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3.
J Imaging Inform Med ; 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839673

ABSTRACT

Thyroid ultrasound video provides significant value for thyroid diseases diagnosis, but the ultrasound imaging process is often affected by the speckle noise, resulting in poor quality of the ultrasound video. Numerous video denoising methods have been proposed to remove noise while preserving texture details. However, existing methods still suffer from the following problems: (1) relevant temporal features in the low-contrast ultrasound video cannot be accurately aligned and effectively aggregated by simple optical flow or motion estimation, resulting in the artifacts and motion blur in the video; (2) fixed receptive field in spatial features integration lacks the flexibility of aggregating features in the global region of interest and is susceptible to interference from irrelevant noisy regions. In this work, we propose a deformable spatial-temporal attention denoising network to remove speckle noise in thyroid ultrasound video. The entire network follows the bidirectional feature propagation mechanism to efficiently exploit the spatial-temporal information of the whole video sequence. In this process, two modules are proposed to address the above problems: (1) a deformable temporal attention module (DTAM) is designed after optical flow pre-alignment to further capture and aggregate relevant temporal features according to the learned offsets between frames, so that inter-frame information can be better exploited even with the imprecise flow estimation under the low contrast of ultrasound video; (2) a deformable spatial attention module (DSAM) is proposed to flexibly integrate spatial features in the global region of interest through the learned intra-frame offsets, so that irrelevant noisy information can be ignored and essential information can be precisely exploited. Finally, all these refined features are rectified and merged through residual convolution blocks to recover the clean video frames. Experimental results on our thyroid ultrasound video (US-V) dataset and the DDTI dataset demonstrate that our proposed method exceeds 1.2 ∼ 1.3 dB on PSNR and has clearer texture detail compared to other state-of-the-art methods. In the meantime, the proposed model can also assist thyroid nodule segmentation methods to achieve more accurate segmentation effect, which provides an important basis for thyroid diagnosis. In the future, the proposed model can be improved and extended to other medical image sequence datasets, including CT and MRI slice denoising. The code and datasets are provided at https://github.com/Meta-MJ/DSTAN .

4.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate volume status assessment and dry weight achievement are the most challenging goals for a nephrologist. We aimed to evaluate the role of ultrasonographic parameters including lung ultrasound and inferior vena cava (IVC) measurements as practical methods of volume status assessment in children on hemodialysis by comparing them with established techniques, such as clinical evaluation and bioimpedance spectroscopy. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study compared pre- and post-dialysis volume status using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) parameters and clinical data with ultrasonographic lung B-lines and IVC parameters in children on regular hemodialysis. RESULTS: A total 60 children (mean age 9.4 ± 2.8 years) were enrolled. Twenty patients (33.3%) were clinically overloaded to varying degrees (17 patients had mild to moderate signs of fluid overload and 3 patients had moderate to severe signs of fluid overload). All other patients (66.7%) were clinically euvolemic. Sonographic parameters were significantly lower post-dialysis than pre-dialysis, including lung B-line count and IVC diameter. IVC collapsibility index mean was significantly higher post-dialysis than pre-dialysis. There was a significant correlation between the lung B-line count, IVC parameters, and BIS-measured overhydration both before and after hemodialysis. Nine patients had ≥ 8 B-lines post-dialysis, only three of them were hypertensive. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical criteria alone are not specific for determining accurate fluid status in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Lung B-line score, IVC parameters, and BIS may be complementary to each other and to clinical data. Lung B-lines outperform IVC measurements and BIS in subclinical volume overload detection in pediatric hemodialysis patients.

5.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842749

ABSTRACT

Pediatric point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) has grown in utilization and is now an integral part of pediatric acute care. Applications within the pediatric critical care, neonatology and pediatric emergency were once limited to evaluation of undifferentiated shock states, abdominal free fluid assessments in trauma resuscitation and procedural guidance. The body of pediatric POCUS literature is ever expanding and recently published international consensus guidelines are available to guide implementation into clinical practice. The authors present a review of emerging applications and controversies within thoracic, hemodynamic, neurologic, and ocular POCUS in pediatric acute care medicine.

