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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Accidents are the most common cause of death among UK military personnel. It is a common misconception in the general public that accidental injuries are always the result of random events, however research suggests that mental health problems and the increased levels of risky behaviour in military personnel may play a role. The objective of this study was to further our understanding of injuries and deaths not related to deployment by examining the associations of mental health, alcohol misuse and smoking with inpatient admission to hospital for accidents and injuries, and attendance to accident and emergency (A&E) departments. METHODS: Data on all hospital admissions for accidents and injuries and A&E attendance at NHS hospitals in England, Scotland and Wales were linked to data on self-reported mental health problems, alcohol misuse and smoking from a large, representative UK military cohort of serving and ex-serving personnel (n = 8,602). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between having a hospital admission for an accident or injury with self-reported mental health problems, alcohol misuse and smoking. Cox proportional-hazards regression was then conducted to assess the associations of mental health problems, alcohol misuse and smoking with time to hospital admission for an accident or injury. Finally, negative binomial regression was used to examine associations between the number of A&E attendances with mental health problems, alcohol misuse and smoking. RESULTS: Personnel reporting symptoms of common mental disorder (CMD) or probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were more likely to have an admission to hospital for an accident or injury (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.84), than those who did not report these symptoms, and also had more attendances to A&E (fully adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.32, 95% CI 1.16-1.51). A&E attendances were also more common in personnel who were smokers (fully adjusted IRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.35) following adjustment for demographic, military and health characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that accidents and injuries among military personnel are not always random events and that there are health and behavioural factors, including poor mental health and smoking, which are associated (with small effect sizes) with an increased risk of being involved in an accident. Clinicians treating individuals attending hospital after an accident should consider their healthcare needs holistically, including issues related to mental health and health damaging behaviours.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Military Personnel , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Military Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Accidents , England , Hospitals , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679550

ABSTRACT

Batteries and energy stores built with lithium-ion cells are potentially dangerous and can cause fires that are difficult to extinguish. Reducing the intensity of the fires and extending the time of their development may be of great importance for improving safety. The aim of this work is to examine the influence of the state of charge (SOC) of a cell on susceptibility to ignition, and to analyze the course of the burning process. For this purpose, a special measuring station was built, where ignition was initiated and the course of combustion was observed. During the measurements, energy was supplied by heating a cell from the outside with a resistance heater while at the same time thermally insulating the cell from the environment. The measures of the course of the fire were the amount of energy supplied to the cell before ignition and the temperature changes during the fire. The tests proved the existence of significant differences in the amount of energy causing the ignition of cells. These differences result from changes in the SOC. Quantitative results are presented. The existence of differences in susceptibility to ignition can be used to change the construction of control algorithms for battery management systems (BMSs).


Subject(s)
Fires , Lithium , Temperature , Accidents , Electric Power Supplies
3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674213

ABSTRACT

Home safety is important for preventing injuries and accidents among older adults living at home. Feeling safe at home is also essential for older adults' well-being. Thus, this study aimed to explore older adults' perceptions of safety in their homes by examining their experiences, worries and preventive measures in relation to a range of potential home-based health and safety hazards. The study was a national cross-sectional telephone survey of 400 randomly selected adults over 70 years of age living at home in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were asked for their experience of, worry about, and preventive measures taken regarding fifteen home hazards. Data were also collected on background variables including age, health, and cohabitation status. Falls and stab/cut injuries were the most experienced hazards and worry was highest for burglary and falls, while preventive measures were most common for fire and burglary. While older adults' experience and worry regarding home hazards were associated with preventive measures, these associations were not strong and other factors were associated with preventive behaviour. Further identification of the main determinants of older adults' preventive behaviour can contribute to policy for effectively reducing home accidents.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Home , Accidents , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sweden , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Accidents, Home/prevention & control
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(2): 447-458, 2023 Feb.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651399

ABSTRACT

This article aims to describe the distribution of cancer among the benefits granted by the General Social Security Registry, from 2008 to 2014, in Brazil. Ecological study using data given by the National Social Security Institute. The proportion of accidental (work-related) and social security (general) benefits granted by cancer in Brazil was determined, among the benefits granted for all causes, and a spatial analysis was conducted to assess the geographical distribution of these proportions, with the states Brazilians as a unit of analysis. Cancer was the reason for granting 533,438 benefits (2.9% of the total benefits granted for all causes), with a predominance of females in social security benefits (53.7%) and males in accidental benefits (71.6 %). The highest proportions of social security benefits for cancer occurred in North and Midwest regions. In 19 of the 26 Brazilian states (including all states in the southern region) and in the Federal District, there was no granting of accident benefits for cancer. The analysis of the occurrences of cancer that generated benefit concessions suggests a disproportionality in granting of social security benefits in relation to accident workers, mainly in North, Northeast and South regions of Brazil.


