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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tospovirus , Plant Diseases , Soybeans , Incidence , Urticaceae , Egypt/epidemiology , Plant Weeds , Necrosis
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366891

ABSTRACT

Aim: to evaluate the internet searches for Invisalign® in Brazil and worldwide between 2018 and 2021, using the Google Trends tool. Methods: An infodemiological study was carried out. The relative search volume (RSV) for the term "invisalign" in Google platform was retrieved for each year of study, both in Brazil and worldwide, using a standard procedure. Results and Conclusion: Both in Brazil and worldwide, there was a statistically significant increase in RSV between 2018 and 2021 (all p <0.05), indicating progressively more interest in Invisalign® clear aligner on the internet.


Objetivo: avaliar as buscas na internet por Invisalign® no Brasil e no mundo entre 2018 e 2021, utilizando a ferramenta Google Trends. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo infodemiológico. O volume relativo de busca (RSV) para o termo "invisalign" na plataforma Google foi recuperado para cada ano de estudo, tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, utilizando um procedimento padrão. Resultados e Conclusão: Tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, houve um aumento estatisticamente significativo do RSV entre 2018 e 2021 (todos p <0.05), indicando progressivamente mais interesse pelo alinhador transparente Invisalign® na internet.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Orthodontics , Epidemiology
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378522

ABSTRACT

Objective: the aim of this study was to relate sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical conditions to the occurrence of severe cases of HZ in reference hospital of Fortaleza. Methods: this is a cross-sectional analytical study, based on medical records of patients admitted from 2009 to 2018. Pearson's x2 test or Fisher's exact test were used when appropriate. Results: we analyzed 196 medical records. The presence of complications occurred in 69.9%, the most affected region was the cranial (68.9%), and 1.5% died. The presence of vesicles (PR=1.37; 95%CI: 1.03-1.82; p=0.01) and the choice of antibiotic associated antiviral therapy (PR=0.58; 95%CI: 0.46-0.73; p=0.00) were significantly associated with the severity. Conclusions: the disease may be more severe at ages over 50. The presence of lesions in vesicles was associated with a higher prevalence of complications and the use of antibiotics and antivirals as a protective factor.


Objetivo: relacionar condições sociodemográficas, epidemiológicas e clínicas à ocorrência de casos graves de HZ em hospital de referência de Fortaleza. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo analítico transversal, baseado em prontuários de pacientes internados de 2009 a 2018. Foram utilizados o teste x2 de Pearson ou o teste exato de Fisher, quando apropriado. Resultados: foram analisados 196 prontuários. A presença de complicações ocorreu em 69,9%, a região mais acometida foi a craniana (68,9%), e 1,5% foi a óbito. A presença de vesículas (RP=1,37; IC95%: 1,03-1,82; p=0,01) e a escolha da terapia antiviral associada a antibióticos (RP=0,58; IC95%: 0,46-0,73; p=0,00) foram significativamente associadas com a gravidade. Conclusões: a doença pode ser mais grave a partir dos 50 anos. A presença de lesões em vesículas foi associada à maior prevalência de complicações e o uso de antibióticos e antivirais como fator de proteção.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster , Medical Records , Disease , Epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Hospitalization , Inpatients , Methods
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378478

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, espaciais e temporais da leishmaniose visceral humana, no município de Sobral, no período de 2007 a 2019. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo e ecológico de análise espacial e temporal, com uso dos programas Quantum-Gis e Joinpoint. Resultados: foram confirmados 316 casos novos, predominantemente, no sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias de 1 a 4 anos (26,3%) e de 20 a 39 anos (24,0%), na zona urbana. Febre (95,9%), fraqueza (85,1%), emagrecimento (80,1%), palidez (73,7%), esplenomegalia (75,6%) e hepatomegalia (69,3%) foram os sinais clínicos mais frequentes. A doença se concentrou em quatro bairros: Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa e Sinhá Saboia, expressando áreas mais densas (quentes). A incidência e a letalidade foram crescentes no início do período e decrescentes no final, com uma inversão destes indicadores no ano de 2014. Conclusão: em Sobral, a leishmaniose visceral humana é um agravo considerado relevante para o serviço de vigilância em saúde com necessidade de intensificação das ações de controle entomológico, zoonótico e de manejo ambiental, principalmente nas áreas mais densas.


