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1.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(1): 179-194, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360487

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presente investigación analiza la prevalencia de burnout y los factores de riesgo asociados a nivel demográfico, laboral, apoyo social percibido, ansiedad y satisfacción laboral en el colectivo de trabajadores/as sociales en España. Se partió de la hipótesis que suponía que un mayor apoyo social percibido disminuye el burnout; que una mayor ansiedad estaría vinculada a aumentar su presencia; y que una mayor satisfacción laboral estaría vinculada a una menor incidencia de burnout. La muestra de estudio estuvo compuesta por un total de 252 trabajadores/as sociales, de los que el 88.5 % (n = 223) eran mujeres, y el 11.5 % (n = 29) eran hombres, de los Colegios Profesionales de Trabajo Social de Sevilla y Murcia. Se recogió información sobre variables demográficas, laborales, apoyo social percibido (mediante el Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire), síntomas de ansiedad (Generalized Anxiety Disorder), satisfacción laboral (Overall Job Satisfaction) y burnout.Maslach Burnout Inventory). La investigación demostró que, en función de la prevalencia de burnout, un 46.8 % (n = 118) mostraba un alto cansancio emocional; un 56.7 % (n = 143), una elevada despersonalización; y un 62.3 % (n = 157), baja realización personal. Determinadas variables se asocian, de manera estadísticamente significativa, a las diferentes dimensiones de burnout, específicamente: mayor edad, antigüedad laboral, ansiedad, menor apoyo social percibido y satisfacción laboral. Los presentes resultados ponen de manifiesto el grado de insatisfacción entre los trabajadores/as sociales de España, lo cual hace un llamamiento a otros investigadores/as a analizar los factores de protección que pueden amortiguar la aparición y los efectos negativos del burnout, y a llevar a cabo estrategias de prevención destinadas a reducir esta problemática global.


Abstract Burnout, defined with its most agreed upon definition, given in 1982 by Christina Maslach (Maslach Burnout Inventory), is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. Individuals suffering from burnout experience emotional exhaustion, depersonalization of clients, and reduced feelings of personal accomplishment. The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among social services institutions increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. In this senses, previous research conducted internationally has shown a high prevalence of burnout among Social Workers collective. The burnout in Social Work is related to three types of factors: individual (seniority, gender, training and qualification, personality attributes, etc.), organizational (role stress, uncertainty, work overload, lack of human resources, etc.), and contextual. However, it is not frequent to find studies that analyze this occupational health problem in Spain. Current research explores the prevalence of burnout (using the Maslach Burnout Inventory) and associated risk factors like the demographic, occupational, perceived social support (Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) and job satisfaction levels (Overall Job Satisfaction) among social workers in Spain. Higher perceived social support decreases; higher anxiety is linked to higher burnout, and higher job satisfaction is linked to lower burnout incidence. Participants: the study's sample was composed of a total of 252 subjects, of which 88.5 % (n = 223) were women, and 11.5 % (n = 29) were men, all social workers from the Professional Associations of Social Work of Seville and Murcia, with an average age of 40.7 years. The information was collected online via the Google Questionnaire application at the end of 2017. The questionnaire was divided into four different blocks: demographic (including age, sex, marital status and number of children) and labor (seniority, employment sector and employment context ) variables; perceived social support (Duke-UNC functional social support questionnaire); Generalized Anxiety disorder scale (GAD 7); Overall Job Satisfaction questionnaire; and burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), whose 22 questions measure emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization and personal fulfillment. Based on the prevalence of burnout, 46.8 % (n = 118) showed high emotional exhaustion, 56.7 % (n = 143) high depersonalization and 62.3 % (n = 157) low personal achievement. Likewise, after logistic regression analysis, it is observed how certain variables are statistically significantly associated with the different dimensions of burnout, specifically, emotional exhaustion was associated with older age (OR = 1.028; p = .038), work seniority (OR = 1.032; p = .038) and job satisfaction (OR = .978; p = .009). High depersonalization was positively associated with working in social services (OR = 1.726; p = .018), perceived social support (OR = .969; p = .026) and anxiety (OR = 1.213; p = .037). Finally, low personal achievement was statistically associated with perceived social support (OR = .969; p = .026) and anxiety (OR = 1.213; p = .037). Current results could be effective when carrying out prevention strategies aimed at reducing the problem of burnout among Social Work professionals in Spain. The socio-economic and political context of Spain characterized by austerity in recent years has negatively affected the public sector and social services through restrictions on access to rights, precarious working conditions for social workers, reduction of templates and work teams, elimination of public services and benefits, progressive privatization and reduction of budgets for social policies, increasing the workload of social workers in Spain. Current results show the degree of dissatisfaction among social workers in Spain, calling on other researchers to analyze the protective factors that can cushion the appearance and negative effects of burnout.

