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1.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2024 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Italy legalized cannabis oil for specific medical conditions (neuropathic pain, refractory epilepsy and other established pathologies) in 2015, but mandates titration of principal cannabinoids before marketing each batch using iphenated techniques coupled with mass spectrometry. To assess reliability of laboratories from the Italian National Health Service in charge of titrating the batches, the Italian National Institute of Health set up an quality control program on determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol l (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in cannabis oil preparations. METHODS: Two rounds of exercises have been carried out since 2019, involving sixteen Italian laboratories. Five different cannabis oil samples (19-1A and 19-1B for the first round and 22-1A, 22-1B and 22-1C for the second one were prepared and 1 mL amount of each sample was sent to the laboratories. The quantitative performance of each laboratory was assessed calculating the z-score value, a statistical measurement for value's relationship to the mean of a group of values. RESULTS: In the first round, eight out of fourteen laboratories employed an LC-MS while the remaining six used GC-MS. Differently, in the second round, six out of eleven laboratories employed a GC-MS while the remaining five used LC-MS. In the first round, only 28.6 % laboratories achieved an acceptable performance (z-score±2), and all of them used LC-MS as analytical method. In the second round, none of the laboratories achieved an acceptable performance. Satisfactory results, based on z-scores, were generally low (0.0-75.0 %), with only one exception of 100 % for THCA-A determination in sample 22-1B. In the second round, three false negatives (two THC and one CBD by GC-MS determination) were reported while no false positives were described in the blank sample. The two rounds yielded a mean ERR% of 42 % approximately and a mean CV% around 70 % in GC-MS determination. When applying LC-MS determination, the two rounds yielded a mean ERR% of 36 % approximately and a mean CV% around 33 %. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results underline the need for a clear and consistent protocol to be adopted by all laboratories intending to include the titration of oily cannabis-based products into their routinely analytical techniques. This emphasis on methodology standardization and participation to quality control schemes is essential for ensuring reliable and accurate measurements, ultimately enhancing the overall effectiveness and reliability of medical cannabis treatments.

2.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 27(2): 196-197, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751912

ABSTRACT

SCN1A mutation is most often associated with Dravet syndrome, which is characterized by severe encephalopathy. One of the other presentations of SCN1A mutation is developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-6B (DEE6B). It is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-infantile seizure onset, profoundly impaired intellectual development, and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Here we report a rare case of novel SCN1A mutation presenting as hyperkinetic movement disorder in the form of multifocal dystonia and parakinesia in a 12-year-old boy, which aggravated with the use of sodium channel blockers.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758300

ABSTRACT

Cannabis and its major constituents, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), are being widely used to treat sleep disturbances. However, THC can cause acute cognitive and psychomotor impairment and there are concerns that driving and workplace safety might be compromised the day after evening use. Here, we examined possible 'next day' impairment following evening administration of a typical medicinal cannabis oil in adults with insomnia disorder, compared to matched placebo. This paper describes the secondary outcomes of a larger study investigating the effects of THC/CBD on insomnia disorder. Twenty adults [16 female; mean (SD) age, 46.1 (8.6) y] with physician-diagnosed insomnia who infrequently use cannabis completed two 24 h in-laboratory visits involving acute oral administration of combined 10 mg THC and 200 mg CBD ('THC/CBD') or placebo in a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial design. Outcome measures included 'next day' (≥9 h post-treatment) performance on cognitive and psychomotor function tasks, simulated driving performance, subjective drug effects, and mood. We found no differences in 'next day' performance on 27 out of 28 tests of cognitive and psychomotor function and simulated driving performance relative to placebo. THC/CBD produced a small decrease (-1.4%, p=.016, d=-0.6) in accuracy on the Stroop-Colour Task (easy/congruent) but not the Stroop-Word Task (hard/incongruent). THC/CBD also produced a small increase (+8.6, p=.042, d=0.3) in self-ratings of Sedated at 10 h post-treatment, but with no accompanying changes in subjective ratings of Alert or Sleepy (p's>0.05). In conclusion, we found a lack of notable 'next day' impairment to cognitive and psychomotor function and simulated driving performance following evening use of 10 mg oral THC, in combination with 200 mg CBD, in an insomnia population who infrequently use cannabis.

