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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249808, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345554

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sexing of species is an important tool for population management. In tortoises and turtles, sexing is usually done according to secondary characteristics, such as plastron morphology or phallus eversion techniques. In this paper, we present the phallus eversion method and compare its efficiency to other existing techniques. This new method aims at shortening the management time and reducing the physical aftereffects on the animals, fostering the clinical and reproductive management of Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus) and related species. A sample of fifty individuals was taken in the central region of Piauí state, Northeastern Brazil. The proposed method consisted of moving the head from its resting position. The methods achieving a success rate higher than 80% were compared to each other as for the stimulation time required for phallus eversion. The method as here proposed achieved 100% efficiency in the sex determination of specimens with a linear carapace length between 10 and 34 cm. Also, when compared to the second most efficient method, it substantially reduced the time needed for managing the specimens (91%), avoiding possible sequelae in the individuals handled.


Resumo A sexagem das espécies é uma ferramenta importante para o manejo populacional. Em tartarugas, cágados e jabutis, a sexagem geralmente é feita de acordo com características secundárias, como morfologia do plastrão ou técnicas de eversão do falo. Neste artigo, apresentamos o método de eversão do falo e comparamos sua eficiência com outras técnicas existentes. Este novo método visa encurtar o tempo de manejo e reduzir os efeitos colaterais físicos nos animais, promovendo o manejo clínico e reprodutivo do cágado-de-barbicha (Phrynops geoffroanus) e espécies relacionadas. Uma amostra de cinquenta indivíduos foi coletada na região central do estado do Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil. O método proposto consiste em remover a cabeça de sua posição de repouso. Os métodos que obtiveram índice de sucesso superior a 80% foram comparados entre si quanto ao tempo de estimulação necessário para a eversão do falo. O método aqui proposto alcançou 100% de eficiência na determinação do sexo de espécimes com comprimento de carapaça linear entre 10 e 34 cm. Além disso, quando comparado ao segundo método mais eficiente, reduziu substancialmente o tempo necessário para o manejo dos espécimes (91%), evitando possíveis sequelas nos indivíduos manuseados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Turtles , Brazil
2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 881255, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493103

ABSTRACT

The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia produces only females by parthenogenesis in a healthy population. However, in response to environmental declines such as crowding and lack of foods, it produces eggs destined to become males that are genetically identical to females. During the development of the sexually committed eggs, DM domain-containing transcription factor Doublesex1 (Dsx1) orchestrates male trait formation globally both in somatic and gonadal tissues. Recent studies have revealed that Dsx1 expression is tightly controlled at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic levels to avoid sexual ambiguity. In this review, together with basic information on Dsx1 structure and expression, we introduce the multi-layered Dsx1 regulation and discuss how each regulation is interconnected for controlling male development in environmental sex-determining Daphnia.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104128, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are known differences in vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity by sex. Females have been shown to report greater reactogenicity and generate higher humoral and cellular immune responses than males following vaccination with several different vaccines. Whether this is also the case for COVID-19 vaccines is currently unknown, as COVID-19 vaccine study data disaggregated by sex are not routinely reported. Therefore, we have assessed the influence of sex on reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. METHODS: Vaccine efficacy was assessed in 15169 volunteers enrolled into single-blind randomised controlled trials of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Brazil and the UK, with the primary endpoint defined as nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. All participants were electronically randomised to receive two standard doses of vaccine or the control product. Logistic regression models were fitted to explore the effect of age and sex on reactogenicity, and linear models fitted to log-transformed values for immunogenicity data. Reactogenicity data were taken from self-reported diaries of 788 trial participants. Pseudovirus neutralisation assay data were available from 748 participants and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG assay data from 1543 participants. FINDINGS: 7619 participants received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 7550 received the control. Vaccine efficacy in participants after two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4243 females and 3376 males) was 66.1% (95% CI 55.9-73.9%) in males and 59.9% (95% CI 49.8-67.9%) in females; with no evidence of a difference in efficacy between the sexes (vaccine by sex interaction term P=0.3359). A small, statistically significant difference in anti-spike IgG was observed (adjusted GMR 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-1.26), with higher titres in females than males, but there were no statistically significant differences in other immunological endpoints. Whilst the majority of individuals reported at least one systemic reaction following a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, females were twice as likely as males to report any systemic reaction after a first dose (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.37-2.77). Measured fever of 38°C or above was reported in 5% of females and 1% of males following first doses. Headache and fatigue were the most commonly reported reactions in both sexes. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that there is no evidence of difference in efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in males and females. Greater reactogenicity in females was not associated with any difference in vaccine efficacy. FUNDING: Studies were registered with ISRCTN 90906759 (COV002) and ISRCTN 89951424 (COV003) and follow-up is ongoing. Funding was received from the UK Research and Innovation, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Science, Thames Valley and South Midlands NIHR Clinical Research Network, the Lemann Foundation, Rede D'Or, the Brava and Telles Foundation, the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior, Brazil, and AstraZeneca.

