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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(3): 427-434, 2024 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between long-term fine particulate matter(PM_(2.5)) exposure and the risk of chronic kidney disease(CKD) in people with abnormal metabolism syndrome(MS) components. METHODS: Based on health checkup data from a hospital in Beijing, a retrospective cohort study was used to collect annual checkup data from 2013-2019. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. We measured blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, concentrations of triglycerides(TG), fasting glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Longitude and latitude were also extracted from the addresses of the study subjects for pollutant exposure data estimation. Logistic regression models were used to explore the estimated effect of long-term PM_(2.5) exposure on the risk of CKD prevalence in people with abnormal MS components. Two-pollutant and multi-pollutant models were developed to test the stability of these result. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on age, the presence of MS, individual MS component abnormalities, and dual-component MS abnormalities. RESULTS: The study included 1540 study subjects with abnormal MS components at baseline, 206 with CKD during the study period. The association between long-term PM_(2.5) exposure and increased risk of CKD in people with abnormal MS fractions was statistically significant, with a 2.26-fold increase in risk of CKD for every 10 µg/m~3 increase in PM_(2.5) exposure(OR=3.26, 95% CI 2.72-3.90). The result in the dual-pollutant models and multi-pollutant models suggested that the association between long-term PM_(2.5) exposure and increased risk of CKD in people with abnormal MS fractions remained stable after controlling for contemporaneous confounding by other air pollutants. The result of subgroup analysis revealed that individuals aged 45 or older, without MS, with TG<1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C≥1.04 mmol/L, without hypertension, and with central obesity and high blood sugar had a stronger association between PM_(2.5) exposure and CKD-related health effects. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM_(2.5) may increase the risk of CKD in people with abnormal MS components. More attention should be paid to middle-aged and elderly people aged ≥45 years, people with central obesity and hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Metabolic Syndrome , Particulate Matter , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Female , Male , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Adult , Cohort Studies , Risk Factors , Beijing/epidemiology , Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Logistic Models
2.
J Prev (2022) ; 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839738

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in middle-income countries such as Malaysia. There is a significant gap in knowledge between cardiovascular disease-related risk assessments and interventions in the Malaysian population. In this scoping review, we have determined the status of cardiovascular research in Malaysia by prioritising lifestyle-related risk assessments and interventions. We searched five electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, APA PsychINFO, Embase and Scopus) to identify relevant research articles that had been published. The Joanna Briggs Institute and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews served as a guide for the scoping review. Study selection was made using the Covidence platform, screened, and extracted. Thirty-one studies were included in this review. Studies reviewed reported a significant positive association between physical inactivity, smoking, poor dietary patterns, working hours, clustering of lifestyle risk, and cardiovascular disease risk. Most interventions focused on physical activity and a multimodal lifestyle approach, significantly improving primary and secondary cardiovascular disease-related outcomes. The findings suggest improving lifestyle-related risk assessments and interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases in this population. It is unclear if these outcomes can translate to higher effectiveness in preventing cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, intervention using the multifaceted lifestyle approach can improve cardiovascular disease-related outcomes.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e033810, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder associated with cardiovascular risks. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable OSA and its relationship with cardiovascular risks and diseases focusing on age-stratified young adults (20-40 years) and older (>40 years). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study used a cross-sectional design, analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2013 and 2018, comprising 9887 community-dwelling adults aged ≥20 years. Probable OSA was determined on the basis of self-report of OSA-related symptoms (eg, snoring, gasping/breath cessation while sleeping). Cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, were evaluated according to established guidelines. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) included self-reported heart conditions, including congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, angina, heart attacks, and strokes. Individuals with probable OSA showed a significantly higher prevalence of health conditions, including hypertension (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.19; P<0.001), diabetes (aPR, 1.17; P: 0.01), metabolic syndrome (aPR, 1.14; P<0.001), heart attack (aPR, 1.63; P<0.01), stroke (aPR, 1.41; P: 0.03), and any CVD event (aPR, 1.36; P: 0.01) after adjusting for relevant factors. Young adults with probable OSA showed higher prevalence rates of any CVD events (aPR, 3.44; P<0.001), hypertension (aPR, 1.45; P<0.001), metabolic syndrome (aPR, 1.25; P<0.001), and angina (aPR, 10.39; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests early identification and management of OSA in individuals at risk for CVD. While cross-sectional, it emphasizes that health care providers should recognize OSA as significantly associated with CVDs and its precursor risks in young adults, stressing proactive care and screening to reduce CVD risk in this population.