Objectives: the objective was to describe the epidemiological, spatial, and temporal aspects of human visceral leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Sobral, from 2007 to 2019. Methods: A descriptive, spatial and temporal ecological study was carried out using Quantum-Gis and Joinpoint programs. Results: 316 new cases were confirmed, predominantly in males, in the age groups of 1 to 4 years (26.3%) and 20 to 39 years (24.0%), mainly in the urban area. Fever (95.9%), weakness (85.1%), weight loss (80.1%), pallor (73.7%), splenomegaly (75.6%), and hepatomegaly (69.3%) were the most frequent clinical signs. The disease was concentrated in four neighborhoods (Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa, and Sinhá Saboia), hot spots. The incidence and case-fatality increased at the beginning of the period but decreased at the end, with an inversion in these in the year 2014. Conclusion: In Sobral, human visceral leishmaniasis is a disease considered relevant to the health surveillance service, with the need to intensify entomological, zoonotic, and environmental management actions, especially in denser areas.


Subject(s)
Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Signs and Symptoms , Health Surveillance , Epidemiology , Mortality , Indicators and Reagents , Age Groups
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 257-263, Agosto 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371844

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las intoxicaciones pediátricas son un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las intoxicaciones pediátricas que fueron atendidas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP) de un hospital en Chile. Población y métodos. Se revisaron las fichas clínicas de pacientes diagnosticados con intoxicación e ingresados a la UCIP entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados. Un total de 105 casos fueron identificados, lo que representa un 3 % del total de ingresos registrados en el período estudiado. La mediana de edad de los pacientes resultó ser de 10 años. El 73,3 % de los casos correspondieron a pacientes de sexo femenino. El 51 % de los casos se asociaron a intoxicaciones intencionales y el 83 % fue causado por exposición a medicamentos. Los medicamentos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron los antidepresivos (11,2 %), analgésicos no esteroides (10,7 %). La ingesta fue la vía de exposición más común (93 %). El promedio de estadía de los pacientes en UCIP fue de 1,3 días. Dos pacientes ingresaron en la UCI: uno requirió intubación y otro hemodiálisis. Se determinaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el sexo del paciente y la circunstancia de exposición, y entre la condición psiquiátrica del paciente y el número de sustancias tóxicas ingeridas. Conclusión. La mayoría de las intoxicaciones atendidas en la UCIP fueron intencionales y correspondieron a pacientes de sexo femenino, a quienes se les asoció alguna patología psiquiátrica. Los grupos de medicamentos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron los antidepresivos y los antiinflamatorios no esteroides.


Introduction. Pediatric poisoning is a public health problem worldwide. The objective of this study was to establish the characteristics of pediatric cases of poisoning seen at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a hospital in Chile. Population and methods. The medical records of patients diagnosed with poisoning and admitted to the PICU between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. Results. A total of 105 cases were identified, who account for 3% of all admissions recorded in the study period. Patients' median age was 10 years. In total, 73.3% of cases were female patients; 51% of cases were associated with intentional poisoning; and 83% were caused by drug exposure. The most common drugs identified were antidepressants (11.2%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (10.7%). Intake was the most frequent route of exposure (93%). The average length of stay in the PICU was 1.3 days. One patient required intubation and another required hemodialysis in the PICU. Statistically significant relationships were established between patient sex and the circumstance of exposure and between the patient's psychiatric condition and the number of toxic substances ingested. Conclusion. Most poisoning cases seen at the PICU were intentional and occurred in female patients, who had a psychiatric condition. The most common drugs identified were antidepressants and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Poisons , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antidepressive Agents
6.
Preprint in Portuguese | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-4423

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the profile of tuberculosis cases and analyze the temporal trend of the disease incidence in Santa Catarina, according to sex, from 2010 to 2019. Methods: Time series study carried out with data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sinan). The Prais-Winsten regression model was used. Results: There were 16,446 new cases of tuberculosis. Most cases occurred in men (68.5%), people aged 20 to 49 years (70.3%), in Greater Florianópolis (25.1%) and in individuals with incomplete elementary school (40.0%). A decreasing trend was observed in the incidence rates of tuberculosis for men (VPA: -1.86% ­ 95%CI -2.68;-1.03), women (VPA: -1.92% ­ 95%CI -2.63;- 1.20) and both sexes (VPA: -1.77% ­ 95%CI -2.37;-1.17). Conclusion: In the decade analyzed, there was a significant reduction in the incidence rate of tuberculosis in Santa Catarina, in both sexes. A predominantly male profile was observed, of an economically active age and with low education.