4.
Soc Sci Med ; 306: 115162, 2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779501

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with Men (MSM) represent a population affected by numerous health conditions. Syndemic theory has been used as a framework to study the health of MSM for nearly 20 years. However, the literature is plagued by a lack of consensus regarding what constitutes a synergy in a syndemic and recent reviews have shown that most of the papers published thus far have failed to demonstrate a synergy nor describe the bio-social interaction needed to account for a true syndemic. Moreover, to our knowledge, none of the existing reviews have focused specifically on MSM. This scoping review aims to fill this gap by mapping in detail how syndemic research on MSM has been conducted. A systematic database search was conducted between 2020 and 2021 and 115 studies were included. Our findings showed a lack of diversity regarding the location, design, subpopulation, and outcomes studied. In addition, the syndemic conditions, as well as their measurement, were not focused enough to ensure the robustness and reproducibility of the findings. Furthermore, our results support previous reviews showing a lack of empirical data to support disease interaction in syndemic research applied to MSM. Our review offers some important recommendations to help move the field forward in future work and describes some promising methodological advances.

5.
Horm Behav ; 144: 105229, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779518

ABSTRACT

Oral contraceptives are used by millions of women worldwide, yet there are questions regarding the psychological and biological consequences of these medications. Considering that sex steroid hormones can regulate neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress, the current study examined mood and stress symptomatologies, as well as circulating levels of cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers among young women (N = 388), of whom, 47.0 % (n = 182) were using a form of hormonal contraception. Women using hormone contraceptives displayed significantly higher depressive and stress scores compared to non-users, whereas no differences were found for anxiety symptoms. Moreover, contraceptive users had markedly elevated plasma cortisol and C-reactive protein levels in comparison to non-users. Upon assessing women at different phases of their menstrual cycle, hormone contraceptive users displayed higher levels of cortisol compared to women in the follicular and luteal phases, in addition to higher levels of CRP levels compared to women in the luteal phase. Together, these findings suggest that hormone contraceptive use is linked to exaggerated basal neuroendocrine and inflammatory profiles, which could potentially increase sensitivity to the impacts of stressors and mood disturbances.

6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(7): e25943, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773959

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of HIV is critical for epidemic control. To achieve this, successful testing programmes are essential and test positivity is often used as a marker of their performance. The aim of this study was to analyse trends and predictors of HIV test positivity over time and explore how an understanding of seroconversion rates could build on our interpretation of this indicator among female sex workers in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We analysed HIV test data from Zimbabwe's nationally scaled sex work programme between 2009 and 2019. We defined test positivity as the proportion of all tests that were HIV positive and measured new diagnoses by estimating seroconversion rates among women with repeat tests, defined as an HIV-positive test after at least one HIV-negative test in the programme. We used logistic regression to analyse test positivity over three time-periods: 2009-2013, 2014-2017 and 2018-2019, adjusting for potential confounding by demographic factors and the mediating effects of time since last HIV test. We calculated the seroconversion rates for the same time-periods. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, 54,503 tests were recorded in 39,462 women. Between 2009 and 2013, 18% of tests were among women who reported testing in the previous 6 months. By 2018-2019, this had increased to 57%. Between 2018 and 2019, test positivity was 9.6%, compared to 47.9% for 2009-2013 (aOR 6.08 95% CI 5.52-6.70) and 18.8% for 2014-2017 (aOR 2.17 95% CI 2.06-2.28). Adjusting for time since last test reduced effect estimates for 2009-2013 (aOR 4.03 95% CI 3.64-4.45) and 2014-2017 (aOR 1.97 95% CI 1.86-2.09) compared to 2018-2019. Among 7573 women with an initial HIV-negative test in the programme and at least one subsequent test, 464 tested HIV positive at a rate of 3.9 per 100 pyar (95% CI 3.5-4.2). CONCLUSIONS: Test positivity decreased among women testing through the programme over time, while seroconversion rates remained high. These declines were partly driven by changes in individual testing history, reflecting comprehensive coverage of testing services and greater knowledge of HIV status, but not necessarily declining rates of seroconversion. Understanding testing history and monitoring new HIV infections from repeat tests could strengthen the interpretation of test positivity and provide a better understanding of programme performance.

