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1.
Psychooncology ; 31(1): 107-115, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: CanCope is an internet-delivered, cognitive-behavioural intervention adapted from the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders to improve emotion regulation and support the mental health of cancer survivors. Four separate pilot studies evaluated each of CanCope's modules for (1) feasibility and participant satisfaction, and changes in (2) module-specific outcomes, and (3) global measures of emotion dysregulation and anxiety and depressive symptoms, from pre-to-post module delivery. METHODS: Eligible cancer survivors self-selected into one two-week online module designed to improve a specific aspect of emotion regulation ([1] understanding emotions, [2] mindfulness of emotions, [3] cognitive reappraisals, [4] challenging emotion-driven behaviours). RESULTS: Across modules, post-intervention surveys were completed by 17-19 participants, (58.1%-90.5% completion rate for participants who received the intervention). Each module was feasible and participants reported high satisfaction. Moderate-to-large pre-to-post effect sizes in mean differences were observed in module-specific target outcomes (p's < 0.05). Emotion dysregulation significantly decreased across modules 1 to 3 (p's < 0.05) with a non-significant decrease for module 4 (p = 0.13). Anxiety symptoms significantly decreased across all modules (p's < 0.05). Depressive symptoms significantly decreased across modules 1 and 3 (p's < 0.05), with non-significant decreases across modules 2 (p = 0.08) and 4 (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Each CanCope module demonstrated promise in targeting emotion regulation skills and supporting the mental health of cancer survivors. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the efficacy of CanCope as an intervention in its entirety.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Neoplasms , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Humans , Mental Health , Neoplasms/therapy
2.
Front Neurol ; 13: 860290, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493835

ABSTRACT

Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) were used to detect the neuroimaging mechanism of Shugan Jieyu Capsule (SG) in ameliorating depression of post-stroke depression (PSD) patients. Fifteen PSD patients took SG for 8 weeks, completed the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) assessment at the baseline and 8 weeks later, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Twenty-one healthy controls (HCs) underwent these assessments at the baseline. We found that SG improved depression of PSD patients, in which ReHo values decreased in the left calcarine sulcus (CAL.L) and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG.L) of PSD patients at the baseline. The fALFF values of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPL.L) decreased in PSD patients at the baseline. Abnormal functional activities in the brain regions were reversed to normal levels after the administration of SG for 8 weeks. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that the changes in three altered brain regions could be used to differentiate PSD patients at the baseline and HCs. Average signal values of altered regions were related to depression in all subjects at the baseline. Our results suggest that SG may ameliorate depression of PSD patients by affecting brain region activity and local synchronization.

3.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 3: 841427, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368996

ABSTRACT

Background: Be a Mom is a self-guided web-based intervention developed to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms and to promote maternal wellbeing, respectively among high and low-risk new mothers. This study aims to examine and compare (1) Be a Mom's patterns of usage and (2) Be a Mom's acceptability among women presenting high and low risk for PPD. Methods: The sample was composed by 800 women who were randomized to Be a Mom [542 presenting high-risk (Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised ≥ 5.5) and 258 presenting low-risk for PPD]. Data regarding patterns of usage were collected through the Be a Mom website. Acceptability data were collected through a brief questionnaire. Results: 27.9% of high-risk and 36.3% of low-risk women completed the program. A higher proportion of participants in the low-risk group completed Be a Mom [ X(1)2 = 5.29, p = 0.021] and completed more modules [t (723) = -3.01, p = 0.003]. No significant differences were found between the groups in number of logins, minutes spent on the program, exercises completed and number of times audios were played. a higher proportion of women in the high-risk group considered that participating in Be a Mom was too demanding [ X(1)2 = 8.21, p = 0.004]. Conclusions: Despite the low rates of completion, Be a Mom appears to be an acceptable option for both women with high-risk and low-risk for PPD. Lack of time seems to be the main reason for non-completion, so it is important to develop briefer versions of the program and introduce engagement strategies that may increase completion rate.

