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1.
Int J Nurs Stud Adv ; 6: 100188, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746819

ABSTRACT

Background: New graduate nurses are the nursing cohort at greatest risk for turnover and attrition in every context internationally. This has possibly been heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workplace conditions significantly impact nursing turnover; however, interventions under the positive psychology umbrella may have a mediating impact on the intention to leave. New graduate nurses are generally challenged most in their first three years of clinical practice, and the need for support to transition is widely accepted. Gratitude practice has been reported to improve individual control and resilient response to setbacks and, therefore, is of interest in testing if this intervention can impact turnover intention in the workforce. Objective: To report on a scoping review undertaken to identify whether 'gratitude practice' as an intervention had the potential to improve new graduate nurses' wellbeing and resilience. Methods: Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review approach. Primary research papers of any methodology, published in English between January 2010 and July 2022 were included. Literature was sourced from seven databases, including CINAHL PLUS, ERIC, MEDLINE, Professional Development Collection, APA PsychInfo, APA PsychArticles, and Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection. Results: We identified 130 records, of which we selected 35 for inclusion. A large range of interventions were identified; most had some form of writing, journaling, or diarising. The next most common intervention was teaching gratitude strategies via workshops, and many interventions had some form of list or activity trigger for participants to complete. Five studies had complex combined interventions, while the rest were simple, easily reproducible interventions. Interventions were delivered both face-to-face or asynchronously, with some being online only and others sent out as a 'kit' for participants to work through. Conclusion: Our review of existing literature shows a significant gap in research on gratitude practice and its impact on nursing populations. To ensure robust future studies, we suggest defining concepts clearly and selecting outcome measures and tools that are not closely related. Intervention design may not be as important as the choice of measures and tools to measure outcomes.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 2024 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify moderators of treatment effect (i.e. depressive symptoms and well-being) of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Positive Psychology Intervention (PPI) in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Data were drawn from two multicenter randomized controlled trials investigating effectiveness of MBCT vs treatment as usual (TAU; n = 144) and PPI vs TAU (n = 97) in bipolar disorder. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 12 months after baseline. Data were analyzed using separate linear regression models, comparing the pooled MBCT or PPI outcomes to TAU, and comparing MBCT to PPI. RESULTS: The exploratory analyses not corrected for multiple comparisons showed a number of variables that were associated with stronger response to the interventions, including higher baseline anxiety, lower well-being, and lower levels of self-focused positive rumination, well-being, and self-compassion, and variables associated with a stronger response to either MBCT (higher levels of depression and anxiety and being married) or PPI (being male). After correcting for multiple testing, depressive symptoms appeared to be the most robust variable associated with better response to MBCT than PPI. LIMITATIONS: The RCTs handled slightly different enrollment criteria and outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: The most robust finding is that patients with more severe symptomatology seem to benefit more from MBCT than PPI. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This is a first step to improve personalized assignment of third-wave CBT interventions for patients with bipolar disorder. However, before definite treatment assignment criteria can be formulated and implemented in clinical practice, these findings should be replicated.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695773

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Young adult cancer survivors experience disruptions in various life domains (e.g., relationships, academic/career) during and after treatment. This study examined life disruptions and related supports to update interventions to improve psychological outcomes. Methods: In April-July 2023, young adult survivors (n = 23) were recruited (via clinics, support groups, nonprofit organizations, etc.) to complete semi-structured interviews assessing cancer's impact across life domains, how they coped with related disruptions, and facilitators to improved psychosocial well-being. We used a dual deductive-inductive approach to develop a codebook and then coded transcripts in Dedoose. Results: This sample was on average 33.7 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 4.4), 78.3% female, 73.9% non-Hispanic White, 47.8% married/cohabitating, 2.4 (SD = 1.0) years post-diagnosis, 1.4 years (SD = 0.9) post-treatment, and largely diagnosed with breast cancer (52.1%) or leukemia/lymphoma (34.7%). The most salient themes related to disruptions included mental health, feelings of isolation during survivorship, and disruptions to career and relationships with family or partners. Participants reported challenges navigating these feelings and disruptions, and difficulty understanding and conveying their needs. Many experienced limited support for navigating cancer-related trauma and life disruptions as a survivor. Participants also reported some positive impacts, like reevaluating their values and goals or feeling resilient, and emphasized the need to identify supports, accept that life had changed because of cancer, and have their needs and continued struggles validated by others during survivorship. Conclusions: Young adults experience ongoing disruptions across multiple life domains, underscoring the need for integrated, longer-term psychosocial supports to help them navigate these disruptions and reevaluate their goals.