7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(7): e25953, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The number of individuals initiating antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is increasing, but we do not fully understand who is coming forward for PrEP, how they use it and how they are followed-up. The objective of this study was to examine PrEP user profiles, dynamics in PrEP use and follow-up over time. METHODS: We conducted a cohort analysis of longitudinally collected clinical record and questionnaire data among PrEP users at an HIV centre in Antwerp, Belgium, between June 2017 and March 2020. PrEP follow-up and user profiles were examined using descriptive analyses and bivariate logistic regression. We compared early adopting PrEP users (started before June 2018) with late users. We also calculated the probabilities of switching between daily and on-demand PrEP, and interruption, using a naïve estimator. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We included 1347 PrEP users in the analysis. After 12 months, retention in care was 72.3%. Median time between PrEP visits was 98 days (IQR 85-119 days). At screening visit, early adopting PrEP users (starting June 2017-May 2018) were significantly more likely to report one or more sexually transmitted infection in the prior 12 months, having used drugs during sex, a higher number of sexual partners and a history of paid sex and PrEP use prior to initiation, compared with PrEP users who initiated later (starting June 2018-February 2020). When taking PrEP daily, the probability of staying on daily PrEP at the next visit was 76%, while this was 73% when taking PrEP on-demand. Those using on-demand PrEP had a higher probability (13%) of interrupting PrEP care than daily PrEP users (7%), whereas those returning to PrEP care would mostly re-start with on-demand (35% vs. 13% for daily). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of PrEP users in this sample remained in care after 12 months. The probability of remaining on the same PrEP regimen at the subsequent visit was high. Though, we observed a diversity of transitions between regimens and interruptions in between visits. Our findings reaffirm the need to provide tailored PrEP services, counselling PrEP users across their life course.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 781409, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774088

ABSTRACT

Sensory features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received increasing interest in clinical work and research during the recent years. With the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), Tavasolli and colleagues have produced a self-rating scale for adults with ASD that measures sensory hyper-sensitivity in different sensory modalities, without also tapping cognitive or motivational aspects that precede or follow autistic sensory experiences. Here, we present the results of a translation of the SPQ to German and its short version as well as their validation in samples of autistic or neuro-typical participants. We, furthermore, present the psychometric properties and validities of Tavasolli's original SPQ-short version as well as an alternative short version based on different psychometric item-selection criteria. We can show here that our alternative SPQ-short version, overlapping with the original short-version in 61% of its items, exhibits superior reliabilities, reasonable concurrent validities with other related measures. It, furthermore, exhibits excellent differentiation between autistic and non-autistic samples, underscoring its utility as a screening instrument in research and a clinical instrument to supplement the ASD diagnostic process.

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 879479, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774093

ABSTRACT

The use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has been associated with increased sexual risk behaviors and HIV transmission, among other adverse health outcomes. However, ATS use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Malaysia has not yet been characterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates associated with ATS use among Malaysian FSW. Between February and December 2016, 492 FSWs, including cisgender (n = 299) and transgender (n = 193) women, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, ATS and other substance use, behavioral health issues, involvement in criminal justice, and experience of physical and sexual trauma. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with active ATS use, defined as ATS use in the last 30 days. Nearly one-third (32.3%) of participants reported active ATS use. In the multivariable model, ATS use was associated with drug use during sex work (aOR = 17.10; 8.32-35.15), having moderate to severe level of substance use disorder (aOR = 3.38; 1.48-7.70), and engaging in sex work with multiple clients per day (two clients: aOR = 3.39; 1.36-8.46; three clients: aOR = 5.06; 1.81-14.10). A high prevalence of ATS use was documented in our sample. The presence of moderate to severe substance use disorder, the use of drugs during sex work activity, and having multiple sex work clients per day were significantly associated with active ATS use. Given these findings, prevention and harm reduction strategies need to be tailored to address the increasing ATS use and the associated adverse health consequences among FSWs in Malaysia.