4.
J Belg Soc Radiol ; 108(1): 46, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707482

ABSTRACT

Teaching Point: Synthetic cannabinoids are drugs whose use has increased significantly in recent years and whose toxicological effects cannot be ignored. Chronic inflammatory processes such as vasculitis that may be caused by these substances pose serious health problems at all ages.

5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709655

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoids and opioids are the most prominently used drugs in the world, with fentanyl being the main cause of drug overdose-related deaths. Monitoring drug use in groups as well as in individuals is an important forensic concern. Analytical methods, such as mass spectrometry (MS), have been found most useful for the identification of drug abuse on a small and large scale. Pulsed fiber laser 2D galvoscanner laser-generated nanomaterial (PFL 2D GS LGN) was obtained from monoisotopic silver-109. Nanomaterial was used for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of selected illicit drug standards with standard high-resolution reflectron-based time-of-flight MALDI apparatus. Δ9-THC, 11-OH-THC, 11-COOH-THC, fentanyl, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), heroin, tramadol, and methadone were chosen as test compounds. Illicit drugs were tested in a concentration range from 100 µg/mL to 10 pg/mL, equating to 50 µg to 50 fg per measurement spot. For all analyzed compounds, identification and quantification by silver-109-assisted laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS was possible, with uncommon [M + 109Ag3]+ and [M - H]+ ions present for certain structures. The results of the quantitative analysis of drugs using silver-109 PFL 2D GS LGN for LDI MS are presented. Laser-generated NPs are proven to be useful for the analysis of selected drugs, with exceptionally good results for fentanyl monitoring in a broad range of concentrations.

6.
Arch Toxicol ; 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748041

ABSTRACT

Cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabigerol (CBG) are minor phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa, whose health benefits have been reported. However, studies about the impact of these cannabinoids on fundamental cellular processes in placentation are scarce. Placental development involves physiological endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, however when exacerbated it can lead to altered angiogenesis and pregnancy disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. In this work, the effects of CBDV and CBG (1-10 µM) on placental extravillous trophoblasts were studied, using the in vitro model HTR-8/SVneo cells. Both cannabinoids induced anti-proliferative effects and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generation, which was dependent on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation. Moreover, CBDV and CBG significantly upregulated, in a TRPV-1 dependent manner, the gene expression of HSPA5/Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP), a critical chaperone involved in ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. Nevertheless, the UPR pathways were differentially activated. Both cannabinoids were able to recruit the IRE branch, while only CBDV enhanced the expression of downstream effectors of the PERK pathway, namely p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. It also augmented the activity of the apoptotic initiator caspases-8 and -9, though the effector caspases-3/-7 were not activated. TRB3 expression was increased by CBDV, which may hinder apoptosis termination. Moreover, both compounds upregulated the mRNA levels of the angiogenic factors VEGFA, PGF and sFLT1, and disrupted the endothelial-like behavior of HTR-8/SVneo cells, by reducing tube formation. Thus, CBDV and CBG treatment interferes with EVTs functions and may have a negative impact in placentation and in pregnancy outcome.

7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748248

ABSTRACT

In the present study, twin-column recycling chromatography has been employed for the purification of a Cannabis extract by using a green solvent, ethanol, as the mobile phase. In particular, the complete removal of the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from a Cannabis extract rich in cannabidiol (CBD) was achieved under continuous conditions. The performance of the method, in terms of compound purity, recovery, productivity and solvent consumption, was compared to that of traditional batch operations showing the potential of the twin-column recycling approach. The employment of a theoretical model to predict the band profiles of the two compounds during the recycling process has facilitated method development, thus further contributing to process sustainability by avoiding trial and error attempts or at least decreasing the number of steps significantly.