4.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 74: 102656, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723756

ABSTRACT

Until now, research on growth following sport injury has relied exclusively on retrospective reports and nomothetic measures drawn from other fields of research. Therefore, to more objectively explore growth following sport injury pre- and post-injury, rather than retrospectively, this study adapts and examines the psychometric properties of the Athlete Psychological Well-Being Inventory (APWBI), which can be used throughout the sport injury process (i.e., prior to and following sport injury). A sample of 164 athletes free from injury (71.3 % men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 2.1) were compared to a sample of 168 athletes with history of previous injury (73.2 % men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 2.1). Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated the measurement and factor equivalence between the APWBI and a retrospective measure, the Sport Injury-Related Growth Inventory (SIRGI). The APWBI also showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency reliability for all its sub-dimensions ("sense of mastery", "positive relations with others", "responsibility for one's health", "self-awareness", "emotional ability", "purpose in life", "purpose in sport", and "body awareness") and for the total score. Analysis of the relationships with other self-report measures (i.e., the Positive Functioning Inventory, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and the Lie Scale) provided convergent and discriminant evidence to support the construct validity of the instrument. To conclude, the APWBI is a valid and reliable instrument for use within English-speaking athletes of various competitive levels (from local/county to international level).

5.
Stress Health ; : e3423, 2024 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773897

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel COVID-19 disease and the social distancing measures implemented to curb its spread affected most aspects of daily life. Past work suggests that during times of more severe stress, people respond to daily stressors with relatively higher negative affect. However, little is known about how people responded to daily stressors and positive events at different moments in time during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, we examined longitudinal changes in daily event-related affect (covariation of daily stressors or positive events with same-day affect) from Spring 2020 (wave 1) to 2022 (wave 2). The sample consisted of 324 adults aged 18-80 (mean = 52 years; 89% women) from the US and Canada who completed weeklong daily diaries at both waves. The results revealed improvements in affective well-being, stressor-related affect (i.e., smaller fluctuations in affect on stressor days vs. nonstressor days), and positive event-related affect (i.e., lower negative affect on days with vs. without positive events). Furthermore, as people gradually resumed their social activities from 2020 to 2022, people reported being exposed to an increased frequency of both stressors and positive events. This study highlights the potential influence of socio-historical phenomena, such as an ongoing pandemic, on the events that people encounter and how they emotionally respond to them.

6.
J Educ Health Promot ; 13: 90, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cataclysm refers to a large-scale and violent event involving disaster, catastrophe, calamity, and tragedy. The recent surge of a pandemic (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), humanitarian crisis in Sudan, civil unrest, and war, such as the attacks in Syria and Ukraine, reiterate the need to address the trauma attached to such catastrophes. This study focuses on adapting positive psychology, one of the newest branches of psychology to emerge, to help human beings prosper and lead healthy, happy lives. It also explores post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and means to overcome traumatizing psychological dejection caused by such mishaps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demoralization is the immediate effect caused on victims and survivors of such devastations. A comprehensive study of cataclysm and demoralization is concomitant with the suffering produced by various factors pertaining to mass annihilation. A deductive methodology is incorporated into the qualitative data to analyze the oral testimonies of war and disaster survivors in Svetlana Alexievich's works titled Zinky Boys: Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War, Second Hand Time, The Unwomanly Face of War and Chernobyl Prayer. RESULTS: Interpretation of the polyphonic voices in the oral sagas of interviewees in Alexievich's works reveals an increased level of anxiety, stress, and trauma post-catastrophic events. CONCLUSION: The implementation of positive psychology has been identified as an appropriate psychological intervention to address the issues related to psychological devastation.