10.
Front Nutr ; 9: 907922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774547

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify sex-based differences in the individual and environmental factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among Korean high school students. Secondary data were obtained from the 15th (2019) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. In this study, we analyzed data from 13,066 high school students (5,874 boys and 7,192 girls) who answered questions regarding SSB consumption and individual and environmental factors. Complex sampling analysis (descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis) was conducted using the SPSS Statistics 26.0 software. Most adolescents (97% boys and 95.2% girls) reported having consumed SSBs in the last seven days. Individual factors, such as increased stress, sleep dissatisfaction, and fast-food intake (more than thrice a week) were positively associated with SSB consumption among adolescent boys and girls. Environmental factors like high education levels (above college) of mothers were negatively associated with SSB consumption among both boys and girls. Furthermore, current alcohol consumption, smoking, low vegetable intake (less than thrice a week) in boys, and more than 2 h a day of screen-based sedentary behavior in girls were positively associated with SSB consumption. According to the results, individual factors associated with SSB consumption varied according to the sex of adolescents. Thus, sex differences in factors associated with SSB consumption in adolescents should be considered as basic knowledge for developing strategies for reducing SSB consumption.

11.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 38S-45S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775912

ABSTRACT

Public policy may be strongly influenced by the language used in the media to discuss issues. This language can create a policy image or policy representation that frames the issue as being either deserving or undeserving of policy aid. This policy representation, in turn, may influence the direction of public policies proposed to address the issue. This article presents the development of a codebook for systematically examining the language used in the media to create these policy representations. Framing theory and a qualitative content analysis approach were used to develop the codebook, using a 4-part taxonomy: problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and policy recommendation. The issue of juveniles involved in commercial sexual activity in Hawai'i was used as a case study to guide creation of the codebook. Pilot study data were drawn from Hawai'i's local newspapers and from testimony submitted to the Hawai'i State Legislature during 1985-2016. A set of coding schemes built on the 4-part taxonomy was based on the dichotomous attitude of juvenile criminality and juvenile exploitation. Pilot data indicated that juveniles are increasingly being represented as victims of sexual exploitation (newspaper, 45%; testimony, 90%), and the presence of thematic elements in the media strongly correlated with this overall shift. A key lesson learned was the ability of the codebook to capture episodic and thematic elements, which may have strong implications for those concerned with populations that are exploited, politically marginalized, and in need of policy aid. Another key lesson learned was the strength of the codebook to collect quantitative and qualitative data that may lie outside carefully constructed dichotomous frames (eg, a policy representation of juveniles as survivors) and the media's prevailing narratives (eg, the experience of sexual minority juveniles).

13.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 91S-101S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of posttraumatic cognitions on the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is understudied among children and adolescents who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation/trafficking (CSE/T). The objectives of this study were to (1) explore posttraumatic cognitions among help-seeking young people aged 11-19 who have experienced CSE/T; (2) determine whether experiencing direct violence, witnessing violence, polyvictimization (ie, multiple exposures to different categories of potentially traumatic events), or demographic characteristics differentially affect whether these young people meet clinical criteria for posttraumatic cognitions using established cutoffs; and (3) explore associations between posttraumatic cognitions and PTSS among young people who have experienced CSE/T. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a baseline cross-sectional survey of 110 young people with substantiated CSE/T experiences who started trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (mean [SD] age = 15.8 [1.5]) from August 1, 2013, through March 31, 2020, in a southeastern US state. We used descriptive statistics, adjusted modified Poisson regression, and adjusted linear regression to test study objectives. RESULTS: Fifty-seven of 110 (51.8%) young people aged 11-19 met clinical criteria for posttraumatic cognitions. Increased age and a greater number of trauma categories experienced were significantly associated with meeting clinical criteria for posttraumatic cognitions. On average, higher posttraumatic cognition scores were associated with higher PTSS scores, controlling for demographic characteristics (ß = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.64-1.26). CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the importance of assessing comprehensive trauma history and PTSS of young people who have experienced CSE/T, with added usefulness of measuring cognitive appraisals to inform a therapeutic treatment plan. Measuring cognitive appraisals that may influence PTSS and therapeutic success can ensure an effective public health response for this population.