4.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; : 102561, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles of patients referred to the maternal health clinic (MHC) with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM). METHODS: Eligible patients had their MHC appointment at 6 months postpartum between November 2011 and May 2022 and experienced GDM in their most recent pregnancy. Included participants were then divided into subgroups comparing methods of glycemic control: diet-controlled GDM and insulin-controlled GDM. Additionally, the MHC recruited 47 patients who have not experienced a complication in pregnancy to act as a comparator group in research studies. Demographics, medical and pregnancy history, and CVD risk scores were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: 344 patients with GDM were included in the analysis; 165 insulin-controlled and 179 diet-controlled. When measuring the median 30 year Framingham risk score based on both BMI and lipids, there was a significant stepwise increase seen from the unexposed group, the diet-controlled GDM, and the insulin-controlled groups, respectively (all P < 0.05). The presence of metabolic syndrome showed a stepwise increase in prevalence when comparing the unexposed group, diet exposure group, and the insulin exposure group, respectively (16.7%, 21.5%, 44.8%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings reinforce the prevalence of maternal CVD risk among GDM-diagnosed patients in the postpartum period and the necessity for screening. More specifically, our findings show how CVD risk may differ based on required interventions for glycemic control throughout pregnancy. Future research should aim to compare a more diverse patient population to optimize the generalizability of glycemic control-specific CVD outcomes.

5.
Inflammation ; 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844648

ABSTRACT

High scores of lymphocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (lymphocyte-to-HDL-c) may be a new indicator of inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the associations of the lymphocyte-to-HDL-c with traditional and non-traditional cardiometabolic risk markers in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. This study is a cross-sectional analysis with subjects assisted in a Secondary Health Care (n = 581, age = 63.06 ± 13.86 years; 52.3% women). Lymphocyte-to-HDL-c ratio were assessed by routine laboratory tests. Anthropometric and/or biochemical variables were used to calculate traditional (body mass index - BMI, and waist-to-height ratio - WHtR) and non-traditional (lipid accumulation product index-LAP, visceral adiposity index-VAI, deep-abdominal-adipose-tissue index-DAAT, atherogenic index of plasma-AIP, and waist-hypertriglyceridemic phenotype-HTGW) cardiometabolic risk markers. Furthermore, anthropometric measurement waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, metabolic syndrome (MS), and biochemical markers (lipid and glycemic profile) were considered traditional markers of cardiometabolic risk. Pearson's chi-square test, Poisson regression with robust variance, or multinomial logistic regression were performed (α = 0.05). Individuals with a high lymphocyte-HDL-c ratio (> 0.84, 3rd tertile) were associated with the HTGW phenotype, high VAI, high LAP, hypertriglyceridemia, high AIP, high very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c), pre-diabetes, and 3 and 4 MS components compared with individuals in the first tertile, independent of confounders. Our findings supported the lymphocyte-to-HDL-c ratio as a potential biomarker during the screening of subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) while the association between muscular endurance capacity (MEC) and incident MetS has rarely been investigated in young adults. METHODS: A total of 2890 military men and women, aged 18-39 years, free of baseline MetS in Taiwan, were followed for incident MetS from baseline (2014) until the end of 2020. All subjects received annual health examinations for assessment of MetS. Physical fitness was assessed by CRF (estimated maximal oxygen uptake, VO2 max [mL/kg/min], in a 3000-m run) and MEC (numbers of 2-min push-ups). MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Multiple Cox regression analysis was conducted with adjustments for baseline age, sex, substance use status and physical activity to determine the associations of CRF and MEC with incidences of new-onset MetS and related features, for example, central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and prediabetes or diabetes. To examine the combined effects of CRF and MEC status on incidence of MetS, high and low levels of CRF and MEC were separately defined by over and under the sex-specific median in each exercise test. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, there were 673 (23.3%) new-onset MetS. Higher CRF was associated with a lower incidence of MetS (hazard ratio [HR] and 95% confidence interval: 0.905 [0.877-0.933]), and its components separately, except hypertension. No association was observed between MEC and incident MetS, and its components separately, except hypertension. When evaluating the combined effects of MEC and CRF status on the incidence of MetS, it was observed that compared with the low CRF/low MEC, the high CRF/high MEC (HR: 0.553 [0.439-0.697]) and the high CRF/low MEC (HR: 0.730 [0.580-0.918]) had a lower incidence of new-onset MetS (P value for the intergroup difference = 0.04). There was no significant result for the low CRF/high MEC. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that although the protective effects of MEC to reduce the incidence of MetS and most of its related features were mainly driven by CRF in young adults, there was an addictive effect of greater MEC on CRF to prevent the development of new-onset MetS before midlife.