8.
In Silico Pharmacol ; 12(1): 41, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716440

ABSTRACT

Genes related to MAPK-ERK signaling pathways, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induction is evolutionarily conserved and has crucial roles in the regulation of important cellular processes, including cell proliferation. In this study, six cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa were docked with MAPK-ERK signaling pathways to identify their possible binding interactions. The results showed that all the cannabinoids have good binding affinities with the target proteins. The best binding affinities were MEK- tetrahydrocannabinol (- 8.8 kcal/mol) and P13k-cannabinol (- 8.5 kcal/mol). The root mean square deviation was calculated and used two alternative variants (rmsd/ub and rmsd/lb) and the values of rmsd/lb fluctuated 8.6-2.0 Å and for rmsd/ub from 1.0 to 2.0 Å that suggests the cannabinoids and protein complex are accurate and cannot destroy on binding. The study analyzed the pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness properties of six cannabinoids from C. sativa leaves using the SwissADME web tool. Lipinski's rule of five was used to predict drug-likeness and showed that all compounds have not violated it and the total polar surface area of cannabinoids was also according to Lipinski's rule that is benchmarked of anticancer drugs. Cannabinoids are meet the requirements of leadlikeness and synthetic accessibility values showed they can be synthesized. The molecular weight, XLOGP3, solubility (log S), and flexibility (FLEX) are according to the bioavailability radar. The bioavailability score and consensus Log Po/w fall within the acceptable range for the suitable drug. Pharmacokinetics parameters showed that cannabinoids cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, have high GI absorption as well as cannabinoids are substrates of (CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) but no substrate of P-glycoprotein. Based on these findings, the study suggests that cannabinoids are suitable drugs that could be used as effective inhibitors for target proteins involved in cancer pathways. Among the six cannabinoids, cannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol exerted maximum binding affinities with proteins of MAPK-ERK signaling pathways, and their pharmacokinetics and drug-likeness-related profiles suggest that these cannabinoids could be superlative inhibitors in cancer treatment. Further in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies are needed to explore their potential in cancer treatment. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40203-024-00213-4.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 175: 116686, 2024 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713939

ABSTRACT

The phytocomplex of Cannabis is made up of approximately 500 substances: terpeno-phenols metabolites, including Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, exhibit pharmacological activity. Medical Cannabis has several pharmacological potential applications, in particular in the management of chronic and neuropathic pain. In the literature, a few data are available concerning cannabis pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety. Thus, aim of the present study was the evaluation of cannabinoid pharmacokinetics in a cohort of patients, with chronic and neuropathic pain, treated with inhaled medical cannabis and decoction, as a galenic preparation. In this study, 67 patients were enrolled. Dried flower tops with different THC and CBD concentrations were used: Bedrocan® medical cannabis with THC level standardized at 19% and with a CBD level below 1%, Bediol® medical cannabis with THC and CBD level standardized at similar concentration of 6.5% and 8%, respectively. Cannabis was administered as a decoction in 47 patients and inhaled in 11 patients. The blood withdrawn was obtained before the new dose administration at the steady state and metabolites plasma concentrations were measured with an UHPLC-MS/MS method. Statistically significant differences were found in cannabinoids plasma exposure between inhaled and oral administration of medical cannabis, between male and female and cigarette smokers. For the first time, differences in cannabinoid metabolites exposures between different galenic formulations were suggested in patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to allow for dose adjustment, but further studies in larger cohorts of patients are required in order to confirm these data.