Objetivo: Describir el perfil de los casos de tuberculosis y analizar la tendencia temporal de la incidencia de la enfermedad en Santa Catarina, según sexo, de 2010 a 2019. Métodos: Estudio de series de tiempo realizado con datos del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables (Sinan). Se utilizó el modelo de regresión de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: Se registraron 16.446 nuevos casos de tuberculosis. La mayoría de los casos ocurrieron en hombres (68,5%), personas de 20 a 49 años (70,3%), Gran Florianópolis (25,1%) y en individuos con primaria incompleta (40,0%). Se observó una tendencia decreciente en las tasas de incidencia de tuberculosis para hombres (VPA: -1,86% ­ IC95% -2,68;-1,03), mujeres (VPA: -1,92% ­ IC95% -2,63;-1,20) y ambos sexos (VPA: -1,77% ­ IC95% -2,37;-1,17). Conclusión: En la década analizada, hubo una reducción significativa en la tasa de incidencia de tuberculosis en Santa Catarina, en ambos sexos. Se observó un perfil predominantemente masculino, en edad económicamente activa y con baja escolaridad.


Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos casos de tuberculose e analisar a tendência temporal da incidência da doença em Santa Catarina, Brasil, segundo sexo, no período de 2010 a 2019. Métodos: Estudo de série temporal, realizado com dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan). Utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: Ocorreram 16.446 casos novos de tuberculose, em sua maioria homens (68,5%), pessoas de 20 a 49 anos de idade (70,3%), na Grande Florianópolis (25,1%) e em indivíduos com ensino fundamental incompleto (40,0%). Observou-se tendência de decréscimo nas taxas de incidência de tuberculose para homens (VPA: -1,86% ­ IC95% - 2,68;-1,03), mulheres (VPA: -1,92% ­ IC95% -2,63;-1,20) e ambos os sexos (VPA: -1,77%­ IC95% -2,37;-1,17). Conclusão: Na década analisada, ocorreu redução significativa na taxa de incidência de tuberculose em Santa Catarina, em ambos os sexos. Observou-se perfil predominantemente masculino, em idade economicamente ativa e com baixa escolaridade.

7.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 97(2): 129.e1-129.e8, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871151

ABSTRACT

We present a summary of the main modifications to the "COVID-19 in Paediatrics" clinical practice guideline made from its initial version, published in 2021, and the version published in 2022. The document was developed following the structured steps of evidence-based medicine and applying the GRADE system to synthesize the evidence, assess its quality and, when appropriate, issue graded recommendations (based on the quality of the evidence, values and preferences, the balance between benefits, risks and costs, equity and feasibility). This update also includes the modifications proposed by external reviewers. We summarised the main modifications in the following sections: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and vaccines. In relation to the body of knowledge achieved in the first year of the pandemic, the literature published in the second year contributed additional data, but without substantial modifications in many the areas. The main changes took place in the field of vaccine research. This update was completed in December 2021, coinciding with the emergence of infections by the omicron variant, so the document will need to be updated in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S4-S12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization declared the global SARS-CoV-2 infection a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The objective of this paper is to present its impact in terms of physical and mental health 22 months later. METHOD: We have reviewed results from published meta-analysis and systematic reviews, and some individual articles on specific aspects of special interest. National information on infection comes for the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (RENAVE). RESULTS: Up to the end of October, more than 250 million infections and 5 million deaths had been reported globally. In Spain, 4.7 million infections have been documented although the real figure might be above 7 million. The pandemic has reduced life expectancy, and its effects have been especially dramatic in people with comorbidities and the elderly. There is a worsening of mental health in the general population. It is foreseeable that some groups, such as health professionals, mostly women, and front-line workers, may have a greater risk of developing mental health pathologies. The pandemic and the control measures have had other undesirable consequences such as a decrease in healthcare utilization, an increase in sedentary lifestyle or an increase in gender violence. In addition to its immediate effect on morbidity and mortality, the control measures have damaged the overall health status of the global population. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the mid and long consequences of the pandemic and the control measures, and to identify and evaluate effective health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
9.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S76-S81, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781153