7.
Contemp Nurse ; : 1-17, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847296

ABSTRACT

Background: Growing evidence shows that metabolic syndrome and frailty are significantly associated. Screening and assessing frailty in patients with metabolic syndrome is important to help improve their clinical outcomes and quality of life. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of frailty in patients with metabolic syndrome is the first critical step, however, the prevalence reported in the literature varies widely.Aim: To pool the overall prevalence of frailty among patients with metabolic syndrome.Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.Methods: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, APA PsycINFO, Scopus, CINAHL Complete, CNKI, Wan Fang, SinoMed, and VIP databases were searched from the inception to March 6, 2024. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA15 software. The prevalence was pooled using the random-effects model. The sources of heterogeneity were investigated by using meta-regression and subgroup analyses.Results: A total of 22 original studies published between 2007 and 2023 were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis, involving 19,921 metabolic syndrome patients. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty among patients with metabolic syndrome was 20% (95% CI: 16% to 25%, I2 = 99.44%) and 45% (95% CI: 36% to 53%, I2 = 99.20%). Subgroup analyses revealed differences in prevalence by frailty instruments, geographic regions, study settings, publication years, study quality, study design, and different components of metabolic syndrome.Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis showed the high prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty in patients with metabolic syndrome. In the future, more high-quality longitudinal studies and exploration of other potential demographic characteristics that may influence frailty are needed to understand more information on frailty in patients with metabolic syndrome.

8.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 160, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a significant epidemiological problem worldwide. It is a pre-morbid, chronic and low-grade inflammatory disorder that precedes many chronic diseases. Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) could be used to treat MetS because they express high regenerative capacity, strong immunomodulatory properties and allogeneic biocompatibility. This study aims to investigate WJ-MSCs as a therapy against MetS in a rat model. METHODS: Twenty-four animals were fed with high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet ad libitum. After 16 weeks, the animals were randomised into treatment groups (n = 8/group) and received a single intravenous administration of vehicle, that is, 3 × 106 cells/kg or 10 × 106 cells/kg of WJ-MSCs. A healthy animal group (n = 6) fed with a normal diet received the same vehicle as the control (CTRL). All animals were periodically assessed (every 4 weeks) for physical measurements, serum biochemistry, glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular function test and whole-body composition. Post-euthanasia, organs were weighed and processed for histopathology. Serum was collected for C-reactive protein and inflammatory cytokine assay. RESULTS: The results between HFHF-treated groups and healthy or HFHF-CTRL did not achieve statistical significance (α = 0.05). The effects of WJ-MSCs were masked by the manifestation of different disease subclusters and continuous supplementation of HFHF diet. Based on secondary analysis, WJ-MSCs had major implications in improving cardiopulmonary morbidities. The lungs, liver and heart show significantly better histopathology in the WJ-MSC-treated groups than in the untreated CTRL group. The cells produced a dose-dependent effect (high dose lasted until week 8) in preventing further metabolic decay in MetS animals. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of safety and therapeutic proof-of-concept encourages further studies by improving the current therapeutic model.


