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1.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(9): 1103-1109, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589302

ABSTRACT

Chewing exercises have been applied in clinical settings to improve the occlusal force and function of the masseter muscle in elderly individuals. However, the clinical relevance and effects of chewing exercises are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of bilateral chewing exercises on the occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness in community-dwelling Koreans aged 65 years. Forty community-dwelling healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study. They were assigned to the experimental or the control group. The experimental group performed chewing exercises using medical equipment developed to facilitate such exercises. The chewing exercises were divided into isometric and isotonic types and were performed for 20 min/d, 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. The control group did not perform any chewing exercises. The outcome measures were occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness, which were evaluated using an occlusometer and ultrasound device, respectively. A paired t test and an independent t test were used to evaluate the training effects. Within-group comparisons showed that occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness improved significantly in the experimental group (P < .001 for both), while the control group showed no significant improvements (P = .098 and .130). Between-group comparisons showed that the experimental group had a greater increase in occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness (P < .05 for both) compared to the control group. These results suggest that chewing exercises are effective in improving occlusal force and masseter muscle thickness in healthy elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Bite Force , Exercise Therapy , Masseter Muscle , Mastication , Aged , Electromyography , Humans , Independent Living , Republic of Korea
2.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(5): 606-612, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Game-based training has been shown to improve behavioural motor learning in various medical fields including rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tablet PC (personal computer) game-based tongue training on tongue strength, thickness and compliance in healthy adults. METHODS: This study recruited 30 healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 15/group). Group 1 performed game-based tongue training, and group 2 performed tongue resistance training using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Both groups performed the same tongue exercises as follows: frequency (isotonic = 30 times × 3, isometric = 20 seconds × 3), intensity (70% of 1-repeated maximum contraction) and intervention period (5 days for 6 weeks). The primary outcomes were tongue muscle strength and thickness. Secondary outcomes were assessed using a 0-to-10 numerical rating self-report scale that included motivation, interest/fun, physical effort and muscle fatigue/pain. RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvement in tongue strength and thickness, but there were no significant differences between the groups after the intervention. The self-report scale numerical rating revealed that group 1 had significantly higher motivation and interest/fun after the exercise than group 2. Group 1 had expended a significantly lower physical effort than group 2. No significant differences were noted between the 2 groups for muscle fatigue/pain. CONCLUSION: This study showed that both exercises had similar effects on tongue strength and thickness increase in healthy adults, but game-based tongue training was more fun and physically less demanding.


Subject(s)
Resistance Training , Tongue , Adult , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Microcomputers , Muscle Strength
3.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 33(3): 507-513, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The resistive jaw opening exercise (RJOE) was suggested as a potential remedial treatment for patients with dysphagia. However, clinical evidence is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of RJOE on hyoid bone movement, aspiration, and oral intake level in stroke patients with dysphagia. METHODS: Forty stroke patients with dysphagia were randomly allocated into either the experimental group (n= 20) or placebo group (n= 20). The experimental group performed RJOE using a portable device, while the placebo group performed RJOE using a sham device with fewer loads. Intervention was conducted 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Hyoid bone movement was analyzed by two-dimensional analysis of anterior and superior motion based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Aspiration was assessed using a penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and oral intake level was assessed using the functional oral intake scale (FOIS). RESULTS: Both groups showed statistically significant differences in hyoid movement, PAS, and FOIS scale (p< 0.05). However, after the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups except for the liquid type of PAS. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were 0.9 and 0.7, 0.6 and 0.6, and 1.1 for the anterior and superior movement of the hyoid bone, semisolid and liquid type of PAS, and FOIS scale respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that RJOE helps in hyoid movement, aspiration reduction, and oral intake in patients with dysphagia after stroke.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/methods , Hyoid Bone/physiopathology , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Movement , Treatment Outcome
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17880, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that not only causes knee pain in older adults, but also has an adverse effect on walking. Therefore, intervention for older patients with OA is important. To investigate the immediate effects of kinesiology taping (KT) on the pain and gait function of the older adults with knee OA. METHODS: This study enrolled 10 older adults individuals living in the community who were diagnosed with knee OA. All participants were assessed for knee pain, walking ability, and balance before and after application of knee KT. Knee pain was assessed in resting and walking conditions using the visual analog scale. Walking and balance were assessed using a 10-m walking test and a timed up and go test. RESULTS: In the present study, KT significantly improved gait and balance with reduction in knee pain during walking than non-KT (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that knee KT has a positive effect on pain reduction and walking and balance ability of the older adults with OA. Therefore, this study suggests that KT can be used as an intervention to relieve knee pain and aid walking and balance ability in the older adult.