14.
World J Urol ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778577

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bladder cancer (BC) is a common malignancy with well-established differences in incidence, clinical manifestation and outcomes between men and women. It is unknown to what extent disparities in outcomes are influenced by differences in treatment approaches. This paper describes treatment patterns among men and women with muscle-invasive BC focusing on curative treatment (radical cystectomy or trimodal therapy). METHODS: A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed with data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. All patients newly diagnosed with muscle-invasive, non-advanced BC (MIBC, cT2-4a, N0/X, M0/X) in the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 were identified. Patient and tumor characteristics and initial treatment were compared between men and women with descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3484 patients were diagnosed with non-advanced MIBC in 2018-2020 in the Netherlands, of whom 28% were women. Women had higher T-stage and more often non-urothelial histology. Among all strata of clinical T-stage, women less often received treatment with curative intent (radical cystectomy [RC] or trimodality treatment). Among RC-treated patients, women more often received neoadjuvant treatment (except for cT4a disease). After adjustment for pre-treatment factors, odds ratios were indicative of women having lower probability of receiving curative treatment and RC specifically, and higher probability to receive NAC when treated with RC then men, although not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences in treatment patterns between men and women with MIBC exist. A more considerate role of the patient's sex in treatment decisions could help decrease these differences and might mitigate disparities in outcomes.

15.
Heart Vessels ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778638

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate sex-specific association between admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) and in-hospital prognosis in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). In this retrospective, observational study, 1268 ADHF patients requiring intensive care were consecutively enrolled and divided by sex. Patients were divided into three subgroups according to SBP tertiles: high (≥ 122 mmHg), moderate (104-121 mmHg) and low (< 104 mmHg). The primary endpoint was either all-cause mortality, cardiac arrest or utilization of mechanical support devices during hospitalization. Female patients were more likely to be older, have poorer renal function and higher ejection fractions (p < 0.001). The C statistics of SBP was 0.665 (95%CI 0.611-0.719, p < 0.001) for men and 0.548 (95% CI 0.461-0.634, p = 0.237) for women, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that admission SBP as either a continuous (OR = 0.984, 95% CI 0.973-0.996) or a categorical (low vs. high, OR = 3.293, 95% CI 1.610-6.732) variable was an independent predictor in male but the risk did not statistically differ between the moderate and high SBP strata (OR = 1.557, 95% CI 0.729-3.328). In female, neither low (OR = 1.135, 95% CI 0.328-3.924) nor moderate (OR = 0.989, 95% CI 0.277-3.531) SBP had a significant effect on primary endpoint compared with high SBP strata. No interaction was detected between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and SBP (p for interaction = 0.805). In ADHF patients admitted to ICU, SBP showed a sex-related prognostic effect on primary endpoint. In male, lower SBP was independently associated with an increased risk of primary endpoint. Conversely, in female, no relationship was observed.

16.
Amino Acids ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779172

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the problem of preventing acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (pLVEF) is still not completely resolved, especially in late-presented patients. The purpose of study was: (1) assessment of free plasma amino acid (PAA) alterations in STEMI patients [not receiving reperfusion therapy (RT)], depending on sex and LVEF; (2) analysis of development of late/persistent AHF more than 48 h after admission (pAHF) in STEMI patients with pLVEF depending on PAA levels. This prospective cohort study included 92 STEMI patients (33 women and 59 men), not receiving RT. The free PAA were investigated by ion-exchange liquid-column chromatography. The women had significantly higher PAA levels than men in general cohort and cohort with pLVEF (n = 69). There were associations between female sex and pAHF in general cohort (OR 3.7, p = 0.004) and cohort with pLVEF (OR 11.4, p = 0.0001) by logistic regression. The association between pAHF and glycine level [OR 2.5, p < 0.0001; AUC 0.84, p < 0.0001; 86.7% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for > 2.6 mg/dL] was revealed in cohort with pLVEF (including female and male). Glycine remained a predictor of pAHF with pLVEF by multivariable logistic regression adjusting for comorbidities, demographic and clinical variables. Higher rate of pAHF in female than in male STEMI patients with pLVEF is associated with higher plasma glycine in women. The glycine level may be genetically determinated by female sex. The plasma glycine > 2.6 mg/dL is a predictor of pAHF in STEMI with pLVEF (including female and male).

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 893854, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677715

