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J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 52(1): 101-107, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962824


The objective of this study was to analyze, in a randomized controlled multicenter trial, whether a xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) could be used to cover skin defects. Patients with the need for skin excisions were recruited and randomized to treatment with a skin graft after a period of granulation or to treatment with an XCM. The results were evaluated by two independent observers on the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. On this scale, scars are ranked from 1 to 10 in six different categories. Results range from 6 to 60, with lower scores representing scars closer to normal skin. The results 6 months after reconstruction were used as primary endpoint and compared in a non-inferiority approach. A total of 39 wounds in the head and neck region were analyzed. The mean results were 16.55 (standard deviation 6.8) for XCM and 16.83 (standard deviation 8.21) in the control group. The result of the XCM was not significantly inferior to the result of the skin graft (p = 0.91). Within the limitations of the study, it seems that the use of xenogeneic collagen matrices is a viable alternative to other approaches in small skin defects, and therefore should be taken into account whenever the reduction of patient morbidity to a minimum is the priority. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register under registration identification number DRKS00010930 and can be found under the following URLs:

Collagen , Skin Transplantation , Humans , Collagen/therapeutic use , Skin Transplantation/methods , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Cicatrix , Adult , Treatment Outcome
Arch Craniofac Surg ; 25(3): 133-140, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977398


BACKGROUND: The medial canthal region features a complex three-dimensional and internal anatomical structure. When reconstructing a defect in this area, it is crucial to consider both functional and aesthetic aspects, which presents significant challenges. Generally, local flaps are preferred for reconstruction; however, skin grafts can be used when local flaps are not feasible. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of surgical outcomes skin grafts when local flaps were not feasible, to determine which surgical method is more effective for medial canthal region reconstruction. METHODS: Twenty-five patients who underwent medial canthal region reconstruction using skin grafts or local flaps from 2002 to 2021 were enrolled. Patient information was obtained from medical records. Five plastic surgeons evaluated the surgical outcomes based on general appearance, color, contour, and symmetry. RESULTS: Skin grafts were used in eight patients and local flaps were used in 13. Combined reconstructions were employed in four cases. Minor complications arose in four cases but improved with conservative treatment. No major complications were reported. Recurrence of the skin cancer was noted in two cases. All categories showed higher scores for the local flap compared to both skin graft and combined reconstruction; however, the differences were not statistically significant respectively. CONCLUSION: The choice of appropriate surgical methods for reconstructing defects in the medial canthal region depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the size and depth of the defect, and the degree of involvement of surrounding structures. When a local flap is not feasible, a skin graft may provide favorable surgical outcomes. Therefore, a skin graft can serve as a viable alternative for reconstructing the medial canthal region.

Gland Surg ; 13(6): 852-863, 2024 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39015706


Background: Although dual-plane subpectoral breast reconstruction has been widely implemented in implant-based breast reconstruction, animation deformities remain an issue. Recent advances in skin flap circulation detection have increased the use of prepectoral reconstruction. A partial muscle-splitting subpectoral plane was introduced to decrease the visibility of the implant edge. However, there is yet to be a direct comparison of these methods for optimal results, including changes in implant position after reconstruction. This study aims to compare the incidence of complications such as rippling, animation deformity, implant upward migration between the dual-plane, the partial muscle splitting subpectoral and the prepectoral reconstruction group. In addition, multivariate analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors of complications. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 349 patients who underwent unilateral direct-to-implant breast reconstruction from January 2017 to October 2020. Implants were inserted into the dual-plane subpectoral (P2) or partial muscle-splitting subpectoral (P1, the muscle slightly covering the upper edge of the implant) or the prepectoral pocket (P0). Postoperative outcomes and at least 2 years of follow-up complications were compared. Results: There was no significant difference in rippling (P=0.62) or visible implant edges on the upper pole (P=0.62) among the three groups. In contrast, the P0 group had a lower incidence of seroma (P=0.008), animation deformity (P<0.001), breast pain (P=0.002), and upward implant migration (P0: 1.09%, P1: 4.68%, P2: 38.37%, P<0.001). According to the multivariate analysis, P2 resulted in a greater risk of seroma (odds ratio: 4.223, P=0.002) and implant upward migration (odds ratio: 74.292, P<0.001) than did P0. Conclusions: P0 and P1 showed better postoperative outcomes than P2. Additionally, P0 had less implant migration than P1. Even though P1 minimally dissects the muscle, the location of the implant may change. Considering that muscle contraction can deteriorate symmetry and aesthetic results, the P0 method may be the most favorable.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-5, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556481


