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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868706

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Endoscopic ultrasound shear wave elastography (EUS-SWE) can facilitate an objective evaluation of pancreatic fibrosis. Although it is primarily applied in evaluating chronic pancreatitis, its efficacy in assessing early chronic pancreatitis (ECP) remains underinvestigated. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-SWE for assessing ECP diagnosed using the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2019. Methods: In total, 657 patients underwent EUS-SWE. Propensity score matching was used, and the participants were classified into the ECP and normal groups. ECP was diagnosed using the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2019. Pancreatic stiffness was assessed based on velocity (Vs) on EUS-SWE, and the optimal Vs cutoff value for ECP diagnosis was determined. A practical shear wave Vs value of ≥50% was considered significant. Results: Each group included 22 patients. The ECP group had higher pancreatic stiffness than the normal group (2.31 ± 0.67 m/s vs. 1.59 ± 0.40 m/s, p < 0.001). The Vs cutoff value for the diagnostic accuracy of ECP, as determined using the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 2.24m/s, with an area under the curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.94). A high Vs was strongly correlated with the number of EUS findings (rs = 0.626, p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that a history of acute pancreatitis and ≥2 EUS findings were independent predictors of a high Vs. Conclusions: There is a strong correlation between EUS-SWE findings and the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2019 for ECP. Hence, EUS-SWE can be an objective and invaluable diagnostic tool for ECP diagnosis.

2.
Heliyon ; 10(11): e31726, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841497

ABSTRACT

Measuring elasticity without physical contact is challenging, as current methods often require deconstruction of the test sample. This study addresses this challenge by proposing and testing a photoacoustic effect-based method for measuring the elasticity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at various mixing ratios, which may be applied on the wide range of applications such as biomedical and optical fields. A dual-light laser source of the photoacoustic (PA) system is designed, employing cross-correlation signal processing techniques. The platform systems and a mathematical model for performing PDMS elasticity measurements are constructed. During elasticity detection, photoacoustic signal features, influenced by hardness and shapes, are analyzed using cross-correlation calculations and phase difference detection. Results from phantom tests demonstrate the potential of predicting Young's modulus using the cross-correlation method, aligning with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard samples. However, accuracy may be affected by mixed materials and short tubes. Normalization or calibration of signals is suggested for aligning with Young's coefficient.

3.
Endocr Regul ; 58(1): 129-137, 2024 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861538

ABSTRACT

Objective. The intend of the present study was to assess the diagnostic performance of strain elastography in investigating the thyroid nodule malignancy taking the surgical biopsy as a gold standard reference test. Methods. The study included 120 patients with 123 thyroid nodules, of which 67 had total thyroidectomy. The American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (ACR-TIRADS) were evaluated for all nodules. All suspicious nodules were referred for a fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) if they fulfilled the required size. Strain elastography was performed for each suspicious nodule. Ultrasound-guided FNAC was performed for all suspicious nodules. Total thyroidectomy was performed in those whom the suspicious nodules were proven by FNAC. Results. Strain ratio had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of 84%, 81%, 95%, 85%, and 84%, respectively, with a cut point 1.96. Elasticity score had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of 100%, 80%, 95%, 85% and 87%, respectively, with a cut point 0.96. The elasticity score had a statistically significantly odds ratio for detecting the benignity 3.9 C. I (1.6-9.3). Conclusion. Strain elastography has a high diagnostic performance in detecting the malignant as well as benign nodules, thus it can limit the rate of unneeded FNAC or surgery especially among B3 and B4 groups with indeterminate cytology.


Subject(s)
Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Humans , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Aged , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Young Adult , Predictive Value of Tests , Cytology
4.
J Hand Microsurg ; 16(1): 100003, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854375

ABSTRACT

Objective: We have used ultrasound imaging technology to objectively demonstrate changes in the degree and quality of diseased fascia in patients with Dupuytren's disease treated nonoperatively with therapeutic splinting and tissue mobilization. Materials and Methods: Measurement of active proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint extension along with ultrasound elastography imaging of the fascia was performed prior to, and 6 months after, the initiation of therapy. Results: Improvement in active joint extension over the course of therapy was associated with a consistent decrease in the radiologic dimensions of the diseased fascia in combination with qualitative changes in its composition. Conclusion: The use of a simple orthosis and soft tissue mobilization techniques have a quantifiable effect on the degree of deformity and the quantity and quality of contracted fascia in Dupuytren's disease, and would appear to have a role in the management of mild to moderate presentations of the disease when enzymatic or surgical interventions may not be practical.