7.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30385, 2024 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720755

ABSTRACT

Considering the need to gain a deeper understanding of the protective factors associated with coping with food insecurity, specifically in times of severe prolonged stress, the current longitudinal study seeks to examine the role of optimism in the relationship between food insecurity and adverse mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. A three-wave longitudinal study involving 1921 Israeli adults was performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing food insecurity, anxiety, depression, optimism, and socio-demographic characteristics. To explore the relationship between food insecurity and symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as the moderating role of optimism in this relationship, we employed a set of panel regression models with individual fixed effects. Our results indicate that the degree and change in food insecurity over time were positively associated with both anxiety and depression symptoms, whereas the degree and change in optimism were negatively correlated. Optimism was found to moderate the association between food insecurity and anxiety symptoms over time, but not the association between food insecurity and depression symptoms. A subgroup analysis revealed that optimism moderated the relationship between food insecurity and anxiety and depression for women, but not for men; for married/coupled individuals but not for singles; for non-parents with regard to anxiety, and for parents with regard to depression. Our results highlight the need to practice and enhance optimism in times of great despair, uncertainty, and hardship, especially in situations of food insecurity where tangible change may take time.

8.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1358799, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721321

ABSTRACT

Background: Athlete burnout is a widespread psychological syndrome in competitive sports, negatively impacts athletes' competitive state and hampers the healthy development of sports organizations. With the rise of positive psychology, exploring the mechanisms of athlete psychological fatigue through the lens of psychological capital has become a focal point of recent research. This study introduces gratitude, a key element of psychological capital in positive psychology, to examine its effect on athlete burnout and its mechanism of action, with a particular focus on the sequential mediating roles of the coach-athlete relationship (CAR) and hope. Method: A cross-sectional study design was utilized, involving 483 active Chinese athletes from national training teams and professional sports teams. The sample comprised both male (n=251) and female (n=232) athletes, with an average age of 19.24 ± 3.99 years. Participants were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires, including the Gratitude Questionnaire, CAR Questionnaire, Hope Questionnaire, and Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling in AMOS 24.0 and descriptive statistics and correlation analyses in SPSS 20.0 were employed for data analysis. Results: The study revealed significant associations between athlete gratitude, CAR, hope, and athlete burnout. Notably, gratitude was found to both directly and indirectly (via CAR and hope) influence burnout levels among athletes, suggesting a sequential mediation effect. Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of positive psychological constructs in buffering against athlete burnout. Specifically, gratitude, alongside a supportive CAR and elevated levels of hope, may play crucial roles in mitigating burnout symptoms. These insights offer promising directions for the development of targeted intervention strategies aimed at fostering athlete well-being and performance, advocating for the integration of positive psychology principles in the management and prevention of athlete burnout.

9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The job interview can be challenging for autistic adolescents considering the required social communication skills. Further, having decreased awareness of personal strengths may make it difficult to advocate for oneself to a future employer. The purpose of the current pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to examine the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of a combined interventional approach using: the Virtual Interview Tool for Autistic Transition-Age Youth (VIT-TAY) and Kessler Foundation Strength Identification and Expression (KF-STRIDE). METHOD: Twenty autistic transition-age youth (TAY) were randomly assigned to two groups: an intervention group (n = 10) that received 9 h of VIT-TAY (interviewing practice with a virtual human), and three lessons of KF-STRIDE (positive psychology intervention to learn and discuss one's personal character strengths) and a services-as-usual (SAU) group (n = 10). The primary outcome was measured using a video-recorded mock job interview performed at pre- and post-test, which was rated by blinded assessors. Secondary outcomes included self-reports of job interview skill, interview anxiety, work readiness and recent job search behavior. RESULTS: Paired samples t-tests revealed significant differences between pre- and post-test in the intervention group (but not the control group) on the mock interview total score (p = 0.02, d = 0.76) and self-reported job interview skills total score (p = 0.02, d = 0.75). The intervention group (but not the control group) had improvements in work-readiness (p = 0.06, d = 0.53) and job search behavior (p = 0.07, d = 0.52) that were characterized by medium effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that combining VIT-TAY with KF-STRIDE leads to improvements in performance-based and self-reported job interview skills.