10.
Arch Toxicol ; 2024 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735004

ABSTRACT

Cultivation of industrial low-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) hemp has created an oversupply of cannabidiol (CBD)-rich products. The fact that phytocannabinoids, including CBD, can be used as precursors to synthetically produce a range of THC variants-potentially located in a legal loophole-has led to a diversification of cannabis recreational drug markets. 'Hemp-compliant', 'hemp-derived' and 'semisynthetic' cannabinoid products are emerging and being advertised as (legal) alternatives for Δ9-THC. This study included a large panel (n = 30) of THC isomers, homologs, and analogs that might be derived via semisynthetic procedures. As a proxy for the abuse potential of these compounds, we assessed their potential to activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor with a ß-arrestin2 recruitment bioassay (picomolar-micromolar concentrations). Multiple THC homologs (tetrahydrocannabihexol, THCH; tetrahydrocannabiphorol, THCP; tetrahydrocannabinol-C8, THC-C8) and THC analogs (hexahydrocannabinol, HHC; hexahydrocannabiphorol, HHCP) were identified that showed higher potential for CB1 activation than Δ9-THC, based on either higher efficacy (Emax) or higher potency (EC50). Structure-activity relationships were assessed for Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC homologs encompassing elongated alkyl chains. Additionally, stereoisomer-specific differences in CB1 activity were established for various THC isomers (Δ7-THC, Δ10-THC) and analogs (HHC, HHCP). Evaluation of the relative abundance of 9(S)-HHC and 9(R)-HHC epimers in seized drug material revealed varying epimeric compositions between batches. Increased abundance of the less active 9(S)-HHC epimer empirically resulted in decreased potency, but sustained efficacy for the resulting diastereomeric mixture. In conclusion, monitoring of semisynthetic cannabinoids is encouraged as the dosing and the relative composition of stereoisomers can impact the harm potential of these drugs, relative to Δ9-THC products.

11.
Bioorg Chem ; 148: 107429, 2024 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728910

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoids bind to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their antitumoral activity has been reported against some various cancer cell lines. Some synthetic cannabinoids possessing indole rings such as JWH-015 and JWH-133 particularly bind to the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and it was reported that they inhibit the proliferation and growth of various cancer cells without their psychoactive effects. However, the pharmacological action mechanisms of the cannabinoids are completely unknown. In this study, we report the synthesis of some new cannabinoidic novel indoles and evaluate their anticancer activity on various cancerous and normal cell lines (U87, RPMI 8226, HL60 and L929) using several cellular and molecular assays including MTT assay, real-time q-PCR, scratch assay, DAPI assay, Annexin V-PE/7AAD staining, caspase3/7 activity tests. Our findings indicated that compounds 7, 10, 13, 16, and 17 could reduce cell viability effectively. Compound 17 markedly increased proapoptotic genes (BAX, BAD, and BIM), tumor suppressor gene (p53) expression levels as well as the BAX/BCL-2 ratio in U87 cells. In addition, 17 inhibited cell migration. Based on these results, 17 was chosen for determining the mechanism of cell death in U87 cells. DAPI and Annexin V-7AAD staining results showed that 17 induced apoptosis, moreover activated caspase 3/7 significantly. Hence, compound 17, was selected as a lead compound for further pharmacomodulation. To rationalize the observed biological activities of 17, our study also included a comprehensive analysis using molecular docking and MD simulations. This integrative approach revealed that 17 fits tightly into the active site of the CB2 receptor and is involved in key interactions that may be responsible for its anti-proliferative effects.

12.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 82(2): 1-23, 2024 05 13.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721719

ABSTRACT

Synthetic cannabinoids (CS), or synthetic endocannabinoid receptor agonists, were initially synthesized for basic research into exocannabinoid signaling pathways, as well as in clinical research for their analgesic properties. The use of CS for recreational purposes is a recent phenomenon, but one that has grown very quickly in recent years, since these molecules now represent the main category of new synthetic products (NPS). This literature review aims to bring together current data regarding the use and effects caused by CS in humans. The relationship between the structure and activity of these CSs, the pharmacology and adverse effects of these CSs and finally the different methods of analyzing CSs. A better understanding of this phenomenon is essential to raise awareness among stakeholders in the health field.