2.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753983

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are few studies that examine the factors associated with the different levels of health anxiety in medical students. The objective was to determine the factors associated with the levels of health anxiety in medical students in 2018. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out with 657 medical students from a private Peruvian university. Participants answered a questionnaire from which information was collected regarding levels of health anxiety (SHAI). For the analysis, linear regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted betas, and their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The mean health anxiety score was 14 ±â€¯6.7. An association between health anxiety and the year of study is reported, with the second year showing the highest scores. In addition, an association between health anxiety and smoking is highlighted, as there are higher levels in occasional smokers, as well as a weak inverse correlation with age. No association was found with sex, place of birth, or having a first-degree relative that is a doctor or health worker. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that age, year of studies and smoking are associated with health anxiety levels. More studies are required, especially of a longitudinal nature.

3.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 100(6): 359-366, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: (a) to evaluate and compare the psychological treatment needs of patients with cancer and non-cancer, who are going to undergo scheduled thoracic surgery, and (b) evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the screening tests of psychological treatment needs for cancer and non-cancer patients. METHOD: The need for psychological treatment was evaluated in a total of 169 patients prior to thoracic surgery, through a clinical interview. The screening tests used were: the physician's judgment (yes/no), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and, the single-item interview to assess depression "Do you feel depressed?" (DEPQ). RESULTS: The number of patients who needed psychological treatment in the total sample was 47 (27.81%), in non-cancer-patients: 22 (30.99%) and in cancer patients: 25 (25.51%). The participants with treatment needs were more often young women with primary education levels, with more fears and concerns regarding their disease. With respect to the screening tests, the HADS-T (cut-off point ≥13) obtained a sensitivity (SE) of 0.75 and Specificity (SP) of 0.81 in the total sample. In patients with cancer, the HADS total score (cut-off point ≥10) obtained an SE=0.84 and SP=0.80, and, in non-cancer patients, the HADS total score (cut-off point ≥13) showed an SE=0.59 and SP=0.84. The DEPQ and the physician's judgment did not achieve adequate levels of precision. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of patients have psychological treatment needs before performing thoracic surgery, which are similar for cancer and non-cancer patients. Preoperative detection of patients who need psychological intervention is feasible with a simple screening test: HADS, which achieves greater precision in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Educational Status , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Neoplasms/surgery , Psychosocial Intervention , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis
4.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 57(3): 168-173, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are multiple variables that influence fear of death, as well as attitudes towards it, including age, religiosity, emotional and cultural aspects. Due to the proximity to death, the study of attitudes and death-related anxiety and the variables that influence it in the elderly population is of great relevance. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of death anxiety, fear of death, attitudes towards death and associated emotional aspects (anxiety and depression) in older adults from 2different cultures, Western and Arab. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 91 people over 60 years old took part and were divided into 2groups, one of people born in Spain (n=46) and the other of people born in Egypt (n=45). In an individualised assessment, participants completed the DAS, PRAM and the anxiety and depression subscales of the SCL-90-R questionnaires. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between groups were observed in fear of death, acceptance and emotional aspects. Predictors of anxiety and fear of death were different for each group. CONCLUSION: The results show the importance of taking into account cultural, religious and emotional aspects in the evaluation of fear and attitudes towards death in the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Attitude to Death , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Egypt , Humans , Phobic Disorders , Spain
5.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 97(4): 198-204, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523466

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the perception of barriers in healthcare and the impact of intravitreal injections in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 108 patients with nAMD in treatment with intravitreal injections. The patients answered a questionnaire with 26 questions (score from 1 to 5) divided in three sections: 1) the disease and its treatment with injections, 2) healthcare barriers and 3) new technologies. RESULTS: The mean age was 80.4 ±â€¯7.0 years and visual acuity (VA) was 75.2 ±â€¯12.4 letters. The main barriers in healthcare were long waiting times (72%), followed by other comorbidities (10%). Some 63% of patients have to wait between 3 and 5 h to attend their clinical visit. Significant anxiety due to the injections (2.8 ±â€¯1.3) was observed, being present in 71% of the cases the day before. A great fear of blindness and losing independence was observed (4.4 ±â€¯0.9 and 4.3 ±â€¯1.1), with no differences in relation to VA, age or sex (p ≥ 0.135). Moreover, 28% of the patients reported that it was quite or very difficult for them to attend the clinical visit, with 69% of the total showing great interest in having a diagnostic device at home. CONCLUSION: The nAMD and its treatment represent a significant burden on patients, among whom there is a great fear of blindness and of losing their independence, the main barrier being the long waiting time for the clinical visit.


Subject(s)
Macular Degeneration , Ranibizumab , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blindness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity
6.
Rev Int Androl ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534414

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It is thought that both individuals are affected psychologically and sexually in couples experiencing abortion. In addition to the stress caused by infertility, sexual life may also be negatively affected in couples who experience psychogenic wear, such as abortion and curettage. The aim of this study is to evaluate male sexual functions in infertile couples with a history of abortion and male infertility component. METHODS: Five hundred forty-seven male patients' data were evaluated retrospectively. Group 1 was the included the males of the couples without abortion history and the rest with abortion history was group 2. In addition to demographic data, abortion history, libido level, presence of morning erection and intercourse frequency were evaluated. Hormone levels of all patients were evaluated. After that we created sub-group 1 and sub-group 2 from these groups, respectively, due to whether the patients fulfilled the international index of erectile function (IIEF), Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI). RESULTS: There were not any significant differences between the groups regarding psychiatric scale scores, hormone levels, libido, intercourse frequency and IIEF scores. Only orgasmic dysfunction was significant in the males of the couples with abortion history. CONCLUSION: Man is not affected from abortion process in which woman get involved. Men only have orgasmic dysfunction when there is one or more abortion history in couples.