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 crisis, local epidemiology units have been forced to manage an increasing number of cases, contacts and outbreaks for which they were not previously prepared or staffed. Under normal circumstances, the efficient study and control of outbreaks and public health alerts requires human and material resources, situation analysis to identify possible causes and present recommendations, coordination with other health system structures, as well as the providing a written report including control and prevention measures implemented and their results or other recommendations. The field study of outbreaks has been systematized in a way that has made it possible to implement quick and effective measures, for the interruption of transmission chains and management of risk situations. To achieve this, a rapid and extraordinary exercise of digital integration, staff mobilization and creation of ad hoc structures needed to be carried out. Solidarity and cooperation between professionals from different administrations has been the pillar that has sustained the surveillance systems. Despite this, obstacles have been found as a result of the lack of coordination, social inequalities, and later, pandemic fatigue, which have reduced adherence and effectiveness of the implemented measures. It has also come to light the need to properly staff these units with trained professionals, and match working conditions and salaries with other health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , United States
10.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S82-S86, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781154

ABSTRACT

In Spain, the vaccination program began in a context of high transmission and low availability of vaccines. The objective of this article is to review the vaccination program against COVID-19 in Europe (3/03/2022) and assess the obstacles, challenges and opportunities posed by the control of this disease. Five vaccines are currently available in Europe: two based on mRNA technology (Comirnaty® and Spikevax®); two based on a non-replicative vector (Vaxzevria® and Janssen); and another based on subunit S (Novavax®). Health authorities have developed comprehensive vaccination strategies prioritizing the prevention of hospitalizations and deaths. In January 2022, 90% of the population was exceeded with full vaccination and 95% coverage in people over 50 years of age. The new challenge is to achieve similar coverage in the rest of the age groups. Vaccination in children and adolescents has become a priority due to the educational and social implications derived from COVID-19 in this population. Communication strategies must be renewed and access barriers eliminated to achieve good coverage. In Spain, studies have been published that find a high effectiveness of vaccination. The main strategy for controlling the pandemic and recovering social activity is the vaccination, but everything indicates that very high levels of vaccination coverage will be necessary and to follow with the non-pharmaceutical measures. In a globalized world, COVID-19 control will only be achieved with a coordinated global strategy and technical and economic support for the vaccination strategy in resource-poor countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
11.
Aten Primaria ; 54(8): 102413, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiology of heart failure registered in primary healthcare clinical records in Catalunya, Spain, between 2010 and 2014, focusing on incidence, mortality, and resource utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Study was carried out in primary care setting. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Patients registered as presenting a new heart failure diagnosis. The inclusion period ran from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013, but patients were followed until 31st December 2013 in order to analyze mortality. MAIN MEASURES: Information came from electronic medical records. RESULTS: A total of 64441 patients were registered with a new diagnosis of heart failure (2.76 new cases per 1000 persons-year). Among them, 85.8% were ≥65 years. The number of cases/1000 persons-year was higher in men in all age groups. Incidence ranged from 0.04 in women <45 years to 27.61 in the oldest group, and from 0.08 in men <45 years to 28.52 in the oldest group. Mortality occurred in 16305 (25.3%) patients. Primary healthcare resource utilization increased after the occurrence of heart failure, especially the number of visits made by nurses to the patients' homes. CONCLUSION: Heart failure incidence increases with age, is greater in men, and remains stable. Mortality continues to be high in newly diagnosed patients in spite of the current improvements in treatment. Home visits represent the greatest cost for the management of this disease in primary care setting.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Electronic Health Records , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Orv Hetil ; 163(24): 935-942, 2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895564

ABSTRACT

The article attempts to review the principal epidemiological data of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) based on the rapidly changing and expanding international and domestic literature. The review covers the so-called "long COVID-19" as well as the latest pharmacological and immunotherapeutic developments. The manuscript deals with the future of innovative vaccinology, the so-called 'pan-vaccines' developed through artificial intelligences and nanotechnology. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(24): 935-942.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 39(3): 121-127, jul-sep 2022. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-204044