ABSTRACT

The X-linked miR-465 cluster is highly expressed in the testis, sperm, newborn ovary, and blastocysts as well as in 8-16 cell embryos. However, the physiological role of the miR-465 cluster is still largely unknown. This study aims to dissect the role of the miR-465 cluster in murine development. Despite abundant expression in the testis, ablation of the miR-465 miRNA cluster using CRISPR-Cas9 did not cause infertility. Instead, a skewed sex ratio biased toward males (60% males) was observed among miR-465 KO mice. Further analyses revealed that the female conceptuses selectively degenerated as early as embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5). Small RNA deep sequencing, qPCR, and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the miRNAs encoded by the miR-465 cluster were mainly localized to the extraembryonic tissue/developing placenta. RNA-seq analyses identified altered mRNA transcriptome characterized by the dysregulation of numerous critical placental genes, e.g., Alkbh1, in the KO conceptuses at E7.5. Taken together, this study showed that the miR-465 cluster is required for normal female placental development, and ablation of the miR-465 cluster leads to a skewed sex ratio with more males (~60%) due to selective degeneration and resorption of the female conceptuses.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Sex Ratio , Animals , Female , Male , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Testis/metabolism , Transcriptome
18.
AIDS Care ; : 1-7, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTTrends in HIV incidence and prevalence vary between younger MSM (YMSM) and older MSM (OMSM). HIV prevention was revolutionized with the advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), but uptake of PrEP among OMSM is relatively unknown. Community connectedness among MSM is a strong driver of prevention. This qualitative study sought to explore similarities and differences between YMSM and OMSM's knowledge, perceptions, and barriers of HIV prevention and understand how intergenerational communication may enhance engagement in prevention, especially PrEP. Twenty semi-structured, in-depth interviews (ten YMSM and ten OMSM) were conducted with HIV-negative, non-monogamous MSM aged 18-24 and 55+ years. Interviews were transcribed and coded using NVivo 12 to identify themes within each age group and compare between age groups. YMSM expressed greater knowledge and more positive perceptions of PrEP than OMSM. OMSM felt that PrEP use increased engagement in sexual risk behavior. Both groups emphasized a need for more conversations between different age groups of MSM to educate each other about forms of prevention and reduce stigma. Intergenerational communication among MSM about HIV risk and prevention strategies may be an effective way to address the generational gaps in knowledge and perceptions and enhance engagement in HIV prevention.

19.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 151, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is modulated by genetic and environmental factors. Early-life stress (ELS) exposure during critical periods of brain development can impact later brain function and health, including increasing the risk of developing AD. Microglial dysfunction and neuroinflammation have been implicated as playing a role in AD pathology and may be modulated by ELS. To complicate matters further, sex-specific effects have been noted in response to ELS and in the incidence and progression of AD. METHODS: Here, we subjected male and female mice with either a wild type or 5xFAD familial AD-model background to maternal separation (MS) from postnatal day 2 to 14 to induce ELS. RESULTS: We detected hippocampal neuroinflammatory alterations already at postnatal day 15. By 4 months of age, MS mice presented increased immobility time in the forced swim test and a lower discrimination index in the novel object recognition memory test compared to controls. We found altered Bdnf and Arc expression in the hippocampus and increased microglial activation in the prefrontal cortex due to MS in a sex-dependent manner. In 5xFAD mice specifically, MS exacerbated amyloid-beta deposition, particularly in females. In the periphery, the immune cell population was altered by MS exposure. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results demonstrate that MS has both short- and long-term effects on brain regions related to memory and on the inflammatory system, both in the brain and periphery. These ELS-related effects that are detectable even in adulthood may exacerbate pathology and increase the risk of developing AD via sex-specific mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Alzheimer Disease , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Maternal Deprivation , Mice , Mice, Transgenic
20.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 19(1): 41, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging data indicate that prenatal exposure to air pollution may lead to higher susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Limited research has been conducted due to difficulties in modelling realistic air pollution exposure. In this study, pregnant mice were exposed from gestational day 10-17 to an atmosphere representative of a 2017 pollution event in Beijing, China. Intestinal homeostasis and microbiota were assessed in both male and female offspring during the suckling-to-weaning transition. RESULTS: Sex-specific differences were observed in progeny of gestationally-exposed mice. In utero exposed males exhibited decreased villus and crypt length, vacuolation abnormalities, and lower levels of tight junction protein ZO-1 in ileum. They showed an upregulation of absorptive cell markers and a downregulation of neonatal markers in colon. Cecum of in utero exposed male mice also presented a deeply unbalanced inflammatory pattern. By contrast, in utero exposed female mice displayed less severe intestinal alterations, but included dysregulated expression of Lgr5 in colon, Tjp1 in cecum, and Epcam, Car2 and Sis in ileum. Moreover, exposed female mice showed dysbiosis characterized by a decreased weighted UniFrac ß-diversity index, a higher abundance of Bacteroidales and Coriobacteriales orders, and a reduced Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. CONCLUSION: Prenatal realistic modelling of an urban air pollution event induced sex-specific precocious alterations of structural and immune intestinal development in mice.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Microbiota , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Animals , Female , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestines , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Weaning
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