O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a distribuição do câncer entre os benefícios concedidos pelo Registro Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS), de 2008 a 2014, no Brasil. Estudo ecológico com dados cedidos pelo Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS). Determinou-se a proporção de benefícios acidentários (relacionados ao trabalho) e previdenciários (gerais) concedidos por câncer no Brasil, entre os benefícios concedidos por todas as causas e realizou-se uma análise espacial para avaliar a distribuição geográfica dessas proporções, tendo os estados brasileiros como unidade de análise. O câncer foi motivo de concessão de 533.438 benefícios (2,9% do total de benefícios concedidos por todas as causas), com predomínio do sexo feminino nos benefícios previdenciários (53,7%) e do sexo masculino nos benefícios acidentários (71,6%). As maiores proporções de benefícios previdenciários por câncer ocorreram nas regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste. Em 19 dos 26 estados brasileiros e no Distrito Federal não houve concessão de benefício acidentário por câncer. A análise das ocorrências de câncer que geraram concessões de benefícios do RGPS sugere uma desproporcionalidade da concessão de benefícios previdenciários em relação aos acidentários, principalmente nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Social Security , Male , Female , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Accidents , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 123: 235-254, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521987

ABSTRACT

Abrupt air pollution accidents can endanger people's health and destroy the local ecological environment. The appropriate emergency response can minimize the harmful effects of accidents and protect people's lives and property. This paper provides an overview of the key emergency response technologies for abrupt air pollution accidents around the globe with emphasis on the major achievements that China has obtained in recent years. With decades of effort, China has made significant progress in emergency monitoring technologies and equipment, source estimation technologies, pollutant dispersion simulation technologies and others. Many effective domestic emergency monitoring instruments (e.g., portable DOAS/FT-IR systems, portable FID/PID systems, portable GC-MS systems, scanning imaging remote sensing systems, and emergency monitoring vehicles) had been developed which can meet the demands for routine emergency response activities. A monitoring layout technique combining air dispersion simulation, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and a post-optimality analysis was proposed to identify the optimal monitoring layout scheme under the constraints of limited monitoring resources. Multiple source estimation technologies, including the forward method and the inversion method, have been established and evaluated under various scenarios. Multi-scale dynamic pollution dispersion simulation systems with high temporal and spatial resolution were further developed. A comprehensive emergency response platform integrating database support, source estimation, monitoring schemes, fast monitoring of pollutants, pollution predictions and risk assessment was developed based on the technical idea of "source identification - model simulation - environmental monitoring" dynamic interactive feedback. It is expected that the emergency response capability for abrupt air pollution accidents will gradually improve in China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Humans , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Accidents , China , Air Pollutants/analysis
6.
J Forensic Sci ; 68(1): 185-197, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529463

ABSTRACT

Occupational accidental injury deaths (OAIDs) are a major social problem, and the analysis of individual cases is important for developing injury prevention measures. In this study, OAIDs with autopsies performed at forensic facilities in the metropolitan area of Japan (Tokyo and Chiba prefectures) from 2011 to 2020 were reviewed. The epidemiological characteristics of these OAIDs (n = 136), which accounted for 13.5% of OAIDs reported in the region during the study period, were compared with those of non-occupational accidental injury deaths (non-OAID) cases (n = 3926). Among OAID cases, 134 (98.5%) were men and 13 (9.6%) were foreign-born workers, which was significantly more than in non-OAID cases (p < 0.001, respectively). OAIDs were most frequent in construction (39.0%) followed by the manufacturing category (21.3%). The percentage of OAIDs in workers aged 65 and over showed an increasing trend. Most accidents occurred just after the start of work or just before the workday ended, as well as during the peak months of the year. The most common type of accident was fall/crash from a height (25.0%), and the most common injury site was the chest; none of these cases were confirmed to have been wearing a safety belt properly. Among foreign-born workers, the most common type of accident was caught in/between. As the working population is expected to change in the future, and an increase in the number of older adults and foreign workers is expected, it is necessary to take preventive measures such as improving the work environment based on ergonomics and providing safety education.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries , Occupational Injuries , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Japan/epidemiology , Tokyo/epidemiology , Accidents , Forensic Medicine , Accidents, Occupational
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 228: 105607, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584664