Subject(s)
Disease Models, Animal , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolic Syndrome , Wharton Jelly , Animals , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Rats , Wharton Jelly/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Male , Injections, Intravenous , Humans , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
9.
J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls ; 9(2): 142-150, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835622

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To develop strategies against sarcopenia, physiological and biochemical data in older women were analyzed using propensity score matching. Methods: Fifty-six women aged ≥75 years with the AWGS calf circumference <33 cm were included in the sarcopenia risk group. Low muscle strength (handgrip strength <18kg) or low physical performance (five-times-sit-to-stand test ≥12s) were used the possible-sarcopenia group. Propensity score matching adjusted for age and BMI was performed between the possible-sarcopenia group with low muscle strength (or physical performance) and the sarcopenia risk group without low muscle strength (or physical performance). The comparison included nutritional index, metabolic syndrome parameters, BMD, and skeletal muscle mass index score between both groups. Results: The possible-sarcopenia group with low muscle strength exhibited significantly lower BMD (p=0.014) and skeletal muscle mass index score (p=0.002) compared to the sarcopenia risk group without low muscle strength. The possible-sarcopenia group with low physical performance exhibited significantly lower AST (p=0.034) compared to the sarcopenia risk group without low physical performance. Conclusion: These results suggest that older women with possible sarcopenia and low muscle strength may have reduced BMD and skeletal muscle mass index.

10.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 40(5): e3827, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837323

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Circadian syndrome (CircS) is considered a better predictor for cardiovascular disease than the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aim to examine the associations between CircS and MetS with cognition in Chinese adults. METHOD: We used the data of 8546 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. MetS was defined using harmonised criteria. CircS included the components of MetS plus short sleep and depression. The cut-off for CircS was set as ≥4. Global cognitive function was assessed during the face-to-face interview. RESULTS: CircS and MetS had opposite associations with the global cognition score and self-reported poor memory. Compared with individuals without the CircS and MetS, the regression coefficients (95%CI) for global cognition score were -1.02 (-1.71 to -0.34) for CircS alone and 0.52 (0.09 to 0.96) for MetS alone in men; -1.36 (-2.00 to -0.72) for CircS alone and 0.60 (0.15 to 1.06) for MetS alone in women. Having CircS alone was 2.53 times more likely to report poor memory in men (95%CI 1.80-3.55) and 2.08 times more likely in women (95%CI 1.54-2.81). In contrast, having MetS alone was less likely to report poor memory (OR 0.64 (0.49-0.84) in men and 0.65 (0.52-0.81) in women). People with CircS and MetS combined were more likely to have self-reported poor memory. CONCLUSIONS: CircS is a strong and better predictor for cognition impairment than MetS in Chinese middle-aged adults. MetS without short sleep and depression is associated with better cognition.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/psychology , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Aged , Adult , Prognosis , Chronobiology Disorders/complications , Chronobiology Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Circadian Rhythm/physiology
11.
J Cell Signal ; 5(2): 65-86, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826152

ABSTRACT

Support for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation hinges upon the intricate microenvironment termed the stem cell 'niche'. Within the adipose tissue stem cell niche, diverse cell types, such as endothelial cells, immune cells, mural cells, and adipocytes, intricately regulate the function of adipocyte precursors. These interactions, whether direct or indirect, play a pivotal role in governing the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of adipocyte precursors into adipocytes. The mechanisms orchestrating the maintenance and coordination of this niche are still in the early stages of comprehension, despite their crucial role in regulating adipose tissue homeostasis. The complexity of understanding adipocyte precursor renewal and differentiation is amplified due to the challenges posed by the absence of suitable surface receptors for identification, limitations in creating optimal ex vivo culture conditions for expansion and constraints in conducting in vivo studies. This review delves into the current landscape of knowledge surrounding adipocyte precursors within the adipose stem cell niche. We will review the identification of adipocyte precursors, the cell-cell interactions they engage in, the factors influencing their renewal and commitment toward adipocytes and the transformations they undergo during instances of obesity.