4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226321, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1354787

ABSTRACT

Aim: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian finalyear dental students. Methods: 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chisquare tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students' academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Students, Dental , Depression , Pandemics , COVID-19
5.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 187-196, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139458

ABSTRACT

Psychotic episodes occur in a substantial proportion of patients suffering from major mood disorders (both unipolar and bipolar) at some point in their lives. The nature of these episodes is less well understood than the more common, non-psychotic periods of illness and hence their management is also less sophisticated. This is a concern because the risk of suicide is particularly high in this subtype of mood disorder and comorbidity is far more common. In some cases psychotic symptoms may be signs of a comorbid illness but the relationship of psychotic mood to other forms of psychosis and in particular its interactions with schizophrenia is poorly understood. Therefore, our targeted review draws upon extant research and our combined experience to provide clinical context and a framework for the management of these disorders in real-world practice - taking into consideration both biological and psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Psychotic Disorders , Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Bipolar Disorder/therapy , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Mood Disorders/diagnosis , Mood Disorders/etiology , Mood Disorders/therapy , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/therapy
6.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 144-153, mayo-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377463

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La depresión es una problemática de salud pública responsable de alta carga de mortalidad, afecta principalmente a jóvenes universitarios. La evidencia sugiere que la participación en actividad física genera beneficios en salud mental. Resulta importante estudiar esta asociación teniendo en cuenta otra serie de factores como variables sociodemográficas y el tipo de carrera universitaria. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva y evaluar si el nivel de actividad física podría ser un factor protector en estudiantes de una universidad con enfoque deportivo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con muestra representativa de 291 estudiantes. Se aplicó cuestionario Beck II y versión larga del International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado con razones de prevalencia para depresión, según nivel de actividad física ajustadas mediante modelos de regresión generalizados con vínculo logarítmico de distribución binomial. Resultados: Las prevalencias de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física son respectivamente 27% y 22%. La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión es 46% mayor en quienes no son suficientemente activos (RP: 1,46 IC95%:0,95-2,25). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física más bajas comparadas con poblaciones similares, probablemente se relacionan con el enfoque deportivo de la institución.


Abstract Introduction: Depression is a public health problem that has a burden of high mortality, mainly affecting the young university student population. The evidence suggests that participation in physical activity generates mental health benefits. It is important to study this association as well as the relationship between depression and sociodemographic variables and university program. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptomatology and assess whether physical activity levels can be a Protective factor in university students enrolled in sports programs. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 291 students. The Beck II questionnaire and long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were applied. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed with prevalence ratios for depression, according to the level of physical activity adjusted by generalized regression models with logarithmic link of binomial distribution. Results: The prevalence rates of depression symptoms and physical inactivity were 27% and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of depression symptoms is 46% higher in those who are not sufficiently active (RP: 1.46 IC95%:0.95-2.25). Conclusions: Prevalence of depressive symptoms and physical inactivity were lower compared to similar populations and are probably related to the sport focus of the institution.

7.
Health Place ; 76: 102851, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: According to the social determinants of health framework, income inequality is a potential risk factor for adverse mental health. However, few studies have explored the mechanisms suspected to mediate this relationship. The current study addresses this gap through a mediation analysis to determine if social support and community engagement act as mediators linking neighbourhood income inequality to maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms within a cohort of new mothers living in the City of Calgary, Canada. METHODS: Data collected at three years postpartum from mothers belonging to the All Our Families (AOF) cohort were used in the current study. Maternal data were collected between 2012 and 2015 and linked to neighbourhood socioeconomic data from the 2006 Canadian Census. Income inequality was measured using Gini coefficients derived from 2006 after-tax census data. Generalized structural equation models were used to quantify the associations between income inequality and mental health symptoms, and to assess the potential direct and indirect mediating effects of maternal social support and community engagement. RESULTS: Income inequality was not significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms (ß = 0.32, 95%CI = -0.067, 0.70), anxiety symptoms (ß = 0.11, 95%CI = -0.39, 0.60), or lower social support. Income inequality was not associated with community engagement. For the depression models, higher social support was significantly associated with lower depressive symptoms (ß = -0.13, 95%CI = -0.15, -0.097), while community engagement was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms (ß = 0.059, 95%CI = -0.15, 0.27). Similarly, for the anxiety models, lower anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher levels of social support (ß = -0.17, 95%CI = -0.20, -0.13) but not with higher levels of community engagement (ß = 0.14, 95%CI = -0.14, 0.41). CONCLUSION: The current study did not find clear evidence for social support or community engagement mediating the relationship between neighbourhood income inequality and maternal mental health. Future investigations should employ a broader longitudinal approach to capture changes in income inequality, potential mediators, and mental health symptomatology over time.