9.
Endosc Int Open ; 12(6): E715-E722, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841434

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic duct drainage (EUS-PD) is emerging as an effective alternative treatment for obstructive pancreatitis after unsuccessful endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP). However, the high incidence of adverse events associated with EUS-PD (approximately 20%) remains an issue. Recently, we developed a novel plastic stent for EUS-PD, with a radiopaque marker positioned at approximately one-third of the length from the distal end of the stent and side holes positioned exclusively distal to the marker. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using this stent in EUS-PD. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 10 patients who underwent EUS-PD with the novel plastic stent at the National Cancer Center Hospital between March 2021 and October 2023. Technical and clinical success, procedure times, adverse events (AEs), recurrent pancreatic duct obstruction (RPO), and time to RPO were assessed. Results Of the 10 patients, five had postoperative benign pancreaticojejunal anastomotic strictures and five had malignant pancreatic duct obstruction. The technical and clinical success rates were both 100% (10/10). An AE (self-limited abdominal pain) occurred in one patient (10.0%). Two patients (20.0%) died of their primary disease during the follow-up period (median, 44 days; range, 25-272 days). The incidence of RPO was 10.0% (1/10), and the 3-month non-RPO rate was 83.3%. Conclusions The novel plastic stent shows potential as a useful and safe tool in EUS-PD.

10.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of a common channel outside the duodenal wall is important in diagnosing pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM). The present study evaluated the utility of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) in diagnosing PBM. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study enrolled 45 patients who were diagnosed with PBM or high confluence of pancreatobiliary ducts (HCPBD) between January 2007 and December 2021. The diagnostic sensitivities of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CH-EUS for diagnosing PBM were analyzed. Imaging findings were evaluated by two reviewers blinded to the clinicopathological results. RESULTS: Based on diagnostic criteria, 33 patients were diagnosed with PBM and 12 with HCPBD. Compared with the patients with HCPBD, those with PBM had significantly longer common channel (12.5 mm vs. 8.1 mm, P = 0.018) and common bile duct (13.0 mm vs. 8.6 mm, P = 0.049) lengths. The κ-coefficients for differentiating PBM and HCPBD were 0.871 between CE-CT and MRI, 0.330 between CE-CT and CH-EUS, and 0.611 between MRI and CH-EUS. The diagnostic sensitivity of CH-EUS (95.2%) was higher than that of CE-CT (83.3%) and MRI (82.8%), although the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS may be useful for the diagnosis of PBM.

11.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 310(1): 609-614, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the superiority of transrectal high-frequency ultrasound (TRUS) in precise assessment of middle compartment prolapse in comparison with routine transperineal ultrasound (TPUS). METHODS: Prospectively analyzed and compared detection rates of entire cervical length and uterine descent on TPUS and TRUS in 101 patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). RESULTS: Detection rates of entire cervix on TRUS were significantly higher than those on TPUS both at rest and during Valsalva maneuver (90.10% VS 49.50%, 92.08% VS 9.90% respectively, both p < 0.05). Uterine descent was able to be evaluated in 92.08% of patients by TRUS and in 5.94% of patients by TPUS, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The interobserver repeatability for the measurements of anterior lip, cervical canal and posterior lip on TRUS was excellent. The mean lengths of anterior lip, cervical canal and posterior lip were significantly increased during Valsalva maneuver than those measured at rest (p < 0.05). And mean length of anterior lip was longer than posterior lip both at rest and during Valsalva (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: TRUS can significantly raise detection rates of entire cervix, and make the direct evaluation of uterine descent feasible. TRUS can be used as a complementary method to TPUS to attain more comprehensive and accurate presurgical imaging information in middle compartment prolapse patients.


Subject(s)
Pelvic Organ Prolapse , Ultrasonography , Valsalva Maneuver , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pelvic Organ Prolapse/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Prospective Studies , Aged , Adult , Cervix Uteri/diagnostic imaging
12.
Front Physiol ; 15: 1382982, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860113

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To compare the inter-rectus distance (IRD), rectus abdominis thickness (RAT), and stiffness in women during pregnancy and postpartum and identify the risk and protective factors affecting diastasis recti abdominis (DRA). Materials and methods: A total of 171 pregnant women who volunteered to participate in this study were recruited. Using an ultrasonographic diagnostic instrument with shear wave elastography function, IRD, RAT and the Young's modulus of the rectus abdominis muscles were measured at 12 weeks, 37 weeks of pregnancy, and 6 weeks postpartum. Results: The IRD at 37 weeks was significantly higher than that at 12 weeks and then decreased at 6 weeks postpartum, but it was still higher than that at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). RAT and Young's modulus decreased significantly at 37 weeks compared with those at 12 weeks and then recovered at 6 weeks postpartum, but they were lower than those at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). IRD at 12 weeks was significantly higher in multiparae than in primiparae (p < 0.001). Moreover, positive correlation between the RAT and Young's modulus of rectus abdominis muscles at 12 and 37 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks postpartum (p < 0.001) was observed. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the regression equation was significant (f = 24.856, p < 001). Conclusion: Our study identified differences in IRD, thickness and stiffness of the rectus abdominis muscle between early and advanced pregnancy and the postpartum period. The risk and protective factors of DRA may guide pregnant women's protection and treatment.