12.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 16(1): 125, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing the association between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and knee pain resulting from osteoarthritis. Regular exercise has been reported as a foundational piece of the preventive therapy puzzle for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients. Nonetheless, evidence-based exercise protocols for people with comorbidities, such as obesity, T2DM, and KOA are limited. Therefore, the present trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 12-week home-based circuit training (HBCT) protocol on various indices related to cardiometabolic health, musculoskeletal fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among overweight/obese older adult patients with KOA and T2DM during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial study registered at the National Medical Research Register (ID: RSCH ID-21-01180-KGTNMRR ID-21-02367-FUM) and obtained approval on December 9, 2021. Seventy overweight or obese patients with KOA and T2DM (62.2 ± 6.1 years; 56% female) were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 35, HBCT) or the no-exercise control group (n = 35, CON). HBCT performed a 12-week progressive protocol (seven exercises; 15-30 repetitions per exercise, 1 min passive rest between exercises; 2-4 rounds per session; 20-60 min total session duration). Blood samples were collected, and assays were performed to assess the lipid profile, liver function, and fasting blood glucose (FBG). In addition, the 30-s Chair Stand Test (30CST) was used to evaluate lower body muscular strength and endurance while the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used to evaluate lower limb function, mobility, and the risk of falls for all the participants. HRQoL was assessed using the Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life (OAKHQoL). All the assessments were conducted at pre-, mid-, and post-training stages during the application or practice of the exercise protocol, rather than during the training sessions themselves. RESULTS: HBCT significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, FBG and knee pain (p < 0.05). Furthermore, HBCT induced meaningful increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), lower body muscular strength, endurance, function, mobility, and HRQoL in overweight/obese older adults with T2DM and KOA (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present outcomes recommend that an injury-free HBCT program may improve various indicators related to cardiometabolic health, musculoskeletal fitness, and HRQoL in elderly with overweight/obesity, T2DM and KOA. These findings offer valuable insights for clinicians and practitioners seeking evidence-based exercise interventions tailored for patients managing substantial metabolic and musculoskeletal health challenges in clinical practice.

13.
Stroke ; 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864221
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growing research underscores the significance of diet quality in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Our study investigates the correlation between the Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) and MetS, along with its components, in Iranian adults. METHODS: This study utilizes data from the Yazd Health Study (YaHS) and includes a final analysis of 2,904 participants aged 20-70 years. Dietary data were gathered using food frequency questionnaires. MetS was defined in line with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. GDQS was derived by totaling the points across all 25 food groups, with scores ranging from 0 to 49. To examine the association between GDQS and MetS, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted in both crude and adjusted models. RESULTS: Participants who had the highest adherence to GDQS had a 20% lower chance of having MetS than those who had the lowest adherence after adjusting for confounding variables in Model II (T3 vs. T1: OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99, P-trend = 0.045). There was no association between GDQS and MetS components including increased blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride, abdominal obesity and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in crude and adjusted models. CONCLUSION: higher adherence to GDQS was inversely related to odds of MetS. Further longitudinal and clinical trials investigations are required to confirm these associations.

15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864929

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent surge in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cases has paralleled a significant rise in obesity and metabolic comorbidities rates. In this article, we explore the potential influence of obesity and associated metabolic comorbidities on disease progression, complications, treatment response, surgical outcomes, health economics, and the potential impact of obesity treatment on the course of IBD. FINDINGS: Contrary to visceral adiposity, obesity does not consistently result in an increased risk of IBD-related complications. Patients with IBD have a higher risk of acute arterial events, likely linked to systemic inflammation. Substantial evidence suggests that obesity has a negative impact on the response to IBD treatment, with this effect being most thoroughly studied in biologics and immunomodulators. The rates of overall complications and post-operative infections are higher in patients who are obese. There are limited but promising data regarding the impact of weight loss techniques, including exercise, medications, and bariatric interventions, on the outcomes in IBD. Both obesity and diabetes have adverse effects on the overall quality of life and place an increased financial burden on the IBD population. A growing body of evidence indicates a connection between obesity and associated metabolic comorbidities and negative outcomes in IBD, yet further efforts are required to fully understand this relationship.