8.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 143: 105847, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779340

ABSTRACT

Determining pre-existing biological risk markers of incident depression and other mental health sequelae after exposure to a new stressor would help identify vulnerable individuals and mechanistic pathways. This study investigated primarily whether hair cortisol predicted elevated depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, 6 years later. A secondary aim was to deduce whether any association differed by sex. METHODS: We studied 1025 adults aged 50 and older (75% female) as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Hair cortisol samples were collected at 2014 (Wave 3) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in 2014 (Wave 3), 2016 (Wave 4), 2018 (Wave 5) and again in 2020 as part of TILDA's COVID-19 Study. Hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression models were applied to investigate the association between cortisol levels and clinically significant depressive symptoms before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In a full covariate adjusted model there was a significant interaction between cortisol and wave on depressive symptoms (χ2 = 8.5, p = .03). Cortisol was positively and significantly associated with elevated depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 Study (OR =1.3, 95% CI 1.11, 1.56, p = .003), and was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting clinically significant depressive symptoms during first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, when compared with before, OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05, 1.9, p = .015. There was no evidence of effect modification by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Higher hair cortisol, assessed 6 years previously, predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults during (but not before) the pandemic. Findings suggest a biological phenotype which denotes increased susceptibility to the negative impact of environmental stress on psychological health.

9.
J Psychosom Res ; 160: 110980, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Occurrence of psychological distress in hypertensive patients could have a negative synergistic effect on future cardiovascular events (CVEs). The aim of this study was to determine the association between anxiety or depressive symptoms in elderly hypertensive primary care patients and the development of new CVEs and all-cause mortality. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in five Dutch general practices between June 2010 and January 2012. Patients with primary care managed hypertension, aged 60-85 years, were included and completed the GAD-7 and PHQ-9, measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms respectively. The incidence of new CVEs (coronary event, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation and heart failure) and all-cause mortality at 8 years' follow-up was recorded by data extraction of the digital information systems. RESULTS: Among the 555 included participants (mean age 70 ± 6.6 years; 56% female), 29 (5.2%) had a new coronary event, 42 (7.6%) a cerebrovascular disease, 57 (10.3%) atrial fibrillation, 22 (4%) heart failure and 68 (12.3%) died. Elevated anxiety and depression scores increased the risk of a coronary event independently and significantly by 12% (HR 1.12; 95% CI [1.04-1.22], p = 0.005) and 18% (HR 1.18; 95% CI [1.08-1.28], p < 0.0001), respectively, adjusted for relevant (Framingham) baseline covariates. No associations were found with regard to other CVEs and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: In a random sample of elderly primary care hypertension patients there was a significant association between psychological distress and the occurrence of new coronary events after 8 years' follow-up but not with other CVEs and all-cause mortality.

10.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; : 104762, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779628