7.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 32(3): 143-151, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on health professionals, in terms of work changes and mental health. METHOD: 1) Cross-sectional study and 2) longitudinal prospective study on health professionals who worked directly with patients affected by COVID-19 pandemic during the period between March-June 2020 in a tertiary hospital in Barcelona. Baseline (July-November 2020) and follow-up (November 2020-March 2021) data were collected. Data related to the job and toxic habits were collected with ad hoc questionnaires, and data related to perceived stress, post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: In the baseline group (cross-sectional study), 90 professionals participated, 76% nurses. More than a third were on sick leave or took drugs to manage stress. Half of smokers increased tobacco use, and one in 5 increased alcohol consumption. Habitual shift change is significantly associated with depression, professional profile with anxiety, and perceived stress with age. In the longitudinal prospective study, the follow-up group (n = 64) shows high levels of stress and anxiety, which are maintained or even significantly increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The structural changes that occurred in the hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had a strong impact on professionals, many of them presenting an increase in toxic habits, as well as impaired mental health that is maintained over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 57(3): 161-167, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the CRENCO project which was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic including intergenerational activities shared by students from primary and secondary education and users of two centers for older adults and a day hospital in Catalonia. The effectiveness was assessed in terms of well-being in older adults and on negative stereotypes about the elderly in primary and secondary students. METHODS: Three interventions were carried out in which 32 older persons (9 users of centers for older adults and 23 of a day hospital), 99 primary students and 56 secondary students participated. Participants answered a questionnaire before and after the interventions. Through multilevel linear models for repeated measures, changes in feelings of loneliness, social support, anxiety and depressive symptoms, self-reported health and health-related quality of life were evaluated in older people. In primary and secondary students, changes in age stereotypes were evaluated. RESULTS: Health-related quality of life and self-reported health improved statistically after the interventions in older persons. Users of the day hospital also reported an improvement in social support. Primary school students improved their age stereotypes; no statistically significant changes were detected in secondary students. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study contribute to underlining the importance of intergenerational programs such as the one proposed by CRENCO, capable of improving well-being and providing a more realistic vision of the older adults. Our results suggest that these programs should be implemented during childhood in order to prevent the proliferation of ageist stereotypes in later life stages.


Subject(s)
Ageism , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageism/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Students
9.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 34(2): 157-167, may 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-202771

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión resume las intervenciones farmacológicos y psicosociales que han sido llevadas a cabo en trastornos de ansiedad con un diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias y además proporciona recomendaciones clínicas respecto de cuáles elementos de intervención son útiles para hacer frente a los síntomas del uso de sustancias y los síntomas de ansiedad en pacientes con estas afecciones concurrentes. Se utilizó la mejor evidencia de ensayos controlados aleatorizados para evaluar las opciones de tratamiento. La fuerza de las recomendaciones se describió mediante el enfoque GRADE. Hay ensayos clínicos disponibles únicamente para el trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT) y para el trastorno de ansiedad. En cuanto al diagnóstico comórbido de trastorno por uso de sustancias, todos los estudios han incluido pacientes con consumo de alcohol, ninguno de ellos ha abordado el consumo de cocaína, cannabis o nicotina. Aunque algunos tratamientos han mostrado beneficios para los síntomas de ansiedad sin beneficios para el consumo de alcohol u otras sustancias, solo se han ensayado enfoques farmacológicos limitados (sertralina, desipramina, paroxetina, buspirona, naltrexona y disulfiram).(AU)


This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions that have been conducted in comorbid anxiety disorders and SUDs while also providing clinical recommendations about which intervention elements are helpful for addressing substance use versus anxiety symptoms in patients with these co-occurring conditions. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach. Clinical trials are only available for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for social anxiety. Concerning the comorbid substance use, all the studies have included patients with alcohol use, none of them have dealt with cocaine, cannabis or nicotine use. Although some treatments have shown benefit for anxiety symptoms without benefits for alcohol or other substance use, only limited pharmacological approaches have been assayed (sertraline, desipramine, paroxetine, buspirone, naltrexone and disulfiram).(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pharmacology , Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety Disorders
10.
An. psicol ; 38(2): 201-208, may.-sep. 2022. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-202881