16.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 7(4): e00491, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of medical conditions that elevate the chances of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke and Type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to determine the frequency and contributing risk factors of MetS in adults from Bangladesh. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 653 individuals (470 males and 183 females) were randomly selected to participate. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed using standard methods to measure biochemical parameters. MetS was defined on the basis of NCEP-ATP III guidelines, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with MetS. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 19.7% in the healthy control group, 70.2% in the hypertensive group and 46.8% in the diabetic group. Overall, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of MetS between males (45%) and females (45.9%). The participants who had both hypertension and diabetes had the highest prevalence of MetS at 77.3%. Both males and females showed an increased trend in the prevalence of MetS and its components as they aged, except for WC in males (p < 0.01 for all cases). The 46-55 age group in males had a higher prevalence of MetS (68%), whereas the >55 age group in females had a prevalence of 73.9%. The most common component of MetS was low levels of HDL-C, which affected over 80% of the studied sample. According to the logistic regression analyses, age, BMI, hypertension and diabetes were significantly associated with MetS in both genders. CONCLUSION: This study found a high prevalence of MetS in Bangladeshi adults. Several factors are significantly associated with the risk of MetS. It is crucial to consider the varying prevalence rates of MetS by age and gender as well as its different components while providing health guidance and support.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Male , Female , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Adult , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hypertension/epidemiology , Aged , Young Adult
17.
Cureus ; 16(5): e59950, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854183

ABSTRACT

Introduction Hypertension is a leading risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic derangements. In patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypertension is one of the cornerstones showing high variability which is detected in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Fragmented ventricular complexes on ECG are seen as hypertensives and are a viable and easy measure of myocardial fibrosis even in the absence of obvious hypertrophy. Aim The present study was undertaken to study the blood pressure variability in patients of MetS with fragmented QRS (fQRS) versus normal ventricular complexes (QRS). Results Out of 100 patients, 22 (22%) had fQRS complexes. Hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent associated in both groups but a difference was seen with coronary artery disease, which was significantly associated in the fQRS group (8.97% vs 95.45%, p<0.001) as compared to the non-fQRS group. Significant differences were observed in waist circumference (p=0.019), triglyceride (p=0.006) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001) between the two groups. There was a marked difference (p<0.05) between heart rate variability during day and night time between normal and fQRS sub-groups, being higher in the latter. A similar pattern of change was observed for systolic and diastolic blood pressures and associated dipping. Conclusion Significant differences exist between heart rate and blood pressure changes in patients with fQRS of MetS, thus making fQRS a potent indicator of cardiovascular status.

18.
Nutr Res Pract ; 18(3): 325-344, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Kaempferol (Ka) is one of the most widely occurring flavonoids found in large amounts in various plants. Ka has anti-obesity, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the numerous papers documenting the efficacy of Ka, some controversy remains. Therefore, this study examined the impact of Ka using 3T3-L1 and high-fat diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 50 µM Ka from the initiation of 3T3-L1 differentiation at D0 until the completion of differentiation on D8. Thirty male mice (C57BL/6J, 4 weeks old) were divided into 3 groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD + 0.02% (w/w) Ka (Ka) group. All mice were fed their respective diets ad libitum for 16 weeks. The mice were sacriced, and the plasma and hepatic lipid levels, white adipose tissue weight, hepatic glucose level, lipid level, and antioxidant enzyme activities were analyzed, and immunohistochemistry staining was performed. RESULTS: Ka suppressed the hypertrophy of 3T3-L1 cells, and the Ka-supplemented mice showed a significant decrease in perirenal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous fat compared to the HFD group. Ka supplementation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice also improved the overall blood lipid concentration (total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoprotein B). Ka supplementation in high-fat-induced obesity mice reduced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating the hepatic lipid (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and ß-oxidation) activities and glucose (glucokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and G6pase)-regulating enzymes. Ka supplementation ameliorated the erythrocyte and hepatic mitochondrial H2O2 and inflammation levels (plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma and fibrosis of liver and epididymal fat). CONCLUSION: Ka may be beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and diabetes.