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders are the leading cause of disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The increasing social and economic burdens of neurological disorders are driven by global population growth and aging. Depression is a common psychiatric symptom in numerous neurological disorders. It is also a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. The rapid-acting and sustained antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine for severe depression was accidentally discovered. Interestingly, (R)-ketamine has greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant-like effects than (S)-ketamine in rodents. Importantly, its side effects in rodents and humans are lower than those of (R,S)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine. Furthermore, (R)-ketamine could elicit beneficial actions in various rodent models of neurological disorders, including PD, multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. In this article, we review the potential of (R)-ketamine as a prophylactic or therapeutic drug for neurological disorders including AD and other dementias, PD, MS, and stroke.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with depression often show an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile and might represent a distinct depression subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a cardiometabolic depression subtype could be identified and to investigate its association with demographics and clinical characteristics (severity, symptomatology, anti-depressant use, persistence and cognitive functioning). METHODS: We used data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort in the southern part of The Netherlands. A total of 248 participants with major depressive disorder were included (mean [SD] age, 58.8 ±â€¯8.5 years; 121 [48.8 %] were men). Major depressive disorder was assessed at baseline by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined as indicators of the metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. We measured severity and persistence of depressive symptoms by use of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: Latent class analysis resulted in two subtypes, one with cardiometabolic depression (n = 145) and another with non-cardiometabolic depression (n = 103). The cardiometabolic depression subtype was characterized by being male, low education, more severe depressive symptoms, less symptoms of depressed mood and more symptoms of loss of energy, more use of antidepressant medication and lower cognitive functioning. LIMITATIONS: No conclusions can be made about causality. CONCLUSIONS: Latent class analysis suggested a distinct cardiometabolic depression subtype. Participants with cardiometabolic depression differed from participants with non-cardiometabolic depression in terms of demographics and clinical characteristics. The existence of a cardiometabolic depression subtype may indicate the need for prevention and treatment targeting cardiometabolic risk management.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Emotional blunting is regularly reported in depressed patients on antidepressant treatment. It is uncertain whether this phenomenon represents residual symptoms of depression or side-effects of antidepressant treatment. At present, there is no adequate instrument to measure this phenomenon in China. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of The Oxford Depression Questionnaire (ODQ-Chinese). METHODS: The study sample comprised of 312 patients with major depressive disorder. All participants were assessed with the ODQ-Chinese, the Beck Depression Inventory-13 (BDI-13), the UKU side effects rating scale (UKU-SERS), and the 'gold standard' question related to the participant's experience of emotional side-effects. 20 % of the participants completed the ODQ-Chinese and BDI-13 within 1 or 2 weeks after the initial assessment. RESULTS: The Cronbach α statistic was 0.91 for the ODQ-Chinese. It had good split-half reliability. The scale showed excellent test-retest reliability and demonstrated significant correlation with the BDI-13. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting emotional side-effects according to patients' responses to the "gold standard" question were 69 % and 67 % for a cutoff point ≥ 13 of Antidepressant as the cause (AC) domain, AUCs was 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.79). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the Chinese version of the ODQ has good validity and reliability. It is an effective self-report measure of emotional blunting symptoms of depression.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alterations in the peripheral inflammatory profile and white matter (WM) deterioration are frequent in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The present study applies free-water imaging to investigate the relationship between altered peripheral inflammation and WM microstructure and their predictive value in determining response to ketamine treatment in MDD. METHODS: Ten individuals with MDD underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a blood-draw before and 24 h after ketamine infusion. We utilized MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs to compare tissue-specific fractional anisotropy (FAT) and free-water (FW) of the forceps and cingulum, and the ratio of pro-inflammatory interleukin(IL)-8/anti-inflammatory IL-10 between individuals with MDD and 15 healthy controls at baseline. Next, we compared all baseline measures between ketamine responders (6) and non-responders (4) and analyzed changes in imaging and blood data after ketamine infusion. RESULTS: The MDD group exhibited an increased IL-8/IL-10 ratio compared to controls at baseline (p = .040), which positively correlated with average FW across regions of interest (p = .013). Ketamine responders demonstrated higher baseline FAT in the left cingulum than non-responders (p = .023). Ketamine infusion did not influence WM microstructure but decreased the IL-8/IL-10 ratio (p = .043). LIMITATIONS: The small sample size and short follow-up period limit the conclusion regarding the longer-term effects of ketamine in MDD. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study provides evidence for the role of inflammation in MDD by illustrating an association between peripheral inflammation and WM microstructure. Additionally, we demonstrate that free-water diffusion-weighted imaging might be a valuable tool to determine which individuals with MDD benefit from the anti-inflammatory mediated effects of ketamine treatment.

14.
J Adv Nurs ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774030

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study investigated mental health reactions to dealing with COVID-19 in a population of nurses working in a variety of settings. The study attempted to expand our current understanding of the psychological reactions unique to nurses working during the highly stressful period of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: The study used an online questionnaire design. METHODS: Nurses were recruited using social media via an electronic link between July and September 2020. Of them, 112 nursing professionals completed the 66-item questionnaire. RESULTS: Significant findings included the presence of moderate or greater levels of anxiety (62%), depression (31%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (15%) and with significantly greater intrusive thoughts and memories for nurses who provided direct patient care than those who did not. Nurses with a prior history of anxiety or depression were found to be at greater risk for psychological distress. Results further highlighted concerns and fears related to coronavirus in both their daily personal and professional lives. CONCLUSION: The use of standard, commonly used, measures of psychological disorders allow for a more precise comparison among studies both for this population at the time of the survey and over a period of time. IMPACT: Suggestions for helping nursing professionals identify nurses at risk and improved ways to cope and deal with adverse psychological effects are discussed.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 951217, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774090
16.
R Soc Open Sci ; 9(6): 220226, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774133