13.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 87: 105659, 2024 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The roles of endocannabinoids are described in immune modulation and neuroprotection. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, in this study, the interactions of HTLV-1 regulatory factors and host cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) were evaluated in HAM/TSP. METHODS: Nineteen HAM/TSPs, 22 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and 18 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. RNA was extracted from PBMCs and then reverse-transcribed to cDNA. The gene expression of CB1R and CB2R, as well as HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL), Tax and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) were assessed by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The mean expression of CB1R in ACs (8.51 ± 2.76) was significantly higher than HAMTSPs (1.593 ± 0.74, p = 0.05) and also HCs (0.10 ± 0.039, p = 0.001). The CB2R gene expression level in ACs (2.62±0.44) was significantly higher than HAM/TSPs (0.59 ± 0.15, p = 0.001) and HCs (1.00 ± 0.2, p = 0.006). Meanwhile there was a strong correlation between CB1R and CB2R gene expression levels in the HCs and HAM/TSPs (p = 0.001). HTLV-1-Tax expression in HAM/TSPs (386 ± 104) was higher than ACs (75 ± 32) and statistically significant (p = 0.003). While HTLV-1-HBZ was only expressed in three AC subjects and five HAM/TSPs, thus it cannot be analyzed. CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of CB2R has immunomodulatory effects in inflammatory reactions. While CB1R as a neuroprotective agent may suppress inflammatory reactions in ACs, preventing HAM/TSP. It seems that, like multiple sclerosis (MS), cannabinoid medications are beneficial in HAM/TSP.

14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700593

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: Cannabis, one of the most widely used recreational drug in the United States, has had a significant surge in usage following its legalization in 1996. In recent years, there has been research into the physiological effects of cannabis on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Our study aims to systematically examine the association between cannabis use and complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Materials and Methods: We queried the 2016-2020 National Inpatient Sample database to identify patient encounters with GERD. Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis or missing demographics were excluded. We compared patient demographics, comorbidities, and complications among cannabis users and nonusers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between cannabis use and complications of GERD. Results: A total of 27.2 million patient encounters were included in the analysis, out of which 507,190 were cannabis users. Majority of the cannabis users were aged between 45-64 years (46.6%), males (57.4%), White (63.84%), and belonged to the lowest income quartile (40.6%). Cannabis users demonstrated a higher prevalence of esophagitis compared to nonusers (6.11% vs. 3.23%, p<0.001). However, they exhibited a lower rates of esophageal stricture (0.6% vs. 0.8%, p<0.001) and esophageal cancer (0.2% vs. 0.24%, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, cannabis users were noted to have higher odds of esophagitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-1.39, p<0.001). A lower odds of esophageal stricture (aOR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96, p=0.02) and esophageal cancer (aOR: 0.48,95% CI: 0.42-0.57, p<0.001) were noted. Conclusion: Our cross-sectional study using the nationally available database indicates an association between cannabis use and higher odds of esophagitis, along with lower odds of esophageal stricture and cancer. While these findings suggest a potential relationship between cannabis use and esophageal complications, it is limited in establishing causality. Therefore, further long-term studies are warranted to understand the mechanism behind this association and to determine if cannabis use has an impact on esophagus.

15.
J Cannabis Res ; 6(1): 21, 2024 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702834

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery as one of the main components of cannabis and its affinity towards the cannabinoid receptor CB1, serving as a means to exert its psychoactivity, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) has inspired medicinal chemists throughout history to create more potent derivatives. Initially, the goal was to synthesize chemical probes for investigating the molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacology of Δ9-THC and finding potential medical applications. The unintended consequence of this noble intent has been the proliferation of these compounds for recreational use. This review comprehensively covers the most exhaustive number of THC-like cannabinoids circulating on the recreational market. It provides information on the chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology, analytical assessment, and experiences related to the psychoactive effects reported by recreational users on online forums. Some of these compounds can be found in natural cannabis, albeit in trace amounts, while others are entirely artificial. Moreover, to circumvent legal issues, many manufacturers resort to semi-synthetic processes starting from legal products extracted from hemp, such as cannabidiol (CBD). Despite the aim to encompass all known THC-like molecules, new species emerge on the drug users' pipeline each month. Beyond posing a significantly high public health risk due to unpredictable and unknown side effects, scientific research consistently lags behind the rapidly evolving recreational market.