5.
J Cardiol Cases ; 29(6): 254-257, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826762

ABSTRACT

A 68-year-old man was diagnosed with pericarditis associated with immunoglobulin G4-related disease and was administered prednisolone 2 years prior to presentation. During the process of tapering off from prednisolone 1 year later, edema of the lower legs and pleural effusion worsened. He gradually developed dyspnea on exertion, and laboratory examinations revealed elevated liver enzyme levels. Diuretics were administered; however, the symptoms did not resolve. Transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac catheterization revealed findings consistent with those of constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy was considered and the perioperative risks due to possible recovery from liver dysfunction were discussed. Combinational elastography was subsequently performed. The results indicated the absence of liver fibrosis, suggesting that liver dysfunction was attributable to liver congestion; thus, the liver dysfunction was considered reversible. Subsequently, pericardiectomy was performed. Given that constrictive pericarditis can lead to liver dysfunction due to congestion, the perioperative risk is often controversial when considering surgical interventions. Learning objective: Combinational elastography may be useful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac diseases complicated by liver dysfunction to distinguish liver fibrosis, understand the pathogenesis of liver dysfunction, and determine subsequent treatment strategies.

7.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colonic fibrosis has important clinical implications in ulcerative colitis. Ultrasound imaging has emerged as a convenient and reliable tool in diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. We aimed to explore the potential use of ultrasound to evaluate UC fibrosis. METHODS: Consecutive UC patients who had proctocolectomy from July 2022 to Sep 2023 were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent bowel ultrasound examination and ultrasound elastography imaging prior to surgery. Milan ultrasound criteria (MUC) was calculated and bowel wall stiffness was determined using two mean strain ratios (MSRs). Degree of colonic fibrosis and inflammation was measured upon histological analysis. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound-derived parameters to predict fibrosis. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were enrolled with 112 segments included in analysis. The median fibrosis score was 2 (0-4) and the median Geboes score was 5 (0-13) and these two scores were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The muscularis mucosa thickness was significantly higher in moderate-severe fibrosis than none-mild fibrosis (p=0.003) but bowel wall thickness was not (p=0.082). The strain ratios (p<0.001) and MUC (p=0.010) was significantly higher in involved than non-involved segments. The strain ratios were correlated with fibrosis score (p<0.001) but not MUC (p=0.387). At ROC analysis, MSR1 had an AUC of 0.828 (cutoff value 3.07, 95% CI 0.746-0.893, p<0.001) to predict moderate-severe fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound elastography imaging could predict the degree of colonic fibrosis in UC. Application of this technique could help disease monitoring and decision-making of UC patients.

8.
Muscle Nerve ; 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: The current diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) relies mainly on the clinical presentation and nerve electrodiagnostic (EDX) testing, which can be uncomfortable and yield false negatives. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of conventional ultrasound, shear wave elastography (SWE), and superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in diagnosing UNE. METHODS: We enrolled 40 patients (48 elbows) with UNE and 48 healthy volunteers (48 elbows). The patients were categorized as having mild, moderate or severe UNE based on the findings of EDX testing. The cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using conventional ultrasound. Ulnar nerve (UN) shear wave velocity (SWV) and SMI were performed in a longitudinal plane. RESULTS: Based on the EDX findings, UNE severity was graded as mild in 4, moderate in 10, and severe in 34. The patient group showed increased ulnar nerve CSA and stiffness at the site of maximal enlargement (CSA mean at the site of max enlargement [CSAmax] and SWV mean at the site of max enlargement [SWVmax]), ulnar nerve CSA ratio, and stiffness ratio (elbow-to-upper arm), compared with the control group (p < .001). Furthermore, the severe UNE group showed higher ulnar nerve CSAmax and SWVmax compared with the mild and moderate UNE groups (p < .001). The cutoff values for diagnosis of UNE were 9.5 mm2 for CSAmax, 3.06 m/s for SWVmax, 2.00 for CSA ratio, 1.36 for stiffness ratio, and grade 1 for SMI. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that SWE and SMI are valuable diagnostic tools for the diagnosis and assessment of severity of UNE.

