translation of research findings into clinical practice is challenging, especially fields like in pediatric rheumatology, where the evidence base is limited, there are few clinical trials, and the conditions are rare and heterogeneous. Implementation science methodologies have been shown to reduce the research- to- practice gap in other clinical settings may have similar utility in pediatric rheumatology. This paper describes the key discussion points from the inaugural Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Implementation Science retreat held in February 2020. The aim of this report is to synthesize those findings into an Implementation Science Roadmap for pediatric rheumatology research. This roadmap is based on three foundational principles: fostering curiosity and ensuring discovery, integration of research and quality improvement, and patient-centeredness. We include six key steps anchored in the principles of implementation science. Applying this roadmap will enable researchers to evaluate the full range of research activities, from the initial clinical design and evidence acquisition to the application of those findings in pediatric rheumatology clinics and direct patient care.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Biomedical Research , Implementation Science , Pediatrics , Rheumatology , Humans
2.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 48(1): 331-342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798956

ABSTRACT

Implementation science is the study of processes that promote reliable uptake of evidence-based practices into clinical care. The integration of implementation science and health disparities research approaches has been proposed as a method to reduce health inequity through detection, understanding, and implementation of health equity-focused interventions. In this review, we provide an argument for the study of implementation science in pediatric rheumatology in light of previously observed health disparities, present a framework for the study of health equity and implementation science in pediatric rheumatology, and propose next steps to accelerate action.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Rheumatology , Child , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Implementation Science , Research Design
3.
Lancet ; 398(10315): 1984-1996, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. This trial assessed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib versus placebo in patients with polyarticular course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: This double-blind, withdrawal phase 3 trial enrolled patients with polyarticular course JIA (extended oligoarthritis, rheumatoid factor-positive or rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis, or systemic JIA without active systemic features) aged 2 years to younger than 18 years, and was done at 64 centres of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation and Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group networks in 14 countries. Patients with psoriatic arthritis or enthesitis-related arthritis were enrolled for exploratory endpoints. During part 1 of the study, patients received oral open-label tofacitinib (weight-based doses; 5 mg twice daily or lower) for 18 weeks. Patients achieving at least JIA/American College of Rheumatology 30 response were randomly assigned (1:1) using an Interactive Response Technology system to continue tofacitinib or switch to placebo in part 2 of the study for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint was JIA flare rate by week 44 in part 2 in patients with polyarticular course JIA; the intention-to-treat principle was applied. Safety was evaluated throughout part 1 and part 2 of the study in all patients who received one dose or more of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02592434. FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2016, and May 16, 2019, of 225 patients enrolled, 184 (82%) patients had polyarticular course JIA, 20 (9%) had psoriatic arthritis, and 21 (9%) had enthesitis-related arthritis. 147 (65%) of 225 patients received concomitant methotrexate. In part 2, 142 patients with polyarticular course JIA were assigned to tofacitinib (n=72) or placebo (n=70). Flare rate by week 44 was significantly lower with tofacitinib (21 [29%] of 72 patients) than with placebo (37 [53%] of 70 patients; hazard ratio 0·46, 95% CI 0·27-0·79; p=0·0031). In part 2 of the study, adverse events occurred in 68 (77%) of 88 patients receiving tofacitinib and 63 (74%) of 85 in the placebo group. Serious adverse events occurred in one (1%) and two (2%), respectively. In the entire tofacitinib exposure period, 107 (48%) of 225 patients had infections or infestations. There were no deaths during this study. INTERPRETATION: The results of this pivotal trial show that tofacitinib is an effective treatment in patients with polyarticular course JIA. New oral therapies are particularly relevant for children and adolescents, who might prefer to avoid injections. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Treatment Outcome
4.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 642460, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748049

ABSTRACT

Healthcare providers were rapidly forced to modify the way they practiced medicine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Many providers transitioned from seeing their patients in person to virtually using telemedicine platforms with limited training and experience using this medium. In pediatric rheumatology, this was further complicated as musculoskeletal exams typically require hands-on assessment of patients. The objective of this study was to examine the adoption of telemedicine into pediatric rheumatology practices, to assess its benefits and challenges, and to gather opinions on its continued use. A survey was sent to the lead representatives of each Pediatric Rheumatology Care and Outcomes Improvement Network (PR-COIN) site to collect data about their center's experience with telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Responses were received from the majority [19/21 (90%)] of PR-COIN sites. All respondents reported transitioning from in-person to primarily virtual patient visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. All centers reported seeing both new consultations and follow-up patients over telemedicine. Most centers reported using both audio and video conferencing systems to conduct their telemedicine visits. The majority of respondents [13/19 (68%)] indicated that at least 50% of their site's providers consistently used pediatric Gait Arms Legs and Spine (pGALS) to perform active joint count assessments over telemedicine. Over half of the centers [11/19 (58%)] reported collecting patient-reported outcomes (PROs), but the rate of reliably documenting clinical components varied. A few sites [7/19 (37%)] reported performing research-related activity during telemedicine visits. All centers thought that telemedicine visits were able to meet providers' needs and support their continued use when the pandemic ends. Benefits reported with telemedicine visits included convenience and continuity of care for families. Conversely, challenges included limited ability to perform physical exams and varying access to technology. Pediatric rheumatology providers were able to transition to conducting virtual visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare providers recognize how telemedicine can enhance their practice, but challenges need to be overcome in order to ensure equitable, sustainable delivery of quality and patient-centered care.