10.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 38: 100782, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706572

ABSTRACT

Aims and objectives: This study analyzes, in nurses, the influence of openness to experience and hardiness (assessed at baseline and one year after the COVID-19 pandemic respectively) on the development of optimism (assessed two years after the COVID-19 pandemic). Concerns about self-contagion were included as a moderating variable, given their relevance as a risk factor. Background: Nurses have been among the healthcare professionals most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Most previous studies have focused on the variables contributing to psychological symptoms, whilst the attention given to the variables adding to the well-being of these professionals has been much scarcer. Design: A prospective study was carried out. Methods: This study was carried out using three data collection periods: Period 1 (From May to June 2020), Period 2 (From January 2021 to April 2021), and Period 3 (From April 2022 to July 2022), with the participation of 151 Spanish nurses, using online self-reporting questionnaires. The study followed the STROBE statement. Results: The results showed that the proposed model was statistically significant. There was a positive effect of openness to experience (year 2020) on hardiness assessed one year later (year 2021). Similarly, hardiness had a positive effect on optimism assessed another year on (year 2022). Conclusions: Concerns about self-contagion behaved as a moderator in the relationship between openness to experience and hardiness (the relationship between openness and hardiness was statistically significant when contagion concern was higher). Relevance to clinical practice: In-depth understanding of the psychological processes that trigger psychological strengths (i.e. optimism) as a result of adverse situations (i.e. COVID-19 pandemic) is essential in promoting the mental health of healthcare professionals. Interventions targeting resilient personality traits and cognitive flexibility are key to this goal. No Patient or Public Contribution: The participants contributed exclusively to the collection of the sample.

11.
London; Homeopathy; Apr. 18, 2024. 11 p.
Non-conventional in English | HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: biblio-1552586

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy uses the "similitude principle" to arouse a therapeutic reaction in the body against its own disorders. For this to occur optimally, the medicinal pathogenetic effects must present similarity with the totality of the individual's symptoms. To assess if this similarity has been successfully achieved, Hahnemann states that "improvement in the disposition and mind"­i.e., subjective well-being­is the most important parameter to consider. Aim Our aim was to perform a narrative review of the literature, exploring what is known about subjective well-being as a marker of therapeutic action, and to formulate ways in which subjective well-being might be quantifiable and applied in future homeopathy research. The concept of subjective well-being has been extensively studied in the complementary and conventional medical literature. Improved well-being has been observed in clinical trials, including those in the fields of positive psychology and meditation. Positive subjective outcomes of this nature are supported by objective evidence through associated changes in brain oscillatory activity using electroencephalography and/or "brain mapping" by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neurophysiological responses in the brain have been identified in subjects after they ingested a homeopathic medicine. The concept of subjective well-being is supported by a body of literature and is a measurable entity. When viewed from the perspective of electrophysiological changes, brain activity is an objective neurophysiological biomarker with a potential to quantify individual well-being in the context of homeopathy research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Mapping , Medicamentous Diagnosis , Meditation , Electroencephalography , Psychology, Positive , Psychological Well-Being
12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 141: 107545, 2024 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the increasing number of young adult cancer survivors and the impacts of cancer on various life domains, interventions addressing the psychosocial needs of young adult survivors are crucial. However, such intervention research is limited, and the existing literature has often: 1) overlooked young adult survivors' psychosocial needs; 2) targeted depression, anxiety, or fear of recurrence - rather than positive outcomes like well-being; and 3) failed to consider scalable approaches, like digital health. METHODS: This paper documents the development and refinement of an 8-week digital, coach-assisted intervention targeting hope among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39, within 3 years of treatment completion) and presents the protocol of the 2-arm RCT (comparing intervention vs. attention control). The intervention builds upon a 2017-2018 pilot trial (n = 56); intervention refinements were based on subsequent semi-structured interviews among young adult survivors (n = 23). RESULTS: The pending trial design involves an increased sample size (n = 150) to increase power and diversified recruitment efforts (i.e., clinic-based, social media, community-based organizations, etc.) to facilitate intervention reach, accessibility, and scalability. The intervention was enhanced by integrating highly relevant theoretical and therapeutic frameworks, specifically the concept of hope and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, as well as updating intervention delivery technology. Intervention outcomes include feasibility and acceptability at end-of-treatment and preliminary efficacy on hope (primary outcome) and quality of life measures (secondary outcomes) at end-of-treatment and 16-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This paper may facilitate discussion regarding approaches for addressing the significant psychosocial challenges faced by young adult survivors and catalyze dissemination of trial results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05905250.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Humans , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Young Adult , Adult , Adolescent , Female , Male , Quality of Life , Hope , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/therapy , Depression/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Mentoring/methods , Research Design
13.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1257446, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596339