13.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(7): 365, 2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850336

ABSTRACT

Nail psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory condition which is difficult to treat, linked with greater psoriasis severity, and may be associated with anxiety and significant functional impairment of the quality of life. The 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser was reported to yield satisfactory results in the treatment of nail psoriasis.The aim of the study was to assess the clinical and ultrasonographic efficacy of long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of fingernail psoriasis and compare its effect to control fingernails.This intra-patient randomized controlled trial analyzed 86 fingernails collected from 13 patients suffering from cutaneous and nail psoriasis. The nails were randomized into two groups. Group A was treated with Nd: YAG laser once monthly for three sessions while group B served as control. Assessment took place at baseline, 1 and 3 months after the last treatment session. For scoring, the 32-points target NAPSI scoring systems was used. Additionally, two blinded dermatologists' score of improvement, patients' pain assessment by visual analogue score and ultrasonographic assessment were all performed.At the end of follow up, the medians of tNAPSI score, plate definition, matrix thickness, bed thickness and bed vascularity decreased significantly in the Nd: YAG laser treated group in comparison to baseline (p = 0.001, 0.006, 0.039, < 0.001 and 0.010, respectively). While, there was a non-significant reduction in median tNAPSI score in the control group at last follow up, however, ultrasonography recorded a significant reduction in the medians of plate definition, bed thickness and vascularity (p = 0.002, 0.011 and 0.033, respectively) from the baseline. Comparison of the Nd: YAG laser and the control groups showed no significant difference from baseline regarding the medians of tNAPSI, tNAPSI percentile improvement, pits count, blinded evaluation of photographs and ultrasonographic assessments.In conclusion, Nd: YAG laser showed clinical and ultrasonographic improvement in fingernail psoriasis. Ultrasonography is a useful noninvasive tool in diagnosing and monitoring the clinical and even the subclinical changes in nail psoriasis. Nail psoriasis although difficult to treat, may show spontaneous improvement.


Subject(s)
Lasers, Solid-State , Nail Diseases , Psoriasis , Ultrasonography , Humans , Psoriasis/diagnostic imaging , Male , Female , Adult , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Ultrasonography/methods , Nail Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Nail Diseases/surgery , Nail Diseases/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Severity of Illness Index , Nails/diagnostic imaging , Nails/surgery , Quality of Life , Pain Measurement , Young Adult , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods
14.
Cureus ; 16(5): e59843, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854193

ABSTRACT

Another name for the Puestow surgery is a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. The primary pancreatic duct, which runs from the head to the tail of the organ, is opened, exposing the pancreas. In order to allow the pancreas to empty straight into the intestines, the opening of the pancreatic duct is subsequently joined to a tiny intestinal loop. For more than 50 years, this process has been used to effectively relieve pain caused by chronic pancreatitis. This technique has a very low mortality rate and a low rate of surgical complications, and a high success rate. The gradual fibrosis of the pancreas resulting in the loss of exocrine and endocrine function is known as chronic pancreatitis. Intense pain is the disease's most typical symptom. It is unclear what causes the discomfort in chronic pancreatitis. Nonetheless, a large number of these patients have dilated ducts that are made up of intervening structures and saccular dilations, a condition known as the "chain of lakes" phenomenon. Radiological investigations can be used for diagnosis in these patients. Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is the most effective treatment option for these individuals. Preservation of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function is another benefit of lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. With lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, chronic fibrocalcific pancreatitis that manifests as pancreatic ductal dilatation and persistent discomfort can be effectively treated. Excellent early outcomes have been observed in terms of pain alleviation as well as post-operative morbidity and mortality; however, the patient's overall outcome and long-term follow-up have not been as well defined.

15.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1359364, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854733