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio transcultural fue analizar las diferencias en resiliencia, estrategias de regulación cognitiva de las emociones (CERS) y distress psicológico durante la pandemia del COVID-19 en Polonia y España. Método. Se realizó una encuesta online en una muestra de 1,182 adultos. Se llevó a cabo un análisis MANOVA para examinar las diferencias en las variables estudiadas entre estos países. Esto fue seguido de un análisis MANCOVA controlando el sexo y la edad. Se realizaron análisis de regresión lineal segmentados por país con el fin de identificar modelos predictivos de distrés psicológico. Resultados. La población polaca se caracterizó por niveles más altos de ansiedad, menos resiliencia y más uso de CERS desadaptativas durante el confinamiento. La población española sufrió más estrés pero utilizó CERS adaptativas y fue más resiliente. La edad y el sexo femenino aparecieron como factores de riesgo de malestar psicológico en España. Se encontró que los modelos de predicción de distrés psicológico fueron diferentes en ambos países: las CERS adaptativas fueron predictivas en España y la resiliencia fue predictiva en Polonia. Conclusiones. Este estudio podría guiar en iniciativas para la promoción del bienestar psicológico como vía para prevenir trastornos psicopatológicos durante la pandemia.(AU)


Background.The objective of this cross-cultural study was to ana-lyze the differences in resilience, cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS), as well as psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic between Poland and Spain. Method.An online survey was conducted on a sample of 1,182 adults. A MANOVA analysis was carried out to examine the differences in the studied variables between these countries. This was followed by MANCOVA analysis to control for gender and age. Linear re-gression analyses segmented by country were conducted in order to identi-fy psychological distress prediction models. Results.Polish population was characterized by higher levels of anxiety, less resilience and more maladap-tive CERS during the lockdown. Spanish population was more affected by stress but used more adaptable CERS and was more resilient. Age and fe-male gender appeared as risk factors of psychological distress in Spain. The psychological distress prediction models were found to be different be-tween both countries: adaptive CERS was predictive only in Spain, and re-silience was predictive only in Poland. Conclusions.This study could guide in initiatives for the promotion of psychological well-being as a way to pre-vent psychopathological disorders during the pandemic.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Health Sciences , Coronavirus , Stress, Psychological , Resilience, Psychological , Orientation , Adult , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Spain , Poland
11.
Ansiedad estrés ; 28(2): 81-90, may-aug. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-203072

ABSTRACT

Las estrategias de afrontamiento permiten regular la ansiedad experimentada durante situaciones evaluativas y continuar su resolución. El objetivo de este estudio fue construir una escala para medir el uso de estrategias que permiten afrontar la ansiedad durante un examen escrito, delimitadas a aquellas que permiten continuar resolviendo el examen. El instrumento construido fue aplicado a 184 personas (101 mujeres, 82 hombres y 1 persona no identificada con esas categorías (Medad = 17.27, DE = 0.70) y consideró las experiencias en el examen de admisión a una Universidad. Mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales Exploratorio se evidenció una estructura de tres factores que representaron las estrategias: aceptación, puesta en perspectiva y afrontamiento activo. Cada factor definió una subescala, las cuales presentaron evidencias de confiabilidad: consistencias internas aceptables y correlaciones test-retest positivas y significativas. Se aportaron evidencias de validez favorables mediante análisis de jueces, análisis de ecuaciones estructurales, diferencias según género y correlaciones parciales con ansiedad ante los exámenes. Se concluyó que la escala propuesta es apropiada para medir el afrontamiento de la ansiedad durante exámenes.


Coping strategies are a useful tool to regulate the anxiety experienced in evaluative situations.Based on that, the objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the use of strategies in order to cope anxiety during tests, delimiting those which allow to continue solving the test. The developed instrument was applied to 184 people (101 women, 82 men and 1 unidentified person with these categories (Mage = 17.27, SD = 0.70) and it considered the experiences in the admission test to a University. The Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling showed a three-factor structure, which represented the strategies: acceptance, putting into perspective and active coping. Each factor defined a subscale, which presented evidence of reliability: acceptable internal consistencies and significant test-retest correlations. Favorable evidence of validity was provided through the analysis of experts, structural equation analysis, gender differences, and partial correlations with test anxiety. It was concluded that the proposed scale is suitable to measure the coping with during tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Health Sciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Test Anxiety Scale , Stress, Psychological
12.
Ansiedad estrés ; 28(2): 108-114, may-aug. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-203075

ABSTRACT

La proporción de teletratamiento llevada a cabo por psicólogos durante la pandemia por COVID-19 para el TAG, fobia específica, agorafobia, ansiedad social, pánico, TOC y TEPT, así como si la experiencia en teleterapia tiene un efecto significativo en la demanda no han sido estudiadas. Los resultados indican que el TAG con un 69.2%, es el trastorno que más teletratamiento ha recibido y la fobia con un 60.5%, el que menos. El pánico, la ansiedad social, TEPT, TOC y agorafobia tuvieron una demanda media del 67.2%, 66.8%, 64.0%, 63.5% y 62.2%, respectivamente. La experiencia en teleterapia resultó significativa. El teletratamiento para psicólogos con experiencia aumentó una media del 93.9% respecto al 35.7% de aquellos sin experiencia. Un 22.8% de psicólogos no realizó teletramiento de la ansiedad. Estos resultados puede ser útiles para desarrollar programas específicos de prevención e intervención telemática para los trastornos de ansiedad ante futuras pandemias por coronavirus.