9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of women are choosing mastectomy and subpectoral implant (SI) breast reconstruction over breast-conserving therapy (BCT). It is unclear to what extent these procedures differ in their effect on the pectoralis major (PM). The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of choosing BCT or SI breast reconstruction on PM function. METHODS: Ultrasound shear wave elastography images were acquired from the PM fiber regions and surface electromyography obtained activity from six shoulder muscles, while 14 BCT participants, 14 SI participants, and 14 age-matched controls remained at rest or generated submaximal shoulder torques. RESULTS: BCT and SI participants were significantly weaker in shoulder adduction, while BCT participants were also weaker in internal and external rotation (all p ≤ 0.003). PM function was altered following either BCT or SI. In all treatment groups, the clavicular fiber region contributed primarily to flexion, and the sternocostal primarily contributed to adduction. However, healthy participants utilized the clavicular region more during adduction and the sternocostal region more during flexion when compared to BCT or SI participants (all p ≤ 0.049). The still intact clavicular region increased its contributions to flexion torques in SI participants compared to controls (p = 0.016). Finally, BCT and SI participants compensated for changes in PM function using synergistic shoulder musculature. CONCLUSION: Both BCT and SI breast reconstruction result in significant long-term upper extremity strength deficits. Our results suggest changes to the underlying function of the PM and the adoption of unique but inadequate neuromuscular compensation strategies drive these deficits.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(11): e31742, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845994

ABSTRACT

This review aims to explore the current application of Cranial Ultrasound Screening (CUS) in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases in extremely preterm infants. It also discusses the potential role of emerging ultrasound-derived technologies such as Super Microvascular Structure Imaging (SMI), Shear Wave Elastography (SWE), Ultrafast Doppler Ultrasound (UfD), and 3D ventricular volume assessment and automated segmentation techniques in clinical practice. A systematic search of medical databases was conducted using the keywords "(preterm OR extremely preterm OR extremely low birth weight) AND (ultrasound OR ultrasound imaging) AND (neurodevelopment OR brain development OR brain diseases OR brain injury OR neuro*)" to identify relevant literature. The titles, abstracts, and full texts of the identified articles were carefully reviewed to determine their relevance to the research topic. CUS offers unique advantages in early screening and monitoring of brain diseases in extremely preterm infants, as it can be performed at the bedside without the need for anesthesia or special monitoring. This technique facilitates early detection and intervention of conditions such as intraventricular hemorrhage, white matter injury, hydrocephalus, and hypoxic-ischemic injury in critically ill preterm infants. Continuous refinement of the screening and follow-up processes provides reliable clinical decision-making support for healthcare professionals and parents. Emerging ultrasound technologies, such as SWE, SMI, and UfD, are being explored to provide more accurate and in-depth understanding of brain diseases in extremely preterm infants. SWE has demonstrated its effectiveness in assessing the elasticity of neonatal brain tissue, aiding in the localization and quantification of potential brain injuries. SMI can successfully identify microvascular structures in the brain, offering a new perspective on neurologic diseases. UfD provides a high-sensitivity and quantitative imaging method for the prevention and treatment of neonatal brain diseases by detecting subtle changes in red blood cell movement and accurately assessing the status and progression of brain diseases. CUS and its emerging technologies have significant applications in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases in extremely preterm infants. Future research aims to address current technical challenges, optimize and enhance the clinical decision-making capabilities related to brain development, and improve the prevention and treatment outcomes of brain diseases in extremely preterm infants.