19.
Ther Adv Psychopharmacol ; 14: 20451253241255476, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827016

ABSTRACT

Background: Antipsychotic medications are associated with weight gain and metabolic derangement. However, comprehensive evidence for the efficacy of co-commenced pharmacological treatments to mitigate initial weight gain is limited. Metformin has been shown to be effective in reducing weight among people on antipsychotic medications who are already overweight, but the potential benefits of metformin co-commencement in mitigating antipsychotic-induced weight gain has not been systematically reviewed. Method: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, the Cochrane database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to 18 November 2023. We undertook a meta-analysis of concomitant commencement of metformin versus placebo for attenuation of weight gain and metabolic syndrome for people with schizophrenia commencing a new antipsychotic. Results: Fourteen studies from Australia, United States, Venezuela, and China with 1126 participants were included. We found that metformin was superior to placebo in terms of attenuating weight gain (-3.12 kg, 95% CI -4.22 to -2.01 kg). Metformin also significantly attenuated derangement of fasting glucose levels, total cholesterol, and total triglyceride levels. Sensitivity analysis on study quality, duration, and antipsychotic agent did not impact the results. Meta-analysis was also conducted on adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported in each study which showed no significant difference in ADR incidence between metformin and placebo groups. Subgroup analysis on antipsychotic-naïve participants and participants switching to new antipsychotic did not impact the results. Conclusion: Metformin led to statistically significant and clinically meaningful attenuation of weight gain as well as attenuation of several other metabolic parameters when commenced concomitantly with antipsychotic medications. Co-commencement of metformin with antipsychotic medications, where tolerated, should be considered in the clinical setting with aim to improve long-term cardiometabolic outcomes for patients with long-term need of antipsychotic treatments.

20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 17: 2177-2190, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827167

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies suggest gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-translocation to play a role in both systemic inflammation and in inflammatory adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate whether circulating LPS-related inflammatory markers and corresponding genetic expression in adipose tissue were associated with obesity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and dietary habits in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: Patients (n=382) suffering a myocardial infarction 2-8 weeks prior to inclusion were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), taken from the gluteal region, and fasting blood samples were collected at inclusion for determination of genetic expression of LPS-binding protein (LBP), CD14, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 in SAT, and LPS, LBP, and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) in the circulation. All patients filled out a dietary registration form. Results: Patients (median age 74 years, 25% women), had a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.9 kg/m2. Circulating levels of LBP correlated to BMI (p=0.02), were significantly higher in overweight or obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) compared to normal- or underweight patients (BMI<25 kg/m2), and were significantly elevated in patients with T2DM, hypertension, and MetS, compared to patients without (p≤0.04, all). In SAT, gene expression of CD14 and LBP correlated significantly to BMI (p≤0.001, both), and CD14 and TLR2 expressions were significantly higher in patients with T2DM and MetS compared to patients without (p≤0.001, both). Circulating and genetically expressed CD14 associated with use of n-3 PUFAs (p=0.008 and p=0.003, respectively). No other significant associations were found between the measured markers and dietary habits. Conclusion: In patients with established CAD, circulating levels of LBP and gene expression of CD14 and TLR2 in SAT were related to obesity, MetS, T2DM, and hypertension. This suggests that the LPS-LBP-CD14 inflammatory axis is activated in the chronic low-grade inflammation associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities, whereas no significant associations with dietary habits were observed.

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