The distribution of teletreatment carried out by psychologists during the COVID-19 pandemic for GAD, specific phobia, agoraphobia, social anxiety, panic, OCD and PTSD, and whether experience in teletherapy has an significant effect on demand have not been studied. The results indicate that GAD with 69.2% has been the disorder that has received the most teletherapy and phobia with 60.5%, the least. Panic, social anxiety, PTSD, OCD, and agoraphobia had a demand of 67.2%, 66.8%, 64.0%, 63.5%, and 62.2%, respectively. The experience in teletherapy was significant. Tele-treatment for experienced psychologists increased an average of 93.9% compared to 35.7% for those without experience. 22.8% of psychologists did not carry out anxiety teletherapy. These results may be useful to develop specific prevention and telematic intervention programs for anxiety disorders in the face of future coronavirus pandemics


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Sciences , Teletherapy , Phobic Disorders , Phobia, Social , Psychology , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Crisis Intervention , Therapy, Computer-Assisted , Distance Counseling , Disease Prevention
13.
Ansiedad estrés ; 28(2): 122-130, may-aug. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-203077

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes y objetivos: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado que gran parte de la población experimente ansiedad. Los niveles de Inteligencia Emocional Percibida (IEP) y regulación emocional pueden ser factores clave para modular los niveles de ansiedad y prevenir trastornos emocionales. El objetivo es analizar cómo influyen los niveles de IEP y las formas de regulación emocional de reappraisal y supresión en la ansiedad experimentada. Materiales y métodos: 99 participantes de 18 a 35 años cumplimentaron el Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad (ISRA-B) para ansiedad, el Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24) para IEP, el Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) para regulación emocional y un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de situaciones relacionadas con el COVID-19. Resultados: Los factores de IEP medidos predicen los niveles de ansiedad, puntuaciones altas en atención y bajas en claridad y reparación predicen distintas respuestas de ansiedad y en distintas situaciones en porcentajes variables. Los factores de reappraisal y supresión no predicen los niveles de ansiedad. Las mujeres experimentan más ansiedad que los hombres y aquellas personas con familiares o amigos que han sufrido COVID-19 experimentan menos ansiedad. Conclusiones: Niveles altos en atención y bajos en claridad y reparación son factores de riesgo para experimentar distintos tipos de ansiedad en distintas situaciones, mientras que las formas de regulación emocional de reappraisal y supresión no parecen ser relevantes. Factores sociodemográficos como ser mujer o experiencias relacionadas con el COVID-19 parecen ser factores de riesgo o protectores que deben ser estudiados para prevenir la ansiedad en contextos de pandemia.


Background and objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a large part of the world population to experience anxiety. The levels of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and emotional regulation can be key factors in modulating the levels of anxiety experienced and preventing the emotional disorders. The aim is to analyze how the IEP levels and forms of emotional regulation of reappraisal and suppression influence the anxiety experience. Materials and methods: 99 participants aged between 18 and 35 completed the Inventory of Anxiety Situations and Responses (ISRA-B) to analyze anxiety, the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24) for IEP, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) for emotional regulation and a sociodemographic questionnaire and situations related to the experience with COVID-19. Results: The measured IEP factors predict anxiety levels, high attention and low clarity and repair predict different anxiety responses and in different situations in variable percentages. Reappraisal and suppression factors do not predict anxiety levels. Women experience more anxiety than men and those who have had relatives or friends who have suffered from COVID-19 experience less anxiety. Conclusions: High levels of attention to feelings and low levels of clarity and emotional repair are risk factors for experiencing different types of anxiety in different situations, while the forms of emotional regulation of reappraisal and suppression do not seem to be relevant, sociodemographic factors such as being a woman or one’s own experiences in relation to COVID-19 seem to be risk or protective factors that should be studied to prevent anxiety in pandemic contexts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Sciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Stress, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , SARS Virus , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders
14.
Ansiedad estrés ; 28(2): 138-144, may-aug. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-203079

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio analiza las propiedades psicométricas, en hombres y mujeres universitarios, de la versión española propuesta por Blanco et al. (2017) para el Inventario de Trastornos de Ansiedad Generalizada. La mues¬tra total fue de 1220 participantes; 640 mujeres y 580 hombres, con una edad media de 20.40 años (DE= 1.92) y 20.54 años (DE= 2.04) respectivamente. Los análisis factoriales confirmatorios mostraron que una estructura trifactorial (síntomas cognitivos, trastornos del sueño y síntomas somáticos) es viable y adecuada para ambas poblaciones (mujeres y hombres) de acuerdo a los requisitos psicométricos establecidos. Además, la estructura factorial, las cargas factoriales y los interceptos se consideran invariantes en las dos poblaciones; sin embargo, existen diferencias entre las poblaciones para las medias de los factores síntomas cognitivos y síntomas somá¬ticos.