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To develop and validate various ultrasomics models based on endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for retrospective differentiating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) from pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 231 patients, comprising 127 with pancreatic cancer and 104 with PNET, were retrospectively enrolled. These patients were randomly divided into either a training or test cohort at a ratio of 7:3. Ultrasomics features were extracted from conventional EUS images, focusing on delineating the region of interest (ROI) for pancreatic lesions. Subsequently, dimensionality reduction of the ultrasomics features was performed by applying the Mann-Whitney test and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm. Eight machine learning algorithms, namely logistic regression (LR), light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM), multilayer perceptron (MLP), random forest (RF), extra trees, k nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), were employed to train prediction models using nonzero coefficient features. The optimal ultrasomics model was determined using a ROC curve and utilized for subsequent analysis. Clinical-ultrasonic features were assessed using both univariate and multivariate logistic regression. An ultrasomics nomogram model, integrating both ultrasomics and clinical-ultrasonic features, was developed. Results: A total of 107 EUS-based ultrasomics features were extracted, and 6 features with nonzero coefficients were ultimately retained. Among the eight ultrasomics models based on machine learning algorithms, the RF model exhibited superior performance with an AUC= 0.999 (95% CI 0.9977 - 1.0000) in the training cohort and an AUC= 0.649 (95% CI 0.5215 - 0.7760) in the test cohort. A clinical-ultrasonic model was established and evaluated, yielding an AUC of 0.999 (95% CI 0.9961 - 1.0000) in the training cohort and 0.847 (95% CI 0.7543 - 0.9391) in the test cohort. Subsequently, the ultrasomics nomogram demonstrated a significant improvement in prediction accuracy in the test cohort, as evidenced by an AUC of 0.884 (95% CI 0.8047 - 0.9635) and confirmed by the Delong test. The calibration curve and decision curve analysis (DCA) depicted this ultrasomics nomogram demonstrated superior accuracy. They also yielded the highest net benefit for clinical decision-making compared to alternative models. Conclusions: A novel ultrasomics nomogram was proposed and validated, that integrated clinical-ultrasonic and ultrasomics features obtained through EUS, aiming to accurately and efficiently identify pancreatic cancer and PNET.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1378655, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826818

ABSTRACT

Primary myxofibrosarcoma of the heart, a rare cardiac malignancy, was diagnosed in a middle-aged female patient exhibiting progressive dyspnea following transthoracic echocardiography and pathological analysis. Postoperatively, the patient underwent chemotherapy and Lenvatinib mesylate therapy, with regular check-ups confirming her survival. After 10 months the patient is still alive and well.

17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 13(4): 1165-1168, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827722

ABSTRACT

Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a more common childcare disease, which belongs to muscle-skeletal system diseases, and is more common in newborns. The disease is mainly due to congenital contracture due to chest locks, which leads to asymmetric head and neck. For such diseases, clear diagnosis and treatment in the early days is an important way to improve the prognosis of children. Compared with X-ray film, CT, and MRI, ultrasound examination has the advantages of low examination cost, short time, and no exposure to radiation during the examination. Moreover, ultrasound examination can provide an objective basis for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of CMT children. This article reviews the latest research progress of conventional ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, and ultrasound elastography in the clinical diagnosis of CMT children and assisting in the formulation of treatment plans.

19.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822668

ABSTRACT

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) extremely rarely metastasizes to the testis. To date, only three reports have documented bilateral testicular metastasis of RCC. Here, we review the ultrasonographic characteristics of testicular metastasis of renal cell carcinoma cases in the literature and present a 43-year-old patient with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease who was diagnosed with bilateral testicular metastasis of RCC many years after nephrectomy, with ultrasonographic-pathological correlation.

20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831134

ABSTRACT

Torsional disorders of the lower limb are common in childhood, and they are one of the primary reasons parents seek consultation with healthcare providers. While clinical manoeuvres can assess femoral and tibial torsion, their reliability is medium to low. Various imaging-based techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy, biplanar radiology and ultrasonography, have been used to evaluate torsional alterations of the lower extremity. Among these, ultrasound assessment offers certain advantages: it is a low-cost, non-irradiating technique, which allows the follow-up of children's torsional development. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, its validity and reliability have not been summarised in a systematic review. This study aims to analyse the validity and reliability of ultrasonography in determining femoral and tibial torsion in children and adolescents. A search from Medline (via PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL databases were performed from inception to 16 March 2023. No restrictions were placed on the publication year or language. The methodological quality of all eligible studies was independently reviewed by two authors using QUADAS and STARD checklists. Overall, 1546 articles were identified through the searches; 30 were considered eligible for full-text screening; and 8 studies were finally included in this review. The included studies were conducted in Germany, Norway and the UK. Among them, 7 studies analysed the validity of ultrasonography compared with other imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and biplanar X-ray, and 4 studies assessed intra- and inter-observer reliability. All the studies assessed femoral torsion, but only one of them also included tibial torsion.     Conclusion: Ultrasound is a good alternative for routine evaluation and follow-up of femoral torsional alterations in children and adolescents due to its safety, accessibility and immediate results in the clinical examination room. Although ultrasound has good accuracy and reliability for routine evaluations, there is controversy about whether it is sufficient for surgical planning. In cases where greater accuracy is required, magnetic resonance imaging and biplanar radiography are the preferred imaging techniques. What is Known: • Several imaging-based techniques have been described for the assessment of torsional alterations of the lower extremity. • Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, biplanar radiology and ultrasonography are the most used and studied methods. What is New: • Ultrasonography represents a good alternative for the assessment of femoral and tibial torsional alterations in children and adolescents, given its safety, accessibility and immediacy of results in the consultation room. • Its accuracy and reliability are good but not sufficient for surgical planning, in which case MRI and biplanar X-ray will be the preferred choices.

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