ABSTRACT

Hypertension (HYP) is the first cause of death and disability worldwide. In Spain, one in 3 adults was hypertensive in 2010 (62% in those >65 years in 2017). Despite improvement in HYP management over time, only half of treated hypertensive patients are adequately controlled, which translates in 30,000 annual cardiovascular deaths attributable to HYP. Among modifiable determinants of lack of blood pressure (BP) control in Spain are: (a) the white-coat phenomenon (accounting for 20–50% of apparent lack of control) due to not using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, use ≈20%) or self-measurement of home BP (HBPM, use ≈60%) for confirming HYP diagnosis; (b) insufficient patientś adherence to BP-lowering lifestyles (e.g., only 40% of hypertensive patients have a sodium intake <2.4g/day, or follow a weight reduction advice), and (c) use of drug monotherapy (≈50% currently), usually insufficient to achieve an optimal control. It is necessary to implement strategies to monitor the evolution of the proportion of subjects with HYP with reasonable national update, to promote population's knowledge of their BP figures and of other cardiovascular risk factors, to improve the degree of HYP control and vascular risk in Spain.(AU)


La hipertensión arterial (HTA) sigue constituyendo la primera causa de mortalidad y discapacidad en el mundo. En España, el 33% de los adultos eran hipertensos en 2010 (62% en >65 años en 2017). Y, aunque ha habido mejora en su manejo, solo uno de cada 2 hipertensos adultos tratados está adecuadamente controlado; ello se traduce en unas 30.000 muertes cardiovasculares anuales atribuibles a la hipertensión. Entre los determinantes modificables de la falta de control de la presión arterial (PA) en España destacan: (a) el fenómeno de bata blanca (un 20-50% de los casos de aparente falta de control), en parte por la escasa utilización de monitorización ambulatoria de la PA (MAPA -uso, ≈20%) e incluso de automedida de la PA en el hogar (AMPA -uso, ≈60%) para confirmar el diagnóstico de HTA; (b) la insuficiente adherencia del paciente a estilos de vida reductores de la PA (p. ej., solo el 40% de los hipertensos siguen el consejo de ingesta no elevada de sodio, o el de reducir su excesivo peso); y c) el uso insuficiente de terapia farmacológica combinada (≈50% actualmente) para lograr un control óptimo. Es necesario implementar estrategias para monitorizar la evolución de la proporción de sujetos con HTA con una razonable y decorosa actualización en el contexto internacional, fomentar el conocimiento de la población de sus cifras de PA y de otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular, y mejorar el grado de control de la HTA y el riesgo cardiovascular en España.(AU)


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/complications , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Epidemiology , Disease Prevention
14.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662678

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The impact of therapeutic improvements in nonrheumatic aortic valve disease (NRAVD) has been assessed at the patient level but not in the whole population with the disease. Our objective was to assess temporal trends in hospitalization rates, treatment and fatality rates in patients with a main or secondary NRAVD diagnosis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of administrative claims from patients hospitalized with a main or secondary NRAVD diagnosis between 2003 and 2018 in Spain. Time trends in age- and sex-standardized hospitalization and procedure rates, baseline characteristics and case fatality rates by diagnosis type were assessed by Poisson regression and joinpoint analysis. RESULTS: Hospital admissions in patients with NRAVD increased from 69 213 in 2003 to 136 185 in 2018. The crude in-hospital fatality rate increased from 6.7% to 8.7% (IRR, 1.015; 95%CI, 1.012-1.018; P <.001) without changes after adjustment. Adjusted fatality rates decreased in patients with a main NRAVD diagnosis (5.5% to 3.5%; IRR, 0.953; 95%CI, 0.942-0.964) but increased in those with a secondary diagnosis (8.0% to 8.8%; IRR, 1.005; 95%CI, 1.002-1.009). Aortic valve replacements increased from 10.5 to 17.1 procedures per 100 000 population (IRR, 1.033; 95%CI, 1.030-1.037), mainly driven by transcatheter procedures (IRR, 1.345; 95%CI, 1.302-1.389). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations in patients with NRAVD are increasing, with most being secondary diagnoses. The use of aortic valve replacement is increasing with a reduction in fatality rates but only in patients with a main diagnosis.