The present study analyses the psychometric properties, in university men and women, proposed for Blanco et al. (2017) to the Spanish version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Inventory. The overall sample consisted of 1220 subjects: 640 women and 580 men, with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD= 1.92) and 20.54 years (SD= 2.04) respectively. Psychometric analysis showed that a tri-factorial structure (cognitive symptoms, sleep disorders and somatic symptoms) was viable and adequate for both populations (men and woman) according to the established psychometric requirements. The results showed that factor structure, factor loadings and intercepts of the instrument could be considered invariant across groups; however, there are differences between groups for the means of factors cognitive anxiety and somatic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Sciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Sleep Wake Disorders , Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
15.
Ansiedad estrés ; 28(2): 81-90, may-aug. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-LDS-101

ABSTRACT

Las estrategias de afrontamiento permiten regular la ansiedad experimentada durante situaciones evaluativas y continuar su resolución. El objetivo de este estudio fue construir una escala para medir el uso de estrategias que permiten afrontar la ansiedad durante un examen escrito, delimitadas a aquellas que permiten continuar resolviendo el examen. El instrumento construido fue aplicado a 184 personas (101 mujeres, 82 hombres y 1 persona no identificada con esas categorías (Medad = 17.27, DE = 0.70) y consideró las experiencias en el examen de admisión a una Universidad. Mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales Exploratorio se evidenció una estructura de tres factores que representaron las estrategias: aceptación, puesta en perspectiva y afrontamiento activo. Cada factor definió una subescala, las cuales presentaron evidencias de confiabilidad: consistencias internas aceptables y correlaciones test-retest positivas y significativas. Se aportaron evidencias de validez favorables mediante análisis de jueces, análisis de ecuaciones estructurales, diferencias según género y correlaciones parciales con ansiedad ante los exámenes. Se concluyó que la escala propuesta es apropiada para medir el afrontamiento de la ansiedad durante exámenes.


Coping strategies are a useful tool to regulate the anxiety experienced in evaluative situations.Based on that, the objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the use of strategies in order to cope anxiety during tests, delimiting those which allow to continue solving the test. The developed instrument was applied to 184 people (101 women, 82 men and 1 unidentified person with these categories (Mage = 17.27, SD = 0.70) and it considered the experiences in the admission test to a University. The Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling showed a three-factor structure, which represented the strategies: acceptance, putting into perspective and active coping. Each factor defined a subscale, which presented evidence of reliability: acceptable internal consistencies and significant test-retest correlations. Favorable evidence of validity was provided through the analysis of experts, structural equation analysis, gender differences, and partial correlations with test anxiety. It was concluded that the proposed scale is suitable to measure the coping with during tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Health Sciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Test Anxiety Scale , Stress, Psychological
16.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 110-113, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365678

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Regular and moderate exercise can keep the body in good function and prolong life. The therapeutic effect of exercise on digestive system diseases is also obvious. In particular, it can alleviate the anxiety of patients with functional dyspepsia. Objective: To explore how moderate physical exercise can reduce the anxiety caused by functional dyspepsia. The causes of anxiety in patients with this disease are also analyzed. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to patients with functional dyspepsia who attend our hospital and develops exercise programs. The regression analysis method was used to analyze the influence of physical exercise on the anxiety caused by functional dyspepsia. Results: The anxiety of patients with functional dyspepsia who did not do physical exercise was significantly different from the anxiety after exercise. Conclusion: Exercise can reduce the anxiety of patients with functional dyspepsia. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Atividade física moderada e regular pode manter o bom funcionamento do corpo e prolongar a expectativa de vida. O efeito terapêutico da atividade física nas doenças do sistema digestivo também é evidente. Ela pode, em particular, diminuir a ansiedade de pacientes com dispepsia funcional. Objetivo: Explorar como atividade física moderada pode diminuir a ansiedade causada por dispepsia funcional. As causas da ansiedade em pacientes com essa doença também foram analisadas. Métodos: Aplicou-se um questionário aos pacientes com dispepsia funcional que frequentam nosso hospital e desenvolveu-se um programa de exercícios. O método de análise de regressão foi usado para avaliar a influência da atividade física na ansiedade causada por dispepsia funcional. Resultados: A ansiedade de pacientes com dispepsia funcional que não praticavam atividades físicas foi significativamente diferente daquela de pacientes após os exercícios. Conclusão: A atividade física pode diminuir a ansiedade de pacientes com dispepsia funcional. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação de resultados de tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: La actividad física moderada y regular puede mantener el buen funcionamiento del cuerpo y prolongar la expectativa de vida. El efecto terapéutico de la actividad física en las enfermedades del sistema digestivo también es evidente. Esta puede, en particular, disminuir la ansiedad de pacientes con dispepsia funcional. Objetivo: Explorar cómo la actividad física moderada puede disminuir la ansiedad causada por dispepsia funcional. Las causas de la ansiedad en pacientes con esta enfermedad también fueron analizadas. Métodos: Se aplicó un cuestionario a los pacientes con dispepsia funcional que frecuentan nuestro hospital y se desarrolló un programa de ejercicios. El método de análisis de regresión fue usado para evaluar la influencia de la actividad física en la ansiedad causada por dispepsia funcional. Resultados: La ansiedad de pacientes con dispepsia funcional que no practicaban actividades físicas fue significativamente diferente de aquella de pacientes después de los ejercicios. Conclusión: La actividad física puede disminuir la ansiedad de pacientes con dispepsia funcional. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de resultados de tratamiento.