ABSTRACT

Multi-component Positive Psychology Interventions (mPPIs) in secondary schools have been shown to improve mental health outcomes for young people. The Hummingbird Project mPPI is a six-week program of workshops designed to introduce a variety of positive psychology (PP) concepts to secondary school-aged children in schools to improve well-being, resilience, and hope. The effects on mental distress, however, were not explored. The current study, therefore, was designed to replicate the effects of the Hummingbird Project mPPI on positive mental health and to also explore the effects on symptoms of mental distress. Secondary school-aged children (N = 614; mean age = 11.46 years) from a sample of secondary schools located across the North West of England (N = 7) participated in the study; the majority of children were in Year 7 (94%). The PP concepts explored included happiness, hope, resilience, mindfulness, character strengths, growth mindset, and gratitude. The results showed significant improvements associated with the mPPI in well-being (as measured by the World Health Organization Well-Being Index; WHO-5), hope (as measured by the Children's Hope Scale; CHS), and symptoms of mental distress (as measured by the Young Person's Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation; YP-CORE) from pre- to post-intervention. While acknowledging the limits due to pragmatic concerns regarding the implementation of a control group, the effectiveness of the Hummingbird Project mPPI on well-being was replicated alongside reducing the symptoms of mental distress. Future evaluation, however, will need to implement more robust designs and consider follow-up duration to assess the longer-term effects of the Hummingbird Project mPPI.

14.
Psychol Health ; : 1-17, 2024 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gratitude has consistently been associated with various beneficial health-related outcomes, including subjective wellbeing, positive mental health, and positive physical health. In light of such effects, positive psychology researchers and practitioners have often implemented gratitude interventions in an attempt to build individuals' orientations toward appreciation and thankfulness. Recent meta-analyses and reviews have revealed, however, that these interventions often have mixed effects on gratitude or other health outcomes. With this issue in mind, we aimed to identify (a) contextual considerations that may impact the effectiveness of these approaches, and (b) recommendations for the optimisation of gratitude interventions. METHODS AND MEASURES: Seventeen mental health professionals or experienced health psychology researchers engaged in semi-structured interviews to address the research questions. RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the data resulted in three contextual themes-cultural considerations, personal characteristics, and life experience-that were discussed as factors likely to influence intervention effectiveness. With respect to recommendations, participants highlighted the importance of encouraging deep engagement in gratitude tasks, consistent repetition of those tasks, and the value of interpersonal expressions of gratitude. CONCLUSION: Discussion is centred on suggestions for future research on gratitude and on implications for the implementation of gratitude interventions.

15.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1354408, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601827

ABSTRACT

Bees are excellent pollinators and serve an essential environmental purpose. However, little is known about the wellbeing impact of bees on humans. This research addressed the knowledge gap concerning the impact of beekeeping on the wellbeing of beekeepers and their families, focusing on the often-overlooked psychological, emotional, and social dimensions. Thirty farmers in Ireland participating in the Let it Bee project, aimed at promoting biodiversity and water source protection, were provided with bee hives. Twelve participants were interviewed to explore the effects of beekeeping on their wellbeing. Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the data, revealing five central themes. (1) The centrality of pride in accomplishing environmental and community objectives in the farmers' beekeeping activities; (2) the evolving sense of togetherness with nature, family, and community throughout the project; (3) a profound sense of contributing significantly to the greater good; (4) the recognized value of beekeeping for beekeepers' psychological growth, flow, and relaxation; and (5) the opportunity for beekeepers to leverage their character strengths. The implications of these findings are discussed within the framework of their impact on environmental conservation, healthcare policymaking, and implications for research and practice.

16.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1375237, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629035

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The present study expands the existing knowledge base regarding positive psychology interventions (PPIs), by employing an integrative approach to explore the potential benefits of translating values into action. Methods: Participants (n = 476) were randomly assigned to the Activating Values intervention, the affirmation-only, or the control (no treatment) group. The intervention involved participants choosing a life area they valued, affirming its importance, identifying a specific action related to that valued area, and then planning and carrying out that chosen action within the following week. Data was collected at baseline and three follow-up points: one, two, and three weeks after the intervention. Results: Results suggest that the intervention contributes to the participants' well-being, including increased self-insight, sense of coherence, and prioritizing meaning, and decreased symptoms of psychopathology. Exploratory content analyses provide a deeper understanding of the content and frequency of activities chosen and the enabling conditions. Discussion: The discussion explores the findings within this intersection as well as ramifications for brief, scalable interventions to support and promote well-being.