Introdução: A reconstrução mamária pós-tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama (um dos principais cânceres que acometem as mulheres) tem sido progressivamente mais indicada, haja vista o benefício da recuperação psicológica e da qualidade de vida, seja utilizando implantes e/ou tecidos autólogos. O presente trabalho visa demonstrar a experiência da equipe, discutir técnicas operatórias e complicações em relação aos dados da literatura mundial, além de verificar a aplicabilidade da técnica na prática clínica da equipe. Método: Estudo observacional retrospectivo desenvolvido em hospital universitário em Juiz de Fora a partir da revisão de prontuários de pacientes submetidas a mastectomia com reconstrução mamária entre 2010 e 2020. Resultados: Das 860 mamas abordadas, 84% foram imediatas à cirurgia oncológica e 16% foram tardias; o principal acesso ao tecido mamário foi a incisão de Stewart, seguido de incisões inframamárias estendidas, periareolares e T invertido; quanto às técnicas reconstrutoras, destaca-se 35% dos casos com retalho com músculo grande dorsal, 25% com prótese pré-peitoral, 20% com retalho miocutâneo transverso do músculo reto abdominal e 10% com retalho muscular local. As complicações mais incidentes foram deiscência de sítio cirúrgico, seguida de necrose cutânea, seroma, infecção de sítio cirúrgico e hematoma, além de outros menos comuns como dor crônica e ruptura de prótese após mamografia. Conclusão: A reconstrução mamária pós-mastectomia é indispensável para a recuperação física e emocional da mulher, sendo as técnicas utilizadas nos últimos dez anos consistentes, confiáveis, de baixa morbidade e com ótimos resultados estéticos quando bem indicadas.

Introduction: Breast reconstruction after surgical treatment for breast cancer (one of the main cancers that affect women) has been progressively more recommended, given the benefits of psychological recovery and quality of life, whether using implants and/or autologous tissues. The present work aims to demonstrate the team's experience, and discuss operative techniques and complications concerning data from the world literature, in addition to verifying the applicability of the technique in the team's clinical practice. Method: Retrospective observational study developed at a university hospital in Juiz de Fora based on a review of medical records of patients who underwent mastectomy with breast reconstruction between 2010 and 2020. Results: Of the 860 breasts treated, 84% underwent immediate oncological surgery and 16% were late; the main access to the breast tissue was the Stewart incision, followed by extended inframammary, periareolar, and inverted T incisions; regarding reconstructive techniques, 35% of cases used a latissimus dorsi muscle flap, 25% used a prepectoral prosthesis, 20% used a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap and 10% used a local muscle flap. The most common complications were surgical site dehiscence, followed by skin necrosis, seroma, surgical site infection, and hematoma, in addition to other less common complications such as chronic pain and prosthesis rupture after mammography. Conclusion: Postmastectomy breast reconstruction is essential for a woman's physical and emotional recovery, with the techniques used in the last ten years being consistent, reliable, with low morbidity, and with excellent aesthetic results when correctly indicated.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-9, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556491


Introdução: Defeitos na região superior do dorso geralmente são de difícil tratamento, especialmente nos casos de exposição de vértebras, meninge ou material de síntese. O fechamento primário com retalho muscular ou musculocutâneo é a melhor escolha, mas a área doadora para tratar grandes defeitos pode requerer enxertia. A preservação da artéria dorsal da escápula parece assegurar um território cutâneo maior do que o do retalho musculocutâneo do trapézio clássico baseado apenas na artéria cervical transversa. Método: Foi concebida uma ampla ilha triangular de pele sobre o músculo trapézio baseado na artéria dorsal da escápula com transferência por movimento pendular e um procedimento tipo V-Y em cinco pacientes após a extirpação de tumores malignos. Resultados: Os defeitos e as áreas doadoras foram fechados primariamente com total viabilidade dos retalhos e não foram observadas complicações além da ocorrência de seroma. Conclusão: O retalho musculocutâneo do trapézio baseado na artéria dorsal da escápula oferece segurança no tratamento de exposição óssea na região superior do dorso.

Introduction: Defects in the upper region of the back are generally difficult to treat, especially in cases of exposure of vertebrae, meninges, or synthetic material. Primary closure with a muscular or musculocutaneous flap is the best choice, but the donor area to treat large defects may require grafting. Preservation of the dorsal artery of the scapula appears to ensure a larger cutaneous territory than that of the classic trapezius musculocutaneous flap based only on the transverse cervical artery. Method: A wide triangular island of skin was designed over the trapezius muscle based on the dorsal scapular artery with pendulum transfer and a V-Y type procedure in five patients after the extirpation of malignant tumors. Results: The defects and donor areas were closed primarily with full viability of the flaps and no complications were observed other than the occurrence of seroma. Conclusion: The trapezius musculocutaneous flap based on the dorsal artery of the scapula offers safety in the treatment of bone exposure in the upper back region.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-7, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556494