11.
JVS Vasc Sci ; 5: 100198, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846626

ABSTRACT

Objective: Strain has become a viable index for evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysm stability after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In addition, literature has shown that healthy aortic tissue requires a degree of strain to maintain homeostasis. This has led to the hypothesis that too much strain reduction conferred by a high degree of graft oversizing is detrimental to the aneurysm neck in the seal zone of abdominal aortic aneurysms after EVAR. We investigated this in a laboratory experiment by examining the effects that graft oversizing has on the pressure-normalized strain ( ε ρ + ¯ /pulse pressure [PP]) reduction using four different infrarenal EVAR endografts and our ultrasound elastography technique. Approximate graft oversizing percentages were 20% (30 mm phantom-graft combinations), 30% (28 mm phantom-graft combinations), and 50% (24 mm phantom-graft combinations). Methods: Axisymmetric, 10% by mass polyvinyl alcohol phantoms were connected to a flow simulator. Ultrasound elastography was performed before and after implantation with the four different endografts: (1) 36 mm polyester/stainless steel, (2) 36 mm polyester/electropolished nitinol, (3) 35 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/nitinol, and (4) 36 mm nitinol/polyester/platinum-iridium. Five ultrasound cine loops were taken of each phantom-graft combination. They were analyzed over two different cardiac cycles (end-diastole to end-diastole), yielding a total of 10 maximum mean principal strain ( ε ρ + ¯ ) values. ε ρ + ¯ was divided by pulse pressure to yield pressure-normalized strain ( ε ρ + ¯ /PP). An analysis of variance was performed for graft comparisons. We calculated the average percent ε ρ + ¯ /PP reduction by manufacturer and percent oversizing. These values were used for linear regression analysis. Results: Results from one-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference in ε ρ + ¯ /PP between the empty phantom condition and all oversizing conditions for all graft manufacturers (F(3, 56) = 106.7 [graft A], 132.7 [graft B], 106.5 [graft C], 105.7 [graft D], P < .0001 for grafts A-D). There was a significant difference when comparing the 50% condition with the 30% and 20% conditions across all manufacturers by post hoc analysis (P < .0001). No significant difference was found when comparing the 20% and 30% oversizing conditions for any of the manufacturers or when comparing ε ρ + ¯ /PP values across the manufacturers according to percent oversize. Linear regression demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the percent graft oversize and the all-graft average percent ε ρ + ¯ /PP reduction ( R 2  = 0.84, P < .0001). Conclusions: This brief report suggests that a 10% increase in graft oversizing leads to an approximate 5.9% reduction in ε ρ + ¯ /PP on average. Applied clinically, this increase may result in increased stiffness in axisymmetric vessels after EVAR. Further research is needed to determine if this is clinically significant.

12.
J Ultrasound ; 2024 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study attempts to assess the effectiveness of the diagnostic of ultrasonography (US) features and shear wave elastography (SWE) in determining the different causes of heel pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 55 heels with a mean age of 38.33 ± 10.8 were included in the study (10 control cases and 41 cases, 4 of which had bilateral heel pain). There were 23 female cases (56.1%) and 18 male cases (43.95%). Examinations using shear wave elastography (SWE) and ultrasound (US) were done in different positions. MRI and the obtained data were correlated. RESULTS: When used to diagnose different heel pain causes, ultrasound demonstrated great sensitivity and specificity. SWE demonstrated a good correlation with MRI findings and enhanced the ultrasound's diagnostic precision in identifying plantar fasciitis early on (increased accuracy from 88.9 to 93.33% with 100% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity) and Achilles tendinopathy (increased accuracy from 88.9 to 97.8 with 94.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity). CONCLUSION: In summary, we concluded that heel pain can be efficiently examined by both ultrasound (US) and shear wave elastography (SWE) with the former being used as the primary effective tool and the latter being done to increase diagnostic accuracy. We also concluded that SWE improved the ultrasound's diagnostic precision in identifying patients with early plantar fasciitis and Achilles tendinopathy and showed a robust relationship with clinical outcomes, enhancing patient evaluation and follow-up.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2402338, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874205

ABSTRACT

Mechanically, the brain is characterized by both solid and fluid properties. The resulting unique material behavior fosters proliferation, differentiation, and repair of cellular and vascular networks, and optimally protects them from damaging shear forces. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive imaging technique that maps the mechanical properties of the brain in vivo. MRE studies have shown that abnormal processes such as neuronal degeneration, demyelination, inflammation, and vascular leakage lead to tissue softening. In contrast, neuronal proliferation, cellular network formation, and higher vascular pressure result in brain stiffening. In addition, brain viscosity has been reported to change with normal blood perfusion variability and brain maturation as well as disease conditions such as tumor invasion. In this article, the contributions of the neuronal, glial, extracellular, and vascular networks are discussed to the coarse-grained parameters determined by MRE. This reductionist multi-network model of brain mechanics helps to explain many MRE observations in terms of microanatomical changes and suggests that cerebral viscoelasticity is a suitable imaging marker for brain disease.

14.
J Biophotonics ; : e202400028, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877699

ABSTRACT

Skin burns that include tissue coagulation necrosis imply variations in stiffness. Dynamic phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) is used to evaluate the stiffness of burned skin nondestructively in this paper. The homemade dynamic OCE was initially verified through tissue-mimicking phantom experiments regarding Rayleigh wave speed. After being burned with a series of temperatures and durations, the corresponding structure and stiffness variations of mice skin were demonstrated by histological images, optical coherence tomography B-scans, and OCE elastic wave speed maps. The results clearly displayed the variation in elastic properties and stiffness of the scab edge extending in the lateral direction. Statistical analysis revealed that murine skin burned at temperatures exceeding 100°C typically exhibited greater stiffness than skin burned at temperatures below 100°C. The dynamic OCE technique shows potential application for incorporating elasticity properties as a biomechanical extension module to diagnose skin burn injuries.