18.
J Ment Health ; : 1-11, 2024 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Positive psychological interventions (PPIs) are known to be effective in alleviating depression. However, the effect of PPIs on positive and negative emotions in depressed participants is not unclear. AIMS: To systematically investigate the effects of PPIs on positive and negative emotions in depressed individuals. METHODS: 6 databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of PPIs in individuals with depressive disorders or depressive symptoms. Hedges' g value was computed using a random-effects model to determine effect sizes. RESULTS: 14 trials from 13 studies were included. Our meta-analysis showed that PPIs had significant but small effects on improving positive affect (g = 0.33, p = .02), life satisfaction (g = 0.26, p = .03), happiness (g = 0.62, p = .03) and depression (g = -0.32, p = .001), and negligible effects on improving well-being (g = 0.13, p = .24) and negative affect (g = -0.15, p = .31). Subgroup analyses of depression showed that PPIs have experienced benefits in improving depression in most subgroups. In addition, none of the subgroup analyses performed for outcomes other than depression found PPIs to be more effective than controls. CONCLUSION: PPIs can improve positive affect, life satisfaction, happiness and depression in depressed individuals, but further studies are needed to validate their effects on well-being, and negative affect.

19.
Health Psychol Rev ; : 1-27, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Among cancer survivors, mindfulness-based interventions appear promising in decreasing distress for cancer patients, but little attention has been paid to the ultimate mindfulness goal of increasing psychological wellbeing. This meta-analysis aims to summarise and synthesise available evidence concerning the effectiveness of MBIs on positive psychological outcomes reflecting key aspects of psychological wellbeing in heterogeneous cancer patients. METHODS: A literature search of mindfulness-based randomised clinical trials in cancer survivors was conducted across six electronic databases. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Meta-analyses were conducted using R; standardised mean difference (SMD) was used to determine intervention effect. Moderators examined included therapeutic orientation, control group type, treatment modality, treatment target, heterogeneous vs. homogeneous cancer type, and facet of wellbeing. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies were included (N = 2651). Those who received mindfulness-based interventions reported significantly higher eudaimonic, hedonic, and social wellbeing than respondents in control groups (SMD = 0.599). Interventions were equally effective across therapeutic orientation, control group type, treatment modality and treatment target. There were trend level differences favouring homogeneous cancer diagnosis groups over heterogeneous diagnosis groups. CONCLUSION: MBIs provide an effective treatment for increasing psychological wellbeing in cancer survivors. This finding has important implications for clinical practice.

20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651215

ABSTRACT

Patients with long-term disease experience low resilience, emphasising the importance of psychological interventions to improve resilience. However, there is no comprehensive evidence on the efficacy of resilience-related psychological interventions (RRPIs) in this population. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and extend knowledge from previous meta-analyses on the efficacy of RRPIs on resilience, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life among patients with long-term disease. Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid-MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL electronic databases were searched until 3 February 2023. The pooled effect size of the efficacy of RRPIs was calculated using the Hedges' g (g) with random-effects model, while Cochrane Q-statistics and I2 tests assessed heterogeneity in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.0 software. The Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool evaluated the quality of studies. Moderator analysis was used to explore sources of heterogeneity. Twenty randomised controlled trial studies were identified, representing a total of 1388 individuals with long-term disease. RRPIs significantly enhance resilience (g = 0.79), alleviate stress (g = -0.78), decrease anxiety (g = -1.14), mitigate depression (g = -0.96) and improve quality of life (g = 0.48). Positive psychology, mindfulness, cognitive behavioural therapy, acceptance and commitment-based intervention exhibited medium effects in strengthening resilience. Short-term effects of RRPIs on enhancing resilience were observed at 3-month follow-up period (g = 0.50). The incorporation of RRPIs into the management of patients with long-term disease shows a positive impact on their resilience, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life. The results offer an evidence-based foundation for nurses in promoting resilience among patients with long-term disease.

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