Introdução: A autoestima é definida pelo valor que as pessoas dão a si mesmas. É um componente avaliativo do autoconhecimento. A cirurgia plástica tem sido uma alternativa para as pessoas melhorarem a visão de si mesmas, sentindo-se mais confiantes e satisfeitas com seus aspectos corporais. Dessa forma, com a elevação da autoestima nessas pessoas, a cirurgia é capaz de interferir de forma positiva não somente na autoavaliação corporal, mas também na dimensão psicossocial. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo e analítico longitudinal prospectivo no qual foi avaliado o impacto da cirurgia plástica na autoestima e nos relacionamentos pessoais e profissionais. Aplicamos um questionário sociodemográfico, a Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, além do Questionário de Qualidade de Vida da OMS abreviado (WHOQOL-bref) em pacientes no pré-operatório e que serão submetidos a cirurgia plástica com, pelo menos, 3 meses de pós-operatório, graduando, desta forma, a melhora ou não da autoestima e qualidade de vida. Resultados: Participaram da pesquisa 52 pacientes, sendo 48 mulheres (92,3%), apresentando idade média de 37±11 anos. Através da aplicação da Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, pudemos notar uma evolução da autoestima, em que os pacientes apresentaram uma média de 29,87±2,10 pontos no escore do período pré-operatório, passando para 34,92±1,84 pontos no período pós-operatório. (p<0,001). Já no WHOQOL-bref, foi obtida uma melhora da autoestima através dos escores dos 4 domínios. Conclusão: Através deste estudo, foi evidenciado um aumento da autoestima e qualidade de vida.

Introduction: Self-esteem is defined by the value people place on themselves. It is an evaluative component of self-knowledge. Plastic surgery has been an alternative for people to improve their vision of themselves, feeling more confident and satisfied with their body aspects. Therefore, by increasing self-esteem in these people, surgery is capable of positively interfering not only with body self-assessment but also in the psychosocial dimension. Method: A prospective longitudinal descriptive and analytical observational study was carried out in which the impact of plastic surgery on self-esteem and personal and professional relationships was assessed. We applied a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, in addition to the abbreviated WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-bref) in patients in the preoperative period and who will undergo plastic surgery at least 3 months after surgery. surgery, thus determining whether or not self-esteem and quality of life improve. Results: 52 patients participated in the research, 48 of whom were women (92.3%), with a mean age of 37±11 years. Through the application of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, we were able to notice an evolution in self-esteem, in which patients presented an average of 29.87±2.10 points in the preoperative period score, rising to 34.92±1.84 points in the postoperative period (p<0.001). In the WHOQOL-bref, an improvement in self-esteem was obtained through the scores of the 4 domains. Conclusion: Through this study, an increase in self-esteem and quality of life was evidenced.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-10, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556495


Introdução: A hipertrofia de pequenos lábios combinada com capuz clitoriano redundante é uma queixa comum entre mulheres que procuram cirurgia plástica genital cosmética por queixas funcionais, psicológicas e estéticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a técnica boomerang, um tratamento cirúrgico da hipertrofia labial que se estende a todo o capuz clitoriano. Método: Foi conduzido um estudo retrospectivo, de caráter analítico, para avaliar os prontuários médicos de 48 pacientes consecutivas submetidas a cirurgia estética genital feminina entre julho de 2017 e julho de 2021. Todos os procedimentos cirúrgicos foram realizados pela mesma cirurgiã. A técnica utilizada nas pacientes consistiu na ressecção longitudinal dos excessos de pequenos lábios vaginais associado à ressecção de capô clitoriano em forma de boomerang e à clitoropexia. Resultados: A idade média das pacientes submetidas a cirurgia foi de 36,25 anos (intervalo 18-59 anos), entre as quais 94,44% apresentaram queixas estéticas associadas ou não a queixas funcionais, e 5,56% apresentaram somente queixas funcionais. Duas pacientes apresentaram hematomas nos grandes lábios no pós-operatório imediato, e uma paciente teve deiscência de sutura nos pequenos lábios. Conclusão: A técnica boomerang é reprodutível e proporciona benefícios estéticos e/ou funcionais na genitália feminina.

Introduction: Hypertrophy of the labia minora combined with a redundant clitoral hood is a common complaint among women seeking aesthetic genital cosmetic surgery for functional, psychological, and aesthetic complaints. The objective of this study was to describe the boomerang technique, a surgical treatment for labial hypertrophy that extends to the entire clitoral hood. Method: A retrospective, analytical study was conducted to evaluate the medical records of forty-eight consecutive patients who underwent female genital cosmetic surgery between July 2017 and July 2021. The same surgeon performed all surgical procedures. The technique used in the patients consisted of longitudinal resection of excess small vaginal lips associated with resection of the boomerang-shaped clitoral hood associated with clitoroplasty. Results: The average age of patients undergoing surgery was 36.25 years (range 18-59 years), among whom 94.44% had aesthetic complaints associated or not with functional complaints, and 5.56% had only functional complaints. Two patients had bruises on the labia majora in the immediate postoperative period, and one patient had suture dehiscence on the labia minora. Conclusion: The boomerang technique is reproducible and provides aesthetic and/or functional benefits to the female genitalia.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-7, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556497