16.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of Nepeta cataria as a host with specific endogenous metabolite background for transient expression and metabolic engineering of secondary biosynthetic sequences. RESULTS: The reporter gene gfp::licBM3 as well as three biosynthetic genes leading to the formation of the cannabinoid precursor olivetolic acid were adopted to the modular cloning standard GoldenBraid, transiently expressed in two chemotypes of N. cataria and compared to Nicotiana benthamiana. To estimate the expression efficiency in both hosts, quantification of the reporter activity was carried out with a sensitive and specific lichenase assay. While N. benthamiana exhibited lichenase activity of 676 ± 94 µmol g-1 s-1, N. cataria cultivar '1000', and the cultivar 'Citriodora' showed an activity of 37 ± 8 µmol g-1 s-1 and 18 ± 4 µmol g-1 s-1, respectively. Further, combinatorial expression of genes involved in cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway acyl-activating enzyme 1 (aae1), olivetol synthase (ols) and olivetolic acid cyclase (oac) in N. cataria cv. resulted presumably in the in vivo production of olivetolic acid glycosides. CONCLUSION: Nepeta cataria is amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and could serve as a novel chassis for the engineering of secondary metabolic pathways and transient evaluation of heterologous genes.

17.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2024 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777605

ABSTRACT

There is a growing interest in the use of medicinal plants to treat a variety of diseases, and one of the most commonly used medicinal plants globally is Cannabis sativa The two most abundant cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) have been governmentally approved to treat selected medical conditions; however, the plant produces over 100 cannabinoids, including cannabichromene (CBC). While the cannabinoids share a common precursor molecule, cannabigerol, they are structurally and pharmacologically unique. These differences may engender differing therapeutic potentials. In this review, we will examine what is currently known about CBC with regards to pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and receptor profile. We will also discuss the therapeutic areas that have been examined for this cannabinoid, notably antinociceptive, antibacterial, and anti-seizure activities. Finally, we will discuss areas where new research is needed and potential novel medicinal applications for CBC. Significance Statement Cannabichromene (CBC) has been suggested to have disparate therapeutic benefits such as anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, and antinociceptive effects. Most of the focus on the medical benefits of cannabinoids has been focused on THC and CBD. The preliminary studies on CBC indicate that this phytocannabinoid may have unique therapeutic potential that warrants further investigation. Following easier access to hemp, CBC products are commercially available over-the-counter and are being widely utilized with little or no evidence of their safety or efficacy.

18.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; : 844513, 2024 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740135

ABSTRACT

There is growing interest in using cannabinoids across various clinical scenarios, including pain medicine, leading to the disregard of regulatory protocols in some countries. Legislation has been implemented in Brazil, specifically in the state of São Paulo, permitting the distribution of cannabinoid products by health authorities for clinical purposes, free of charge for patients, upon professional prescription. Thus, it is imperative to assess the existing evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of these products in pain management. In light of this, the São Paulo State Society of Anesthesiology (SAESP) established a task force to conduct a narrative review on the topic using the Delphi method, requiring a minimum agreement of 60% among panelists. The study concluded that cannabinoid products could potentially serve as adjuncts in pain management but stressed the importance of judicious prescription. Nevertheless, this review advises against their use for acute pain and cancer-related pain. In other clinical scenarios, established treatments should take precedence, particularly when clinical protocols are available, such as in neuropathic pain. Only patients exhibiting poor therapeutic responses to established protocols or demonstrating intolerance to recommended management may be considered as potential candidates for cannabinoids, which should be prescribed by physicians experienced in handling these substances. Special attention should be given to individual patient characteristics and the likelihood of drug interactions.