15.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 11(2): 155-174, abr.-jun.2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378026

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar a dinâmica da COVID-19 no município de Bagé, construindo uma radiografia detalhada da propagação do SARS-CoV-2, relacionando a disseminação com as medidas de contenção impostas pelos governos estadual e municipal. Paralelamente, analisou-se uma série de eventos sociais e o comportamento da população frente essas medidas, de modo a relacionar seus impactos na disseminação do vírus. Metodologia: a pesquisa é caracterizada como quali-quantitativa, com um período de análise entre março de 2020 até abril de 2021. Foram utilizados dados de registros diários de novos casos, casos ativos, curados e suspeitos, números de óbitos, de leitos clínicos e de vagas em UTI, em conjunto com os dados de isolamento social. Resultados: diante dos dados analisados identificou-se indícios de que as medidas adotadas pela gestão pública impactaram na propagação do vírus, além disso, observou-se quatro fases do comportamento populacional durante a pandemia no município: medo, incerteza, relaxamento e descontrole. Conclusão: a flexibilização das medidas adotadas pelo poder público gerou picos acentuados de contaminação, porém, não foi possível reduzir significativamente o número de casos ativos da doença após esses picos, indicando que as decisões do poder público e a incerteza gerada em parte da população impossibilitaram o controle efetivo da disseminação do vírus no período analisado.


Objective: to characterize the dynamics of COVID-19 in the municipality of Bagé, constructa detailed x-ray of the spread of the virus and analyze the impacts of the containment measures imposed by the state and municipal governments on contamination. Simultaneously, a series of social events and the behavior of the population against these measures are analyzed, torelate their impacts onthe spread of the virus. Methods: the research wascharacterized quali-quantitatively, with an analysis period between March 2020 and April 2021. Data from daily records of new cases, active, cured and suspected cases, numbers of deaths, clinical beds and vacanciesin ICU, together with social isolation data. Results: giventhe analyzed data, there was evidence that the measures adopted by public management had an impact on the spread of the virus, in addition, four phases of population behavior were observed duringthe pandemic in the municipality: fear, uncertainty, relaxation and lack of control.Conclusions:the measures of flexibility adopted by the government generated sharp peaks in contamination and after these peaks, it was not possible to significantly reduce the number of active cases of the diseasein general, indicating the decisions of the government hadgenerateduncertainlyin part of the populationandmade it impossible to effectively control the spread of the virus in the period analyzed.


Objetivo: caracterizar la dinámica del COVID-19 en el municipio de Bagé, construyendo una radiografía detallada de la propagación del SARS-CoV-2, relacionando la propagación con las medidas de contención impuestas por los gobiernos estatales y municipales. A su vez, se analizaron una serie de hechos sociales y el comportamiento de la población frente a estas medidas, con el fin de relacionar sus impactos en la propagación del virus. Metodología: la investigación se caracteriza cuali-cuantitativa, con un período de análisis entre marzo de 2020 y abril de 2021. Se utilizaron datos de registros diarios de nuevos casos, casos activos, curados y sospechosos, número de muertes, camas clínicas y vacantes de UCI, junto con datos sobre aislamiento social. Resultados: ante los datos analizados, se identificaron evidencias de que las medidas adoptadas por la gestión pública incidieron en la propagación del virus, además, se observaron cuatro fases de comportamiento de la población durante la pandemia en el municipio: miedo, incertidumbre, relajación y falta de control. Conclusión: la flexibilidad de las medidas adoptadas por el gobierno generó fuertes picos de contaminación y que, en general, luego de estos picos no fue posible reducir significativamente el número de casos activos de la enfermedad, lo que indica que las decisiones del gobierno y la incertidumbre generada en parte de la población imposibilitó el control efectivo de la propagación del virus en el período analizado.