15.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive evaluation of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) using ultrasonography holds significant clinical value. The associations between ultrasound (US)-based parameters and the pathological spectra remain unclear and controversial. This study aims to investigate the associations thoroughly. METHODS: The participants with MAFLD undergoing liver biopsy and multiparametric ultrasonography were prospectively recruited from December 2020 to September 2022. Three US-based parameters, namely attenuation coefficient (AC), liver stiffness (LS) and dispersion slope (DS) were obtained. The relationship between these parameters and steatosis grades, inflammation grades and fibrosis stages was examined. RESULTS: In this study with 116 participants, AC values significantly differed across distinct steatosis grades (p < 0.001), while DS and LS values varied among inflammation grades (p < 0.001) and fibrosis stages (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of AC ranged from 0.82 to 0.84 for differentiating steatosis grades, while AUCs of LS ranged from 0.62 to 0.76 for distinguishing inflammation grades and 0.83-0.95 for discerning fibrosis stages. AUCs for DS ranged from 0.79 to 0.81 in discriminating inflammation grades and 0.80-0.88 for differentiating fibrosis stages. Subgroup analysis revealed that LS demonstrated different trends in inflammation grade but consistent trends in fibrosis stage across subgroups, whereas DS showed consistent trends for both inflammation grade and fibrosis stage across all subgroups. CONCLUSION: AC values indicate the degree of hepatic steatosis but not inflammation or fibrosis. LS values are determined only by fibrosis stage and are not associated with inflammation grades. DS values are associated with both fibrosis and inflammation grades.

16.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although magnetically induced hyperthermia has shown great efficiency in the treatment of solid tumors, it is still a challenge to avoid incomplete ablation or overtreatment. In this study, we applied magnetomotive ultrasound shear wave elastography (MMUS-SWE) as a tool for real-time image guidance and feedback in the magnetic hyperthermia (MH) process. We called this new method as magneto-acoustic theranostic approach (MATA). METHODS: In MATA, a ferromagnetic particle (fMP) was simultaneously used as a thermoseed for MH and a shear wave source for MMUS-SWE. The fMP was excited by a high-frequency magnetic field to induce the heating effect for MH. Meanwhile, the fMP was stimulated by a pulsed magnetic field to generate shear wave propagation for MMUS-SWE. Thus, the changes in elastic modulus surrounding fMP can be used to estimate the therapy effect of MH. RESULTS: The phantom and in vitro experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility of MATA, which has good performance in magnetothermal conversion and treatment efficacy feedback. The shear wave speed of the isolated pork liver changed significantly after the MH process, which varied from about 1.36 to 4.85 m/s. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results proved that changes in elastic modulus could be useful to estimate the therapy effect of MH. We expect that MATA, which is the integration of MMUS-SWE and MH, will be a novel theranostic method for clinical translation.

17.
Heliyon ; 10(11): e32255, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38882265

ABSTRACT

Background: Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a novel imaging technique that provides quantitative assessments of tissue stiffness. This non-invasive method offers real-time, quantitative measurements and has been widely applied to various tissues, providing valuable diagnostic insights. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SWE to evaluate the stiffness of the lens in patients with age-related cataracts. Materials and methods: A comparative analysis involving 92 patients diagnosed with age-related cataracts and 39 healthy controls was conducted. Lens stiffness was quantified using SWE measurements. The lens nucleus of all participants was graded based on the Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). Correlations between the stiffness of the lens and age were also analyzed. Results: The study indicates that both the stiffness of the lens and the lens nucleus were significantly higher in patients with age-related cataracts compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). In patients with age-related cataracts, although lens nucleus stiffness variations across different grades of cataract severity were not statistically significant, all grades displayed increased stiffness relative to healthy controls. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between lens stiffness and age was observed in all participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: SWE appears to be a promising imaging technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical characteristics of the lens in patients with age-related cataracts.