Introdução: Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da compressão intermitente imediata sobre anastomoses arteriais microcirúrgicas em comparação com compressão fixa e com utilização isolada de irrigação com soro fisiológico e heparina em laboratório experimental. Método: 12 ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente divididos em três grupos para terem suas artérias femorais seccionas e anastomosadas de forma término-terminal, para comparação de patência com 30 minutos e 7 dias. Grupo I: foi realizada compressão intermitente imediata sobre a anastomose por 60 segundos; grupo II: uma compressão fixa foi mantida imediatamente após a anastomose, também por 60 segundos; grupo III, após o término da anastomose, não foi feita nenhuma intervenção adicional. Além da avaliação da patência, os animais foram pesados e medidos os diâmetros arteriais operados. Resultados: 24 artérias femorais foram abordadas. As médias de peso inicial dos ratos dos grupos I, II e III foram, respectivamente, de 243,8g, 254,6g e 260,4g, enquanto as finais foram de 264,4g, 281g e 282,1g (p<0,001). O diâmetro médio das artérias abordadas foi, respectivamente, de 0,89mm, 0,88mm e 0,90mm, e os tempos de anastomoses em minutos, de 25,6, 24,5 e 24,5, respectivamente; As patências finais após 7 dias foram, respectivamente, de 62,5% (p=0,07), 25% (p=0,48) e 50% (p=0,13). Conclusão: A compressão intermitente imediata pode ser realizada ao término de anastomoses arteriais microcirúrgicos sem prejuízo na patência final do procedimento.

Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the effect of immediate intermittent compression on microsurgical arterial anastomoses in comparison with fixed compression and only observation in an experimental laboratory. Methods: The two femoral arteries of twelve male Wistar rats were sectioned and reanastomosed to compare patency at 30 minutes and 7 days. Group I: immediate intermittent compression was performed over the anastomosis for 60 s; group II: a fixed compression was maintained immediately after the anastomosis for 60 s; group III: after completion of the anastomosis, no additional intervention was performed. In addition to the patency assessment, the animals were weighed and the operated arterial diameters were measured. Results: Twenty-four femoral arteries were examined. Initial average weights of the rats in groups I, II, and III were 243.8g, 254.6g, and 260.4g, respectively, while the final weights were 264.4g, 281g, and 282.1g (p<0.001), respectively; mean diameter of the approached arteries was 0.89, 0.88, and 0.90mm, respectively, and the anastomoses (time in minutes) were 25.6, 24.5, and 24.5, respectively; final patencies after 7 days were 62.5% (p=0.07), 25% (p=0.48), and 50% (p=0.13), respectively. Conclusion: Immediate intermittent compression can be performed at the end of microsurgical arterial anastomoses without affecting the final patency of the procedure.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-7, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1561939


Introdução: Com o passar dos anos e o proporcional crescimento das mídia sociais, focado principalmente no culto ao corpo e à perfeição, a procura por cirurgias plásticas vem aumentando de forma avassaladora, despertando um interminável desejo pela mudança corporal, na maioria das vezes com promessas "irreais" de alguns profissionais. Método: Pesquisa composta por 62 pacientes dos sexos feminino e masculino, com idade entre 22 e 61 anos, residentes no estado de São Paulo, que já se submeteram a um procedimento de cirurgia plástica e/ou ainda passarão por procedimentos de cirurgia plástica e cosmiatria, que responderam ao questionário "A influência das mídias sociais na cirurgia plástica". Resultados: Os resultados demonstram que a mídia exerce um importante papel na escolha do cirurgião plástico, principalmente quando o sucesso dos procedimentos de cirurgia plástica e cosmiatria é demonstrado através de fotos de antes e depois. Conclusão: A cirurgia plástica é uma especialidade médica que desempenha um papel fundamental na transformação estética e psicológica de muitos indivíduos, no entanto, é importante ressaltar a necessidade de uma abordagem ética, com o objetivo de garantir o bem-estar dos pacientes e a excelência na prática médica.

Introduction: Over the years and with the proportional growth of social media, focused mainly on the cult of the body and perfection, the demand for plastic surgeries has increased overwhelmingly, awakening an endless desire for body change, most of the time with "unrealistic" promises" from some professionals. Method: Research consisting of 62 female and male patients, aged between 22 and 61 years, residing in the state of São Paulo, who have already undergone a plastic surgery procedure and/or will undergo plastic surgery and cosmiatry procedures, who responded to the questionnaire "The influence of social media on plastic surgery". Results: The results demonstrate that the media plays an important role in choosing a plastic surgeon, especially when the success of plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery procedures is demonstrated through before and after photos. Conclusion: Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that plays a fundamental role in the aesthetic and psychological transformation of many individuals, however, it is important to highlight the need for an ethical approach, to guarantee patients' well-being and excellence in medical practice.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-5, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1561946