16.
Preprint in Portuguese | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-4336

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the management and results of the test event to make distancing measures more flexible in Santa Catarina, Brazil. This is an experience report that described results of the test-event, carried out in July 2021 and for which the participants underwent the real-time polymerase chain reaction diagnostic test 72-48 hours before, being monitored for 15 days. The outcomes analyzed were SARS-Cov-2 infection up to 14 days after the event and presence of symptoms. Among 313 participants, the mean age was 45.1 years and 54.3% were female. In the monitoring, 7.7% (24) of the contacted participants reported symptoms compatible with infection, but of the 240 who attended for post-event testing, none of the results detected the presence of the virus. There were no post-event COVID-19 cases reported. It is suggested that other test-events be carried out to evaluate the recommendations indicated.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la gestión y los resultados del evento de prueba para flexibilizar las medidas de distanciamiento en Santa Catarina, Brasil. Este es relato de experiencia que describió resultados del evento, realizado en julio de 2021 y para el cual los participantes se sometieron a la prueba diagnóstica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real 72-48 horas antes, monitoreados durante 15 días. Los desenlaces analizados fueron infección por SARS-Cov-2 hasta 14 días después del evento y presencia de síntomas. Entre 313 participantes, la edad media fue 45,1 años y 54,3% mujeres. En el seguimiento, 7,7% (24) reportaron síntomas compatibles con infección, pero de los 240 que acudieron a los exámenes posteriores al evento, ninguno de los resultados detectó virus. No se informaron casos posteriores al evento de COVID-19. Se sugiere realizar otros eventos de prueba para evaluar recomendaciones indicadas.


Este estudo visou descrever a gestão e os resultados do evento-teste para flexibilização das medidas de distanciamento em Santa Catarina, Brasil. Trata-se de relato de experiência que descreveu os resultados do evento-teste, realizado em julho de 2021, quando os participantes foram submetidos ao teste diagnóstico de reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real 72-48 horas antes, sendo monitorados por 15 dias. Os desfechos analisados foram a infecção pelo SARS-Cov-2 até 14 dias após o evento e a presença de sintomas. Entre 313 participantes, a média de idade foi de 45,1 anos e 54,3% eram do sexo feminino. No monitoramento, 7,7% (24) dos participantes contactados relataram sintomas compatíveis com infecção, embora dos 240 que compareceram para testagem pós-evento, nenhum resultado acusou presença do vírus. Não houve registro de casos de COVID-19 pós-evento. Sugere-se realização de outros eventos-teste para avaliar as recomendações indicadas.

17.
Preprint in English | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-4231

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy that affects the peripheral nervous system. The study aimed to describe the incidence of GBS in the world up to the year 2020. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Searches were done in four databases, PUBMED, EMBASE, EBSCO and Biblioteca virtual em Saude (BVS), and in grey literature and manual search in the reference lists of eligible studies.  Results: A total of 72 studies were included. The incidence of GBS among the cohort studies varied from 0.30 to 6.08 cases per 100.000 habitants and 0.42 to 6.58 cases per 100.000 person-years. Among the self-controlled studies, the risk incidence ranged from 0.072 to 1 case per 100.000 habitants and 1.73 to 4.30 cases per 100.000 person-years. Conclusions: The reported incidence of GBS in the world among the studies included in the review is slightly higher than that reported in previous studies. The highest incidence rates were associated with public health events of international concern.

18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(6): 2427-2436, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374990

ABSTRACT

Resumo O suicídio afeta pessoas de quase todas as idades e tem elevado custo social e econômico. Sabe-se, porém, que sua ocorrência é subestimada. O objetivo deste artigo é estudar o suicídio em São Paulo segundo dados da Segurança Pública, comparando com os do Ministério da Saúde (SIM/MS), a fim de mensurar possíveis ganhos de informação. Foi elaborado um banco (Banco SSP) a partir de planilhas de boletins de ocorrência policial, complementado com informações do Instituto Médico Legal, o qual foi comparado com os dados do SIM/MS. O Banco SSP (2.469) mostrou-se 7,5% mais elevado que o SIM/MS (2.297), resultados que se refletiram no sexo e idade das vítimas, mostrando taxas mais elevadas em homens idosos (taxa 12,8 por 100 mil habitantes). Quanto ao meio utilizado, verificou-se predomínio do enforcamento (60,2%); 92,5% de casos não especificados puderam ser esclarecidos, verificando-se aumento nas mortes por intoxicações exógenas (55,7%). O histórico policial permitiu conhecer variáveis consideradas como possíveis fatores de risco para o suicídio, como menção a transtornos mentais (39,4%), outras patologias (5,0%), outros problemas (23,2%) e tentativas anteriores (10,0%). A fonte estudada possibilitou ganho quantitativo e qualitativo em relação ao SIM/MS.