18.
J Periodontal Res ; 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837789

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess ultrasonographic tissue elasticity at teeth and implant sites and its variation after peri-implant soft tissue augmentation with a connective tissue graft (CTG). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients, each contributing with one clinically healthy dental implant exhibiting a soft tissue dehiscence (PSTD), were included. Implant sites were augmented with CTG and monitored over 12 months. Ultrasonographic strain elastography, expressed as strain ratios (SR1, SR2, and SR3, respectively) was assessed at baseline, 6-, and 12-month, and compared with the corresponding contralateral homologous natural tooth. SR1 assessed the strain/elasticity of the midfacial coronal portion of the soft tissue in comparison to the natural tooth crown/implant-supported crown, SR2 evaluated the strain of the midfacial coronal soft tissue in relation to the one of the alveolar mucosa, while SR3 depicted the strain of the midfacial soft tissue in relation to the interproximal soft tissue on the transverse ultrasound scan. RESULTS: SR1 in natural dentition and at implant sites was 0.20 ± 0.08 and 0.30 ± 0.14, respectively (p = .002), indicating that the coronal portion of the soft tissue around teeth is generally more elastic than its counterpart around dental implants. Soft tissue augmentation with CTG promoted an increased stiffness of the midfacial coronal portion of the soft tissue over 12 months (p < .001 for SR1, SR2, and SR3). Strain ratios at the 12-month time points were significantly higher than the values observed at 6 months (p < .001). Regression analysis demonstrated that strain elastography ratios in natural dentition were significantly associated with keratinized gingiva width, and gingival thickness. At implant sites, SR1 was significantly associated with keratinized mucosa width and mucosal thickness (p < .001 for both correlations), SR2 was significantly associated with keratinized mucosa width (p = .013), and SR3 was significantly associated with the surgical technique performed in combination with CTG (p = .022). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound strain elastography captures and quantifies tissue elasticity and its changes after soft tissue augmentation. A different baseline tissue elasticity was observed between teeth and dental implants in the most coronal aspect of the soft tissue. The main factors affecting tissue elasticity-related outcomes were the keratinized tissue width, and mucosal thickness.

19.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 12: 100573, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855720

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Shear wave elastography (SWE), an ultrasonographic technique to measure the elasticity of mass lesions to evaluate breast mass. This study aimed to find out the cutoff values identifying breast malignancy using the mean elasticity (E-mean) and elasticity ratio (E-ratio) of breast masses. Methods: This retrospective study included women underwent SWE and US-guided biopsy of breast masses. During conventional US, the SWE mode was also performed, determining elasticity measurements, E-mean and E-ratio. Histopathological reports were obtained to identify mass status. The optimal and alternative cutoff values for E-mean and E-ratio to determine malignancy were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Youden's index score. Results: Among 147 benign and 93 malignant masses, the median of E-means were 26.20 (IQR 15.70-56.60) and 141.60 (IQR 119.80-154.60) kPa and the median E-ratios were 3.11 (IQR 1.83-5.23) and 9.24 (IQR 6.76-12.44), respectively. Using Youden's index, the optimal cutoff values for E-mean and E-ratio were 90.35 and 5.89, with sensitivity of 87.1 % and 82.8 %, specificity of 89.1 % and 83.7 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.5 % and 76.2 %, negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.6 % and 88.5 %, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 8.00 and 5.07, and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.14 and 0.21, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that SWE is useful in predicting malignancy. With the optimal cutoff values of E-mean and E-ratio at 90.35 kPa and 5.89, the sensitivity was nearly 90 % with E-mean and slightly over 80 % with E-ratio, respectively. These findings could be used in conjunction with conventional US.

20.
Biofabrication ; 2024 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862006

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that cancer progression is linked to tissue viscoelasticity, which challenges the commonly accepted notion that stiffness is the main mechanical hallmark of cancer. However, this new insight has not reached widespread clinical use, as most clinical trials focus on the application of tissue elasticity and stiffness in diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical planning. Therefore, there is a need to advance the fundamental understanding of the effect of viscoelasticity on cancer progression, to develop novel mechanical biomarkers of clinical significance. Tissue viscoelasticity is largely determined by the extracellular matrix (ECM), which can be simulated in vitro using hydrogel-based platforms. Since the mechanical properties of hydrogels can be easily adjusted by changing parameters such as molecular weight and crosslinking type, they provide a platform to systematically study the relationship between ECM viscoelasticity and cancer progression. This review begins with an overview of cancer viscoelasticity, describing how tumor cells interact with biophysical signals in their environment, how they contribute to tumor viscoelasticity, and how this translates into cancer progression. Next, an overview of clinical trials focused on measuring biomechanical properties of tumors is presented, highlighting the biomechanical properties utilized for cancer diagnosis and monitoring. Finally, this review examines the use of biofabricated tumor models for studying the impact of ECM viscoelasticity on cancer behavior and progression and it explores potential avenues for future research on the production of more sophisticated and biomimetic tumor models, as well as their mechanical evaluation.

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