A doença de Madelung é caracterizada pelo acúmulo simétrico e difuso de tecido adiposo com crescimento tumoral lento e progressivo. Neste relato de caso, um paciente portador dessa síndrome foi atendido no Hospital das Clínicas, em Recife, PE, com o objetivo de realizar uma redução do conteúdo lipomatoso através de lipectomia. O paciente apresentava volumosas massas de tecido adiposo elástico ao redor do pescoço e região supraclavicular e a proposta terapêutica consistiu em uma cirurgia em dois tempos, com lipoaspiração e lipectomia cervical anterior, seguida de lipoaspiração e lipectomia cervical posterior. Antes da cirurgia, foi solicitado um parecer cardiológico, que indicou um risco intermediário, mas não contraindicou o procedimento. Após 4 dias da cirurgia, o paciente apresentou equimoses e edema periférico na ferida operatória cervical, porém estava assintomático. As técnicas de lipectomia e lipoaspiração são consideradas os métodos de tratamento mais eficazes para a doença de Madelung. No entanto, a escolha da cirurgia deve ser baseada em uma avaliação abrangente da gravidade da doença, localização da massa e expectativas do paciente, uma vez que ambas as técnicas possuem vantagens e desvantagens.

Madelung's disease is characterized by the symmetric and diffuse accumulation of adipose tissue with slow and progressive tumor growth. In this case report, a patient with this syndrome was treated at Hospital das Clínicas, in Recife, PE, to reduce the lipomatous content through a lipectomy. The patient presented large masses of elastic adipose tissue around the neck and supraclavicular region and the therapeutic proposal consisted of a two-stage surgery, with liposuction and anterior cervical lipectomy, followed by liposuction and posterior cervical lipectomy. Before surgery, a cardiological opinion was requested, which indicated an intermediate risk but did not contraindicate the procedure. Four days after surgery, the patient presented bruises and peripheral edema in the cervical surgical wound but was asymptomatic. Lipectomy and liposuction techniques are considered the most effective treatment methods for Madelung disease. However, the choice of surgery should be based on a comprehensive assessment of the severity of the disease, location of the mass, and patient expectations, as both techniques have advantages and disadvantages.

Eur Urol Focus ; 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879378


Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment for penile squamous cell carcinoma. Following surgical excision, reconstructive surgery is beneficial to restore aesthetics, functionality, and overall quality of life of these patients. In this mini-review, we discuss the use of skin grafts, perineal urethrostomy, phalloplasty, and vascularised flaps as reconstructive options following penile cancer treatment. Illustrated by videos, we highlight the surgical approach, indications, complications, and outcomes of these reconstructive strategies. PATIENT SUMMARY: Reconstructive surgery is important to restore appearance, urinary function, and sexual function in patients who have been treated for penile cancer. We discuss the benefits and potential complications of various surgical reconstructive options, which are illustrated with videos.

Arch Craniofac Surg ; 25(2): 77-84, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742334


BACKGROUND: The facial artery is an important blood vessel responsible for supplying the anterior face. Understanding the branching patterns of the facial artery plays a crucial role in various medical specialties such as plastic surgery, dermatology, and oncology. This knowledge contributes to improving the success rate of facial reconstruction and aesthetic procedures. However, debate continues regarding the classification of facial artery branching patterns in the existing literature. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive anatomical study, in which we dissected 102 facial arteries from 52 embalmed and formaldehyde-fixed Vietnamese cadavers at the Anatomy Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. RESULTS: Our investigation revealed eight distinct termination points and identified 35 combinations of branching patterns, including seven arterial branching patterns. These termination points included the inferior labial artery, superior labial artery, inferior alar artery, lateral nasal artery, angular artery typical, angular artery running along the lower border of the orbicularis oculi muscle, forehead branch, duplex, and short course (hypoplastic). Notably, the branching patterns of the facial artery displayed marked asymmetry between the left and right sides within the same cadaver. CONCLUSION: The considerable variation observed in the branching pattern and termination points of the facial artery makes it challenging to establish a definitive classification system for this vessel. Therefore, it is imperative to develop an anatomical map summarizing the major measurements and geometric features of the facial artery. Surgeons and medical professionals involved in facial surgery and procedures must consider the detailed anatomy and relative positioning of the facial artery to minimize the risk of unexpected complications.

Arch Craniofac Surg ; 25(1): 1-10, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461822


The facial nerve stimulates the muscles of facial expression and the parasympathetic nerves of the face. Consequently, facial nerve paralysis can lead to facial asymmetry, deformation, and functional impairment. Facial nerve palsy is most commonly idiopathic, as with Bell palsy, but it can also result from a tumor or trauma. In this article, we discuss traumatic facial nerve injury. To identify the cause of the injury, it is important to first determine its location. The location and extent of the damage inform the treatment method, with options including primary repair, nerve graft, cross-face nerve graft, nerve crossover, and muscle transfer. Intracranial proximal facial nerve injuries present a challenge to surgical approaches due to the complexity of the temporal bone. Surgical intervention in these cases requires a collaborative approach between neurosurgery and otolaryngology, and nerve repair or grafting is difficult. This article describes the treatment of peripheral facial nerve injury. Primary repair generally offers the best prognosis. If primary repair is not feasible within 6 months of injury, nerve grafting should be attempted, and if more than 12 months have elapsed, functional muscle transfer should be performed. If the affected nerve cannot be utilized at that time, the contralateral facial nerve, ipsilateral masseter nerve, or hypoglossal nerve can serve as the donor nerve. Other accompanying symptoms, such as lagophthalmos or midface ptosis, must also be considered for the successful treatment of facial nerve injury.