Abstract Suicide is prevalent among people of almost all ages and has a high social and economic cost. It is widely known, however, that its true prevalence is underestimated. This article aims to study suicide in São Paulo based on Public Safety data, compared with mortality information system data (SIM/MS), in order to assess possible information gains. A database (Banco SSP) was assembled from spreadsheets for police reports, complemented with existing Forensic Medicine Institute information, which was compared with the SIM/MS data. The Banco SSP database (2,469) was 7.5% higher than SIM/MS (2,297), with results reflected in the sex and age of the victims, showing the highest rates among elderly men (rate of 12.8 per 100,000 inhabitants). In relation to the method of suicide, there was a predominance of hanging (60.2%); 92.5% of unspecified cases were clarified, with an increase in deaths from exogenous poisoning (55.7%). The police reports revealed variables considered as possible risk factors for suicide, such as the mention of mental disorders (39.4%), other pathologies (5.0%), other problems (23.2%) and earlier attempted suicides (10.0%). The source studied enabled obtaining quantitative and qualitatively enhanced data compared to the SIM/MS data.

19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(6): 2197-2210, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375008

ABSTRACT

Abstract The article aimed to verify the association between physical activity (PA) and perceived environment among adults from a city in southern Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 820 adults living in the city of Criciúma-SC. Perceived environment was assessed using the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability scale and PA in the leisure and transportation domains using the long version of the International PA Questionnaire. It was observed that the neighborhood with public spaces for the practice of physical exercises and dog walking was associated with higher prevalence of compliance with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines. The fact of having an invitation from friends and/or relatives for PA, sporting events and the habit of dog walking were associated with leisure-time walking. Access to places for the purchase of fresh fruits/ vegetables, light/diet foods, to have sidewalks in most streets, to have pedestrian crossings and sporting events in the neighborhood were associated with higher prevalence of active transportation. Conversely, places for snacks or fast food in the neighborhood were associated with lower prevalence of active transportation. The perception of environmental variables was associated with MVPA, walking and active transportation.


Resumo O objetivo foi verificar a associação entre a prática de atividade física (AF) e a percepção do ambiente em adultos de uma cidade do Sul do Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 820 adultos, residentes na cidade de Criciúma-SC. A percepção do ambiente foi avaliada pela escala Neighborhood Environmental Walkability, e a AF no domínio do lazer e transporte ativo pela versão longa do Questionário Internacional de AF. Observou-se que o bairro com lugar público para a prática de exercícios físicos e o fato de passear com o cachorro estiveram associados a maiores prevalências de atendimento às recomendações de AF moderada à vigorosa (AFMV). O fato de ter convite de amigos e/ou parentes para AF, a realização de eventos esportivos e o hábito de passear com o cachorro estiveram associados à caminhada no lazer. O acesso a locais para aquisição de frutas/legumes frescos, alimentos light/diet, ter calçadas na maioria das ruas, ter faixas de segurança e ter eventos esportivos no bairro estiveram associados a maiores prevalências de deslocamento ativo. De forma contrária, lugares para lanches ou fast-food no bairro se associaram a menor prevalência de deslocamento ativo. A percepção de variáveis do ambiente esteve associada à AFMV, à prática de caminhada e ao transporte ativo.

20.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the trend of incidence and survival stratified by age, race, gender and SES and the differences in time between groups in stage III-IV upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. METHODS: 7,505 stage III-IV UTUC patients between 2004 and 2015 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. The overall survival (OS) and the cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test as well as multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 7,505 patients, 3,584 were classified as young, 2,464 were classified as middle-aged, and 1,461 were classified as elderly. The years of diagnosis were divided into three periods including 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015. The incidence rates for UTUC were 0.69, 0.74, and 0.77 per 100,000 in the first, second, and third period, respectively. Disparities in the long-term survival rate between male and female patients and among patients of different races narrowed over time. There was no difference in prognosis between races (p = 0.078 for OS and p = 0.167 for CSS). The difference in survival rate between the poor and rich groups narrowed along with the three time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Survival rate disparities according to sex, race, and socioeconomic status narrowed in time, except in patients aged 74-82 years. Increased age, black race, and poverty are associated with worse survival outcomes. In general, the long-term survival rate improved continuously across the three periods.

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