19.
Spine J ; 2024 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The opioid epidemic is a public health crisis affecting spine care and pain management. Medical marijuana is a potential non-opioid analgesic yet to be studied in the surgical setting since its effects on bone healing are not fully understood. Studies have demonstrated analgesic and potentially osteoinductive properties of cannabinoids with endocannabinoid receptor expression in bone tissue. PURPOSE: We hypothesize that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) will not decrease bone healing in spinal fusion. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Utilizing allogenic bone grafts (6 donor rats), posterolateral inter-transverse lumbar fusion at the L4-L5 level was performed. The animals were equally divided into four treatment groups, each receiving 0.1 ml intraperitoneal injections weekly as follows: placebo (saline), 5 mg/kg THC, 5 mg/kg CBD, and a combination of 5 mg/kg THC and 5mg/kg CBD (Combo). METHODS: Callus tissue was harvested 2- and 8-weeks post-surgery for qPCR assessment to quantify changes in the expression of osteogenic genes. Manual palpation was done to assess the strength of the L4-L5 arthrodesis on all rats. µCT image-based callus analysis and histology were performed. One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc comparisons was performed. RESULTS: µCT demonstrated no significant differences. Treatment groups had slightly increased bone volume and density compared to control. qPCR at two weeks indicated downregulated RANKL/OPG ratios skewing towards osteogenesis in the CBD group, with the THC and CBD+THC groups demonstrating a downward trend (p>.05). ALPL, BMP4, and SOST were significantly higher in the CBD group, with CTNNB1 and RUNX2 also showing an upregulating trend. The CBD group showed elevation in Col1A1 and MMP13. Data at eight weeks showed ALPL, RUNX2, BMP4, and SOST were downregulated for all treatment groups. In the CBD+THC group, RANK, RANKL, and OPG were downregulated. OPG downregulation reached significance for the THC and CBD+THC group compared to saline. Interestingly, the RANKL/OPG ratio showed upregulation in the CBD and CBD+THC groups. RANKL showed upregulation in the CBD group. At 2 and 8 weeks, the CBD treatment group showed superior histological progression, increasing between time points. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that CBD and THC have no adverse effect on bone healing and the rate of spinal fusion in rats. Osteogenic factors were upregulated in the CBD-treated groups at two weeks, which indicates a potential for bone regeneration. In this group, compared to control, the RANKL/OPG ratio at the early healing phase demonstrates the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation, enhancing bone formation. Interestingly, it shows promoted osteoclast differentiation at the later healing phase, enhancing bone remodeling. This aligns with the physiological expectation of a lower ratio in the early phases and a higher ratio in the later remodeling phases. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: CBD and THC showed no inhibitory effects on bone healing in a spinal fusion model. Moreover, histologic and gene expression analysis demonstrated that CBD may, in fact, enhance bone healing. Further research is needed to confirm the safe usage of THC and CBD in the post-operative setting following spinal fusions.

20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2024 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702447

ABSTRACT

The increasing interest in hemp and cannabis poses new questions about the influence of drying and storage conditions on the overall aroma and cannabinoids profile of these products. Cannabis inflorescences are subjected to drying shortly after harvest and then to storage in different containers. These steps may cause a process of rapid deterioration with consequent changes in precious secondary metabolite content, negatively impacting on the product quality and potency. In this context, in this work, the investigation of the effects of freeze vs tray drying and three storage conditions on the preservation of cannabis compounds has been performed. A multi-trait approach, combining both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME-GC × GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented for the first time. This approach has permitted to obtain the detailed characterisation of the whole cannabis matrix in terms of volatile compounds and cannabinoids. Moreover, multivariate statistical analyses were performed on the obtained data, helping to show that freeze drying conditions is useful to preserve cannabinoid content, preventing decarboxylation of acid cannabinoids, but leads to a loss of volatile compounds which are responsible for the cannabis aroma. Furthermore, among storage conditions, storage in glass bottle seems more beneficial for the retention of the initial VOC profile compared to open to air dry tray and closed high-density polyethylene box. However, the glass bottle storage condition causes formation of neutral cannabinoids at the expenses of the highly priced acid forms. This work will contribute to help define optimal storage conditions useful to produce highly valuable and high-quality products.

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