Clin Oral Investig ; 28(4): 215, 2024 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489063


OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical efficacy in terms of mean root coverage in RT2 recession treated with a coronally advanced flap combined with a xenogeneic collagen matrix versus a connective tissue graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients were randomized to receive one of two treatments: coronally advanced flap + xenogeneic collagen matrix (test group) and coronally advanced flap + connective tissue graft (control group). Patient-related outcomes measures and professional aesthetic assessment by root esthetic score were performed. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis of the variables was performed. RESULTS: At 12 months, the mean root coverage was 56.48% in the test group and 69.72% in the control group (p = 0.048), with a 35% and 40% complete root coverage in the xenogeneic collagen matrix and connective tissue graft, respectively. Test group presented less pain (3.65 vs. 5.2 VAS units) (p = 0.015) and less surgical time (45 vs. 49.15 min) (p = 0.004) than control group. CONCLUSION: The use of xenogeneic collagen matrix in RT2 recessions was effective for recession reduction to those obtained using autologous grafts; with the advantage that the duration of surgery and patient morbidity decreased. Therefore, xenogeneic collagen matrix in RT2 recessions could be an alternative to autologous grafts. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of xenogeneic collagen matrix decreases the surgery time and patient morbidity but connective tissue graft results in significantly better mean root coverage and complete root coverage. Xenogeneic collagen matrix can be used in the treatment of RT2 gingival recessions. STUDY REGISTRATION: NCT03344315.

Gingiva , Gingival Recession , Humans , Tooth Root , Esthetics, Dental , Collagen/therapeutic use , Connective Tissue/transplantation , Gingival Recession/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-5, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552841


A neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) é um distúrbio neurocutâneo hereditário no qual se formam tumores no sistema nervoso (neurofibromas). Os neurofibromas são os tumores benignos mais comuns na NF1. O tipo, o tamanho, o número e a localização dos neurofibromas devem ser considerados para a escolha do tratamento. Apresentamos um caso de NF1, no qual foi realizada uma ampla ressecção do couro cabeludo devido à presença de múltiplos neurofibromas. Associado a isso, a reconstrução foi realizada com retalhos de avanço mais autoenxerto de pele parcial, com resultados favoráveis e boa cobertura das áreas onde os tumores foram removidos.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder in which tumors form in the nervous system (neurofibromas). Neurofibromas are the most common benign tumors in NF1. The type, size, number, and location of the neurofibromas should be considered for the choice of treatment. We present a case of NF1, in which a wide scalp resection was performed due to the presence of multiple neurofibromas. Associated with this, reconstruction was performed with advancement flaps plus partial skin autograft with favorable results and good coverage of the areas where the tumors were removed.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-4, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525801


Cútis laxa é uma rara doença do tecido conectivo caracterizada pela disfunção das fibras elásticas. Indivíduos acometidos por essa enfermidade queixam-se de sua aparência envelhecida. Os tratamentos se baseiam no uso de cosméticos ou em técnicas cirúrgicas, sendo a cirurgia plástica uma ferramenta de extrema relevância. A blefaroplastia tem o objetivo de melhorar a aparência senil e proporcionar rejuvenescimento na área ao redor dos olhos, fazendo com que o olhar pareça mais descansado e alerta. Trata-se de um estudo observacional retrospectivo utilizando os dados do prontuário. Relato do Caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 17 anos, encaminhada ao serviço de Cirurgia Plástica do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, Fortaleza- CE, para tratamento devido à insatisfação com a sua aparência. Submetida a uma blefaroplastia superior e inferior associada a cantopexia sem cantotomia. No período pós-operatório, foi observado resultado satisfatório para a cirurgia proposta e adequada correção das alterações existentes. Conclusão: Observa-se a importância da correção cirúrgica facial nos casos de cútis laxa, ressaltando a relevância da aplicação de técnicas cirúrgicas adequadas e o aprimoramento das mesmas nesse perfil de paciente.