Subject(s)
Athletic Tape , Gait/physiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Aged , Controlled Before-After Studies , Exercise Test/methods , Humans , Middle Aged , Postural Balance/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Visual Analog Scale
5.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(3): 479-484, 2019 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effortful swallowing training (EST) is a remedial method for the training of swallowing-related muscles in the oropharyngeal phase. However, clinical evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. AIMS: To investigate the effects of EST on tongue strength and swallowing function in patients with stroke. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Stroke patients with dysphagia were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an experimental group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 12). The experimental group underwent EST, while the control group performed saliva swallowing. Training was conducted 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent conventional dysphagia treatment for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Tongue strength was assessed using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. The Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS), based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, was used to analyze oropharyngeal swallowing function. The experimental group showed greater improvements in anterior and posterior tongue strength compared with the control group (p = 0.046 and 0.042, respectively), and greater improvement in the oral phases of the VDS (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: We recommend EST as a remedial strategy for improving tongue strength and oral swallowing function in patients with stroke.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Deglutition/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/complications , Tongue/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Strength/physiology , Oropharynx/physiopathology , Pharyngeal Muscles/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 29(1): 38-42, 2017 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28210035

ABSTRACT

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine what changes occur in brain waves when patients with stroke receive mirror therapy intervention. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 14 patients with stroke (6 females and 8 males). The subjects were assessed by measuring the alpha and beta waves of the EEG (QEEG-32 system CANS 3000). The mirror therapy intervention was delivered over the course of four weeks (a total of 20 sessions). [Results] Relative alpha power showed statistically significant differences in the F3, F4, O1, and O2 channels in the situation comparison and higher for hand observation than for mirror observation. Relative beta power showed statistically significant differences in the F3, F4, C3, and C4 channels. [Conclusion] This study analyzed activity of the brain in each area when patients with stroke observed movements reflected in a mirror, and future research on diverse tasks and stimuli to heighten activity of the brain should be carried out.

7.
Nutr Res ; 34(9): 814-20, 2014 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25238912

ABSTRACT

Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Cholesterol/blood , Diet , Juglans , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Nuts , Pinus , Adult , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Endothelium, Vascular , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Republic of Korea
8.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 26(8): 1223-4, 2014 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25202185

ABSTRACT

[Purpose] This study compared the effects of three exercises performed in a prone position on the selective activation of the lumbar erector spinae (LES) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles in healthy males to investigate the effective method for selective activation of the LM. [Subjects] Twenty-two healthy males were recruited. Surface EMG data were collected from the right LES and LM muscles during three exercises: 1) trunk extension, 2) hip extension, and 3) the arm lift. [Results] The ratio of LM to LES EMG activity during hip extension was higher than those during trunk extension and the arm lift. [Conclusion] Hip extension in a prone position may be effective for selective activation of the lumbar multifidus muscles in healthy males.

9.
Food Chem ; 141(4): 3566-70, 2013 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23993522

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to validate the analytical method for simultaneous determination of chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and selenium (Se) in infant formulas available in South Korea. Various digestion methods of dry-ashing, wet-digestion and microwave were evaluated for samples preparation and both inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were compared for analysis. The analytical techniques were validated by detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments. Results showed that wet-digestion and microwave methods were giving satisfactory results for sample preparation, while ICP-MS was found more sensitive and effective technique than ICP-OES. The recovery (%) of Se, Mo and Cr by ICP-OES were 40.9, 109.4 and 0, compared to 99.1, 98.7 and 98.4, respectively by ICP-MS. The contents of Cr, Mo and Se in infant formulas by ICP-MS were found in good nutritional values in accordance to nutrient standards for infant formulas CODEX values.