17.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 107-109, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365679

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The set of muscles in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex is called the core. The core is located in the body's center of gravity. Dancesport require aligned trunk movements and permanent stabilization between the spine and pelvis. Despite few studies, the relationship between unbalanced core strengthening and injuries in dancesport is investigated. Objective: Study the relationship between unbalanced core strengthening and muscle strength in dancesport athletes. Methods: An experiment was conducted with 60 students from dance schools. They were randomly divided between an experimental group and a control group, with 30 people each. Each group included 15 males and 15 females. The experimental group used unilateral core stability training. The control group used traditional core stability training. Results: The results showed that the quality of action improved significantly after core strength training (P <0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Core strengthening can improve balance ability in athletes. There was no statistical difference between the training, with similar positive balance ability and explosion strength effects in the athletes. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O conjunto de músculos no complexo quadril-pélvico-lombar é chamado de core. O core está localizado no centro de gravidade corporal. A dança esportiva exige movimentos de tronco alinhados, além da permanente estabilização entre coluna e pélvis. Apesar de haverem estudos escassos, é possível existir alguma relação entre o fortalecimento desequilibrado do core com as lesões na dança esportiva. Objetivo: o objetivo foi estudar a relação entre o fortalecimento desequilibrado do core com a força muscular nos atletas de dança esportiva. Métodos: Foi realizado um experimento com 60 alunos de escolas de dança. Eles foram divididos aleatoriamente entre um grupo experimental e um grupo controle, com 30 pessoas cada. Cada grupo incluiu 15 homens e 15 mulheres. O grupo experimental utilizou o treinamento de estabilidade do core unilateral. O grupo de controle usou o treinamento de estabilidade do core tradicional. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a qualidade da ação melhorou significativamente após o treinamento de força central (P <0,05), mas não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos. Conclusões: O fortalecimento do core pode melhorar a capacidade de equilíbrio nos atletas. Não houve diferença estatística entre os treinamentos, com efeitos positivos de capacidade de equilíbrio e força de explosão semelhantes nos atletas. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El conjunto de músculos del complejo lumbopélvico se denomina core. El core se encuentra en el centro de gravedad del cuerpo. La danza deportiva exige movimientos alineados del tronco, además de la estabilización permanente entre columna y pelvis. Aunque hay pocos estudios, es posible que exista alguna relación entre el fortalecimiento desequilibrado del core y las lesiones en los deportes de danza. Objetivo: El objetivo fue estudiar la relación entre el fortalecimiento desequilibrado del core y la fuerza muscular en atletas de danza deportiva. Métodos: Se realizó un experimento con 60 alumnos de escuelas de danza. Se dividieron al azar entre un grupo experimental y un grupo de control, con 30 personas cada uno. Cada grupo incluía 15 hombres y 15 mujeres. El grupo experimental utilizó un entrenamiento de estabilidad del core unilateral. El grupo de control utilizó el entrenamiento tradicional de estabilidad del core. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que la calidad de la acción mejoró significativamente después del entrenamiento de fuerza central (P <0,05), pero no hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento de la fuerza del core puede mejorar la capacidad de equilibrio en los atletas. No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los entrenamientos, con efectos positivos similares de la capacidad de equilibrio y la fuerza explosiva en los atletas. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

18.
Salud ment ; 45(2): 61-69, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377300

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are potentially traumatic events that people may experience during early life, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; neglect; and household dysfunction. Objective To evaluate the frequency of ACEs and their relationship with the mental and physical health of Mexican adults. Method 389 people between 18 and 65 years old were included in a cross-sectional study with an incidental sample and voluntary participation. Subjects responded to the ACEs questionnaire, the PHQ-9, the GAD-7, and the PHQ-15. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between ACEs and adult health conditions. Results 75% reported at least one type of adversity, and 31.4% reported three or more. Reporting three or more ACEs was associated with an increased odds ratio for depression (OR = 5.04, 95% CI [2.38, 10.68]), anxiety (OR = 3.33, 95% CI [1.09, 6.99]), psychosomatic severity (OR = 4.58, 95% CI [2.53, 8.29]), obesity (OR = 2.08, 95% CI [1.21, 3.59]), and limitations due to physical or emotional discomfort (OR = 5.90, 95% CI [2.88, 12.09]). Higher anxiety was associated with sexual abuse (OR = 2.12 95% CI [.92, 4.85]) and witnessing violence (OR = 5.09, 95% CI [1.04, 24.77]). The probability of psychosomatic severity was higher if reported sexual abuse increased (OR = 1.94 95% CI [.06, 3.54]) and emotional neglect (OR = 1.84, 95% CI [1.02, 3.32]). Discussion and conclusion ACEs are associated to mental health difficulties and psychosomatic symptoms. The relationship between different types of adversity and health is confirmed.