Cutis laxa is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by dysfunction of elastic fibers. Individuals affected by this disease complain about their aged appearance. Treatments are based on the use of cosmetics or surgical techniques, with plastic surgery being an extremely relevant tool. Blepharoplasty aims to improve the senile appearance and provide rejuvenation in the area around the eyes, making the look appear more rested and alert. This is a retrospective observational study using medical record data. Case Report: A female patient, 17 years old, was referred to the Plastic Surgery Service of the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, Fortaleza-CE, for treatment due to dissatisfaction with her appearance. She underwent upper and lower blepharoplasty associated with canthopexy without canthotomy. In the postoperative period, a satisfactory result was observed for the proposed surgery and adequate correction of existing changes. Conclusion: The importance of facial surgical correction in cases of lax skin is observed, highlighting the relevance of applying appropriate surgical techniques and improving them in this patient profile.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-7, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525807


Introdução: O mercado de procedimento estéticos cresce exponencialmente no Brasil. Tal crescimento tem despertado o interesse de várias categorias profissionais. A decisão de praticar no setor deve considerar as oportunidades de mercado da localidade na qual se pretende atuar. Entretanto, a área carece de análises comparativas documentando prováveis diferenças regionais no país. O objetivo do estudo é descrever as diferenças de mercado em procedimentos estéticos entre os estados e regiões brasileiras. Um índice de potencial consumo de cosmiatria (IPCC) é calculado para tal análise comparativa. Método: Estudo transversal envolvendo prestadores de procedimentos estéticos não cirúrgicos no Brasil. Buscas no Google®-Google Maps® foram conduzidas usando termoschave e entrevistas telefônicas realizadas para obter informações sobre categorias profissionais, tipo de provedores e serviços oferecidos. Valores preditivos positivos foram obtidos para todas as estratégias de busca e usados para estimar o número total de provedores. O tamanho da população e a renda per capita foram considerados para o cálculo dos IPCCs para os estados brasileiros. Resultados: São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro apresentaram os maiores IPCCs, sendo 524, 210 e 180, respectivamente. Roraima teve um IPCC de 14, o mais baixo do país. A Região Sudeste apresentou, em média, o maior IPCC (242) entre todas as regiões brasileiras. Conclusão: Considerando o tamanho da população e a renda, a Região Sudeste apresenta as maiores oportunidades de mercado em procedimentos estéticos não cirúrgicos no Brasil. Nossos achados podem ser de interesse para profissionais de saúde e investidores que atuam ou pretendem atuar no setor.

Introduction: The aesthetic procedure market is growing exponentially in Brazil. This growth has aroused the interest of several professional categories. The decision to practice in the sector must consider the market opportunities in the location in which you intend to operate. However, the area lacks comparative analyses documenting probable regional differences in the country. The objective of the study is to describe market differences in aesthetic procedures between Brazilian states and regions. An index of potential cosmetic consumption (IPCC) is calculated for such a comparative analysis. Method: Cross-sectional study involving providers of nonsurgical aesthetic procedures in Brazil. Searches on Google Maps® were conducted using key terms, and telephone interviews were conducted to obtain information on professional categories, types of providers, and services offered. Positive predictive values were obtained for all search strategies and used to estimate the total number of providers. Population size and per capita income were considered to calculate the IPCCs for Brazilian states. Results: São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro presented the highest IPCCs, being 524, 210, and 180, respectively. Roraima had an IPCC of 14, the lowest in the country. The Southeast Region presented, on average, the highest IPCC (242) among all Brazilian regions. Conclusion: Considering population size and income, the Southeast Region presents the greatest market opportunities for nonsurgical aesthetic procedures in Brazil. Our findings may be of interest to healthcare professionals and investors who work or intend to work in the sector.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-11, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525813


Introdução: O envelhecimento facial é um processo gradual, complexo e multifatorial. É o resultado de mudanças na qualidade, volume e posicionamento dos tecidos. Cirurgiões plásticos têm modificado sua abordagem na cirurgia do rejuvenescimento facial optando pelo plano subaponeurótico (SMAS). O objetivo deste estudo é analisar 100 casos de pacientes operados pela técnica de SMAS profundo, avaliando sua aplicabilidade e eficácia. Método: Foram avaliados 100 pacientes, submetidos a cirurgia plástica facial pela técnica de SMAS profundo - "Deep Smas", e acompanhados por 6 meses. Observou-se a satisfação dos pacientes, número de complicações, número de reoperações, riscos e vantagens da técnica. Resultados: Foram operados 100 pacientes, num período de 3 anos. A idade variou de 41 a 79 anos, sendo 95% sexo feminino. As complicações foram 8 casos (8%) de lesões de ramos do nervo facial, sendo: 4 casos lesão do zigomático, 3 casos de lesão do mandibular e 1 caso de lesão do bucal; houve 1 caso (1%) de queloide retroauricular; 1 caso (1%) de hematoma. Em relação às revisões cirúrgicas, houve 8 casos (8%) de complementação cirúrgica por insatisfação das pacientes. Houve 15% de lesões nervosas entre a 1ª e a 40ª cirurgia, 5% entre a 41ª e a 80ª, e nenhuma lesão entre o 81º e o 100º paciente. Conclusão: O lifting facial profundo ou subSMAS mostrou ser efetivo, proporcionando bons resultados estéticos. Apresenta baixa taxa de recidiva e baixa taxa de morbidade, porém, necessita de uma longa curva de aprendizagem.