Subject(s)
Chromium/analysis , Infant Formula/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molybdenum/analysis , Selenium/analysis , Limit of Detection , Republic of Korea
10.
J Food Sci ; 77(10): C1042-6, 2012 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22978379

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED: In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol/analysis , Food Analysis/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Emulsions/analysis , Flame Ionization/methods , Humans , Hydroxides , Infant , Infant Food/analysis , Infant Formula/chemistry , Methanol/analysis , Potassium Compounds
11.
Food Chem ; 135(4): 2411-7, 2012 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22980821

ABSTRACT

In this study, a rapid and easy sample preparation method that involved no-heating saponification and dSPE (dispersive solid phase extraction) clean-up was developed to determine the level of cholesterol in milk containing emulsified foods (infant formula, baby food, cheese). The developed method utilised high performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD) as a separation instrument. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as 10 mL isopropyl alcohol with 8.0 g (NH(4))(2)SO(4) per 1g sample, and saponification was achieved using 25mg KOH, 1.6g NaCl and 100mg of a silica based NH(2). Cholesterol levels determined using CRMs (NIST SRM 1849 and 1544) were in the range of the certificated value and the recovery test using spiked materials ranged from 94.34% to 102.34% with a RSD of 0.63-4.10%. This method enables the accurate determination of cholesterol with reduced sample preparation time.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Infant Food/analysis , Infant Formula/chemistry , Milk/chemistry , Solid Phase Extraction/methods , Animals , Cattle , Chromatography, Liquid
12.
J Food Sci ; 75(7): C647-52, 2010 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21535532

ABSTRACT

Since a high intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) has been associated with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, food regulation worldwide has been amended with respect to nutrition labeling and health claims on TFA. In the present study, the TFA levels of Korean food products were investigated to assess the regulation effect of TFA labeling. Same Korean food products within 7 different categories were purchased in years 2005 and 2008, and the contents of TFA and lipid and fatty acid composition were investigated. Lipid and TFA contents decreased in all food products manufactured in 2008. TFA levels were 0.01 to 6.88 g/100 g food in 2005, but the levels remarkably decreased to nondetectable level or up to 0.5 g TFA/100 g food in 2008. The foods from 2005 contained a various level of TFA ranging 0.6% to 44.6% of total fatty acids; however, the TFA level significantly decreased in most foods up to 3.8% from year 2008. For TFAs, trans C18:1 levels were greater than trans isomers of C18:2, and the levels in 2005 were significantly reduced in 2008 (P < 0.05). TFA levels at the sn-2 position were up to 48.3% of total fatty acids in 2005, but the level considerably decreased up to 5.4% in 2008. The considerably decreased content of TFA in 2008 suggested that food manufacturers recognized the adverse effect of TFA on human health and followed the compulsory trans fat labeling rule by Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA), which started December 2007.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Food Labeling/legislation & jurisprudence , Legislation, Food , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coffee/chemistry , Fast Foods/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Isomerism , Republic of Korea , Triglycerides/chemistry
13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 23(12): 1259-65, 2009 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19475544

ABSTRACT

The safety of dietary supplements is questionable as there have been occasional reports of products contaminated with illegal adulterants. The present study was carried out to develop trustworthy methodologies to screen for six anti-diabetic drugs (phenformin, rosiglitazone, glipizide, glimepiride, glybenclamide and gliclazide) and six anti-obesity drugs (ephedrine, fenfluramine, T3, T4, fluoxetine and sibutramine) in dietary supplements. A simultaneous determination method of the 12 drugs by liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array (LC/PDA) was established and was validated for linearity (r(2) > 0.99), precision (RSD <13.3%), recoveries (88.8-115.9%) and reproducibility. Sibutramine and its analogs, N-desmethylsibutramine, were subject to further investigation by LC/MS/MS because they were one of the major illegal adulterants. Our proposed method to monitor illegal drug adulterations in dietary supplements using LC/PDA is a simple and reliable, and therefore applicable to routine drug-adulteration screening.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Cyclobutanes/chemistry , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
14.
Med Law ; 25(4): 685-97, 2006 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17263035

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of changes in the legal systems related to traditional Korean medicine (TKM) and their effect on health care in Korea. To cope with the many changes and challenges in the Korean health care system, health law has been used as an instrument to implement national health policies and support the developments of health systems. In particular, the Medical Service Act, amended in 1951, was the key factor for the coexistence of TKM and Western medicine in Korea. For systematizing the TKM, the roles of the National Health Insurance Act and the Medical Service Act were crucial. Considering Korea's experiences, health laws related to TKM were designed to regulate the health care system and have contributed to improve the quality and safety of TKM.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Medicine, Traditional/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Korea
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