ABSTRACT

In the brain, the insular cortex receives a vast amount of interoceptive information, ascending through deep brain structures, from multiple visceral organs. The unique hierarchical and modular architecture of the insula suggests specialization for processing interoceptive afferents. Yet, the biological significance of the insula's neuroanatomical architecture, in relation to deep brain structures, remains obscure. In this opinion piece, we propose the Insula Hierarchical Modular Adaptive Interoception Control (IMAC) model to suggest that insula modules (granular, dysgranular and agranular), forming parallel networks with the prefrontal cortex and striatum, are specialized to form higher order interoceptive representations. These interoceptive representations are recruited in a context-dependent manner to support habitual, model-based and exploratory control of visceral organs and physiological processes. We discuss how insula interoceptive representations may give rise to conscious feelings that best explain lower order deep brain interoceptive representations, and how the insula may serve to defend the body and mind against pathological depression.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 884143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774601

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic management of depression has currently important limitations, and its low efficacy is reflected in high rates of non-response even after multiple trials of antidepressants. Almost two-thirds of the patients diagnosed with major depression who received a 4-6 weeks trial of antidepressant could not reach remission, and more than 30% of these patients are considered treatment-resistant. In bipolar depression, the situation is also discouraging if we analyze the high suicide rate, the risk for the treatment-emergent affective switch when antidepressants are added, the high rate of treatment resistance (up to 25%), and the severe functional impairments associated with these episodes. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are needed, as well as new pathogenetic models for depression. The vast majority of the currently approved antidepressants are based on the monoamine hypothesis, although new drugs exploiting different neurotransmitter pathways have been recently approved by FDA. Brexanolone, an allopregnanolone analog, is an example of such new antidepressants, and its approval for post-partum depression inspired the search for a new generation of neurosteroids and GABA-ergic modulators, with an easier way of administration and superior tolerability profile. Orexin receptors antagonists are also extensively studied for different psychiatric disorders, depression included, in phase II trials. Antiinflammatory drugs, both cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors and biological therapy, are investigated in patients with depressive disorders based on the proven correlation between inflammation and mood disorders in preclinical and clinical studies. Also, a new generation of monoamine-based investigational drugs is explored, ranging from triple reuptake inhibitors to atypical antipsychotics, in patients with major depression. In conclusion, there is hope for new treatments in uni- and bipolar depression, as it became clear, after almost seven decades, that new pathogenetic pathways should be targeted to increase these patients' response rate.

19.
Arthroplast Today ; 15: 215-219.e1, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774874

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the utility of depression and anxiety symptom screening in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty to examine differences in active symptoms according to patients' mental health diagnoses and associated prescription medications. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed 594 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty at a tertiary practice between June 2018 and December 2018. Patients completed Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurements Information System (PROMIS) Depression and Anxiety Computerized Adaptive Tests in clinic quantifying active symptoms. Mental health diagnoses and associated medications were extracted from health records. Statistical analysis assessed between-group differences in mean PROMIS scores and the prevalence of heightened depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results: Multivariable linear regression modeling demonstrated that being diagnosed with depression without medication (ß 7.1; P < .001) and with medication (ß 8.6; P < .001) were each associated with higher PROMIS Depression scores. Similar modeling demonstrated that patients diagnosed with anxiety and prescribed an anxiolytic (ß 8.4; P < .001) were associated with higher PROMIS Anxiety scores than undiagnosed patients. Eighty-six (15%) patients experienced heightened anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Heightened depressive symptoms were more prevalent among those diagnosed with depression (19% without medication, 24% with antidepressant vs 5% undiagnosed: P < .001). Heightened anxiety symptoms were most prevalent among those diagnosed with anxiety and on anxiolytic medication (25% vs 7% diagnosed with anxiety without medication, 8% undiagnosed: P < .001). Conclusion: One in seven arthroplasty patients screened reported heightened depressive and/or anxiety symptoms. Despite the majority of arthroplasty patients on antidepressants and anxiolytics having symptoms controlled, these patients remain at increased risk of heightened active symptoms.

20.
Health Psychol Res ; 10(3): 35464, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774899

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of depression and stress among the first-year students at Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) and to compare the level of depression and stress among the samples, classified by demographic factors, including gender, domicile, and problem. This research has been approved by the SUT's Research Ethics Committee. The study period was between July and August 2018. The online, self-report questionnaire was used as a research instrument to collect data from the sample of SUT first-year students. The total number of first-year students at SUT was 3,552 and the response rate was 65.15%. The major findings revealed that 7.0% and 51.1% of them were suffering from depression, and pathological stress, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of depression and pathological stress was higher in female samples than in other gender groups. The findings would suggest that related activities should be organized to promote students' awareness of their suffering and self-control in order to prevent further depression and pathological stress.

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