Resumen Introducción Las experiencias adversas en la infancia (EAI) se refieren a la exposición durante la niñez a sucesos potencialmente perjudiciales para la salud. Estos incluyen: maltrato físico, psicológico, sexual y negligencia, así como algunas formas de disfunción familiar. Objetivo Examinar la frecuencia de las EAI y su relación con la salud mental y física de adultos en Ciudad Juárez. Método 389 personas de entre 18 y 65 años, en un estudio transversal con muestra incidental y participación voluntaria. Los instrumentos empleados fueron: PHQ-9 para depresión, GAD-7 para ansiedad y PHQ-15 para síntomas psicosomáticos. Resultados El 75% reportó al menos un tipo de adversidad y el 31.4% tres o más. Reportar 3+ EAI estuvo asociado con un incremento en Odds Ratio para depresión (OR = 5.04, 95% IC [2.38, 10.68]), ansiedad (OR = 3.33, 95% IC [1.09, 6.99]), severidad psicosomática (OR = 4.58, 95% IC [2.53, 8.29]), obesidad (OR = 2.08, 95% IC [1.21, 3.59]) y limitaciones por malestares físicos o emocionales (OR = 5.90, 95% IC [2.88, 12.09]). Una mayor ansiedad se asoció con abuso sexual (OR = 2.12 95% IC [.92, 4.85]) y haber sido testigo de violencia (OR = 5.09, 95% IC [1.04, 24.77]). Mayor riesgo de severidad psicosomática se presentó si se reportaba abuso sexual (OR = 1.94 95% IC [1.06, 3.54]) y negligencia (OR = 1.84, 95% IC = [1.02, .32]). Discusión y conclusión Las EAI están asociadas con dificultades de salud mental y psicosomatización. Se confirma relación entre los distintos tipos de adversidad y la salud.

19.
Salud ment ; 45(2): 81-87, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377302

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Front-of-package food labeling is a public health strategy implemented to reduce the consumption of processed food to decrease the incidence of obesity in Mexico. Although there is an increasing focus among public health officials on implementing policies designed to address obesity, much less attention has been paid to how these policies could impact those with disordered eating, despite the fact that millions suffer from such illnesses. Objective The aim of this article is to present scientific literature related to front-of-package labeling and its impact on obesity and eating disorders. Method Papers related to nutrition labels and obesity and eating disorders were reviewed. Results The papers reviewed found no significant improvement regarding the consumption of processed food. Other measurements, including nutritional education, availability, physical education, and body-image acceptance, have a better impact on nutritional health. Discussion and conclusion Front-of-package labeling is regarded as an important measure in the attempt to reduce obesity levels. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to suggest that this type of labeling reduces the consumption of processed foods in patients with obesity.


Resumen Antecedentes El etiquetado frontal de alimentos es una medida de salud pública que pretende reducir el consumo de alimentos procesados con el fin de disminuir el índice de obesidad en nuestro país. En salud pública se han implementado ésta y otras políticas contra la obesidad, sin embargo, no se ha estudiado el impacto que estas medidas puedan tener en aquellos que padecen trastornos de la conducta alimentaria a pesar de que existen miles de personas con este diagnóstico. Objetivo Revisar implementaciones de etiquetados frontales y su impacto sobre la salud en pacientes con obesidad y con trastornos de conducta alimentaria, así como el estigma de la obesidad en nuestro país. Método Revisar los estudios publicados hasta enero 2021 en relación con el etiquetado, la obesidad, el estigma de obesidad y el trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Resultados En los estudios revisados, el proceso de etiquetado de los alimentos no afectó el consumo de los mismos, metodologías en las cuales el etiquetado se acompaña con educación nutrimental, disposición de alimentos, actividad física y aceptación corporal. Todos estos reportan mejores resultados en la salud nutricional general. Discusión y conclusión El etiquetado frontal se considera una medida importante en un intento por reducir los niveles de obesidad. Sin embargo, no existe evidencia científica suficiente que indique que este tipo de etiquetados disminuya el consumo de alimentos procesados en pacientes con obesidad.

20.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 96(3): 203-212, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428454

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was twofold: a) to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety and sleep disturbances in young patients with vertically-transmitted HIV infection compared to uninfected peers, and b) to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial and medication-related variables and other clinical risk and protective factors related to psychological symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two groups with independent measures (36 youth with vertically transmitted HIV infection and 39 HIV-negative peers). We used 3 standardised assessment tools and a sociodemographic/psychosocial questionnaire (STAI, BDI, PSQI and adapted sociodemographic test). We performed univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The univariate analysis did not find significant differences between groups either in psychosocial factors or in the clinical scores. The multivariable analysis found that the presence of psychological symptoms was strongly associated with sociodemographic factors and past events. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial factors and the social environment seemed to correlate more strongly to psychological symptoms than HIV status and to explain better the current psychological state of individuals.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors
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