Introduction: Facial aging is a gradual, complex, and multifactorial process. It is the result of changes in the quality, volume, and positioning of tissues. Plastic surgeons have modified their approach to facial rejuvenation surgery, opting for the subaponeurotic plane (SMAS). The objective of this study is to analyze 100 cases of patients operated on using the deep SMAS technique, evaluating its applicability and effectiveness. Method: 100 patients were evaluated, undergoing facial plastic surgery using the deep SMAS technique - "Deep Smas", and followed up for 6 months. Patient satisfaction, number of complications, number of reoperations, risks, and advantages of the technique were observed. Results: 100 patients were operated on over 3 years. Age ranged from 41 to 79 years, with 95% being female. The complications were 8 cases (8%) of injuries to branches of the facial nerve, of which 4 cases of zygomatic injury, 3 cases of mandibular injury, and 1 case of buccal injury; there was 1 case (1%) of post-auricular keloid; 1 case (1%) of hematoma. Regarding surgical revisions, there were 8 cases (8%) of surgical completion due to patient dissatisfaction. There were 15% of nerve injuries between the 1st and 40th surgery, 5% between the 41st and 80th, and no injuries between the 81st and 100th patient. Conclusion: Deep facial lifting or subSMAS has proven to be effective, providing good aesthetic results. It has a low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate; however, it requires a long learning curve.

Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-5, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525831


Introdução: O trauma de face representa significativa incapacitação para a vítima, além de um desafio para as equipes de saúde devido a sua complexidade e envolvimento de estruturas nobres. Analisar a sua epidemiologia permite coordenar medidas em saúde pública para melhorar o atendimento e a prevenção. Método: Estudo observacional, descritivo, longitudinal, com abordagem retrospectiva a partir dos prontuários dos pacientes vítimas de trauma de face atendidos pela clínica cirúrgica no período entre 2010 e 2019. Resultados: Dentre os 529 prontuários incluídos no estudo e analisados, 71,08% tratava-se de cirurgias eletivas e o restante, 28,92%, de cirurgias de urgência. O trauma foi mais frequente em indivíduos de 20 a 29 anos, o que corresponde a 31,76% do total de casos. Também foi mais frequente em indivíduos do sexo masculino, correspondendo a 78,45% do total de casos. Acidentes automobilísticos foram a causa mais comum, descrita em 22,31% dos prontuários, e a principal fratura, presente em 85,83% dos casos, foi dos ossos próprios do nariz. Conclusão: As vítimas de traumatismo bucomaxilofacial atendidas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro são predominantemente homens na terceira década de vida, envolvidos em acidentes automobilísticos, com lesões em ossos do nariz que foram abordadas de forma eletiva.

Introduction: Facial trauma represents significant incapacitation for the victim, as well as a challenge for healthcare teams due to its complexity and involvement of important structures. Analyzing its epidemiology allows us to coordinate public health measures to improve care and prevention. Method: Observational, descriptive, longitudinal study with a retrospective approach based on the medical records of patients who suffered facial trauma treated by the surgical clinic between 2010 and 2019. Results: Among in individuals aged 20 to 29 years, which corresponds to 31.76% of total cases. It was also more common in males, corresponding to 78.45% of total cases. Car accidents were the most common cause, described in 22.31% of medical records, and the main fracture, present in 85.83% of cases, was of the bones of the nose. Conclusion: Victims of oral and maxillofacial trauma treated at the Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro are predominantly men in their third decade of life, involved in automobile accidents, with injuries to the bones of the nose that were treated electively.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 90: 161-170, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368758


Large soft tissue defects of the face often require free flap-based reconstruction. To avoid a conspicuous patch-like appearance, choosing flaps with a color similar to that of the adjacent facial skin is crucial. This study aimed to identify the flap types that show the best color match via objective color evaluation. Patients who underwent free flap-based facial reconstruction between 2013 and 2023 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on standardized photographs, average color samples of the flap skin paddle and adjacent skin were obtained. The color differences were compared by flap type at two different time points, early (within 1-3 months, post-operative) and late (after 1 year, post-operative), using the delta E value. Fifty-eight free flaps were analyzed, including 22 thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flaps, 17 anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps, nine superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flaps, and eight radial forearm (RF) flaps. In the analysis of early outcomes, the RF flaps showed the least color difference, followed by the SCIP and TDAP flaps, and the ALT flaps showed the greatest difference, with the differences being significant. Most cases showed generally improved color matching over time. Time-dependent changes were significant in the ALT and TDAP flap groups. In the analysis of late outcomes, all flap types showed delta E values less than 10, with the RF flaps showing the least color difference, followed by the SCIP flap. The four workhorse flaps provided acceptable outcomes with long-term improvements. The RF flaps provided the best color matching in the long run.

Free Tissue Flaps , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Arteries