6.
J Rheumatol ; 45(5): 690-696, 2018 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence is currently an underrecognized and potentially modifiable obstacle to care in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The purpose of our study was to design and implement a standardized approach to identifying adherence barriers for youth with JIA across 7 pediatric rheumatology clinics through the Pediatric Rheumatology Care and Outcomes Improvement Network (PR-COIN) and to assess the frequency of adherence barriers in patients and their caregivers across treatment modalities. METHODS: An iterative process using coproduction among parents and providers of patients with JIA was used to design the Barriers Assessment Tool to screen for adherence barriers across 4 treatment modalities (i.e., oral medications, injectable medications, infusions, and physical/occupational therapy). This tool was implemented in 7 rheumatology clinics across the United States and patient responses were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Data were collected from 578 parents and 99 patients (n = 44 parent-child dyads). Seventy-seven percent (n = 444) of caregivers and 70% (n = 69) of patients reported at least 1 adherence barrier across all treatment components. The most commonly reported adherence barriers included worry about future consequences of therapy, pain, forgetting, side effects, and embarrassment related to the therapy. There was no significant difference between endorsement of barriers between parents and adolescents. CONCLUSION: Implementing a standardized tool assessing adherence barriers in the JIA population across multiple clinical settings is feasible. Systematic screening sheds light on the factors that make adherence difficult in JIA and identifies targets for future adherence interventions in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/psychology , Arthritis, Juvenile/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 70(8): 1228-1237, 2018 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized treatment regimens for chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), also known as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), to enable comparative effectiveness treatment studies. METHODS: Virtual and face-to-face discussions and meetings were held within the CNO/CRMO subgroup of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA). A literature search was conducted, and CARRA membership was surveyed to evaluate available treatment data and identify current treatment practices. Nominal group technique was used to achieve consensus on treatment plans for CNO refractory to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) monotherapy and/or with active spinal lesions. RESULTS: Three consensus treatment plans (CTPs) were developed for the first 12 months of therapy for CNO patients refractory to NSAID monotherapy and/or with active spinal lesions. The 3 CTPs are methotrexate or sulfasalazine, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors with optional methotrexate, and bisphosphonates. Short courses of glucocorticoids and continuation of NSAIDs are permitted for all regimens. Consensus was achieved on these CTPs among CARRA members. Consensus was also reached on subject eligibility criteria, initial evaluations that should be conducted prior to the initiation of CTPs, and data items to collect to assess treatment response. CONCLUSION: Three consensus treatment plans were developed for pediatric patients with CNO refractory to NSAIDs and/or with active spinal lesions. Use of these CTPs will provide additional information on efficacy and will generate meaningful data for comparative effectiveness research in CNO.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Patient Care Planning/standards , Spinal Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Child , Consensus , Female , Humans , Male , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retreatment/methods , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Spinal Diseases/diagnosis , Treatment Failure
8.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 15(1): 48, 2017 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28583183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of patient decision aids to facilitate shared decision making in clinical situations with multiple medically reasonable options for treatment. However, little is known about how best to implement these tools into routine clinical practice. In addition, reliable implementation of decision aids has been elusive and spread within pediatrics has been slow. We sought to develop and reliably implement a decision aid for treatment of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. METHODS: To design our decision aid, we partnered with patient, parent, and clinician stakeholders from the Pediatric Rheumatology Care and Outcomes Improvement Network. Six sites volunteered to use quality improvement methods to implement the decision aid. Four of these sites collected parent surveys following visits to assess outcomes. Parents reported on clinician use of the decision aid and the amount of shared decision making and uncertainty they experienced. We used chi-square tests to compare eligible visits with and without use of the decision aid on the experience of shared decision making and uncertainty. RESULTS: After 18 rounds of testing and revision, stakeholders approved the decision aid design for regular use. Qualitative feedback from end-users was positive. During the implementation project, the decision aid was used in 35% of visits where starting or switching medication was discussed. Clinicians used the decision aid as intended in 68% of these visits. The vast majority of parents reported high levels of shared decision making following visits with (64/76 = 84%) and without (80/95 = 84%) use of the decision aid (p = 1). Similarly, the vast majority of parents reported no uncertainty following visits with (74/76 = 97%) and without (91/95 = 96%) use of the decision aid (p = 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Although user acceptability of the decision aid was high, reliable implementation in routine clinical care proved challenging. Our parsimonious approach to outcome assessment failed to detect a difference between visits with and without use of our aid. Innovative approaches are needed to facilitate use of decision aids and the assessment of outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Decision Support Techniques , Medication Therapy Management , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Arthritis, Juvenile/psychology , Canada , Decision Making , Decision Making, Computer-Assisted , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Needs Assessment , Parents/psychology , Pediatrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Rheumatology/methods , United States
11.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 10(1): 30, 2012 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22931129

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab (TCZ) is the first FDA- approved treatment for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). We report 3 cases of cytopenias in children with sJIA treated with TCZ. Two of the children who developed significant cytopenias shortly after initiation of TCZ had a history of macrophage activation syndrome. We raise the possibility that patients with a tendency towards MAS have an increased risk of developing cytopenias when treated with tocilizumab.

13.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 8: 11, 2010 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20398286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No consensus evidence-based guidelines for the routine laboratory monitoring of children with JIA receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exist. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of routine laboratory monitoring of hemoglobin, transaminases, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and urinalysis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) receiving NSAIDs. METHODS: The medical records of 91 children with JIA followed between 1996 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed for laboratory results and clinically significant adverse effects attributed to NSAID use. Laboratory abnormalities were documented, with potential adverse clinical sequelae, including if NSAID use was discontinued. RESULTS: Abnormal laboratory results were recorded for 24 of 91 patients. Nearly all abnormalities were mild and not associated with adverse clinical sequelae. All patients but one continued to receive NSAID therapy after the abnormality was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Although detection of abnormal laboratory values occurred while on NSAIDs, these abnormalities did not correlate with adverse clinical signs and symptoms. The routine monitoring of laboratory tests in asymptomatic children treated with NSAIDs is of questionable utility.

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