ABSTRACT

To maintain our cooperative relationships, it is critical that we repair these relationships when they are damaged by transgressions. Key to this repair is forgiveness. Previous research suggests that adults and children are more forgiving of remorseful transgressors than of unremorseful ones after accidental transgressions. However, little is known about whether children's forgiveness also takes the transgressors' intentions into account. Using a third-person video paradigm with children in the United States, Study 1 found that 6-year-olds (n = 20; 10 girls; 60% White) were more likely to negatively evaluate an intentional transgressor and give more resources to an accidental transgressor when both transgressors showed remorse, whereas 5-year-olds (n = 20; 10 girls; 80% White) showed this effect only in their resource distribution. Study 2 found that 6-year-olds (n = 18; 7 girls; 83% White) were more likely to positively evaluate and share more resources with a remorseful intentional transgressor than with an unremorseful intentional one. Thus, by school age in the United States, children's forgiveness, at least as bystanders, begins to take into account both the transgressor's intentions and the display of remorse.


Subject(s)
Forgiveness , Adult , Female , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Intention , Accidents
8.
Laeknabladid ; 108(12): 539-545, 2022 Dec.
Article in Icelandic | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public use of fireworks is widespread in Iceland, and unfortunately associated with injuries. No prior comprehensive research has been done on firework accidents in Iceland. The goal of this study was to gather information about the extent, cause, and impact of firework accidents in the Reykjavik capital area. METHODS: Text search was conducted in medical records to find visits to the Emergency Department (ED) resulting from fireworks accidents over the period December 2010 to January 2022. Medical records were reviewed for details of events and injury. RESULTS: Over the period 248 patients came to the ED after a firework related injury, 73% male. The age range was from 9 months to 79 years of age. Children were 114, 12 were younger than 6 years. There where overall 54 secondary accidents. In total 96 (39%) accidents were traced to a faulty firework. Rockets caused the most accidents 56 (23%), cakes 43 (17%) and handheld candles 32 (13%). Type of firework was not reported in 62 (25%) cases. 157 sustained a burn injury, of which 104 where on hands. Eye injury was found on 67 patients and 97 individuals had open wounds. 22 where admitted to the hospital for a total of 91 days. Nobody died but at least 13 sustained permanent physical impairment due to fireworks. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past decade, 21 patients on average presented to the ED annually with firework injury. 73% of those injured by fireworks are male. Children make up one half of the injured and one child 5 years of age or younger sustains a firework injury every year on average. Preventive measures against firework accidents should be expanded and more restrictive regulations on their use should be considered.


Subject(s)
Accidents , Erythema Nodosum , Child , Humans , Male , Infant , Female , Emergency Service, Hospital , Medical Records , Hospitalization
9.
P R Health Sci J ; 41(4): 222-225, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516208

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Review the profile of patients with spinal trauma after diving accidents referred to the Puerto Rico Medical Center. This study intended to develop more awareness of the risks of spinal cord injury after diving. METHODS: The patient's records for diving accident cases referred to our center during January 2014 until December 2020 were assessed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated according to sex, age, vertebral level, and neurological deficit. The Puerto Rico Medical Center is the only level 1 trauma center in Puerto Rico; therefore, this study likely included all the cases of diving injury on the island. RESULTS: Sixty five patients with a median age of 29 years were identified consisting primarily of males (94%). The regions affected included the cervical (96%), thoracic (2%), and lumbar (2%) spine. Twenty-seven patients (42%) developed a spinal cord injury secondary to a diving accident. Involvement of the C4, C5, or C6 vertebral level, was significant for the development of a spinal cord injury. Diving accidents occurring at beaches were the most common cause. CONCLUSION: In Puerto Rico, there is a yearly incidence of 9.3 diving accidents causing spinal trauma; these accidents most frequently affect the C6 vertebra. These diving accidents mainly occur in young individuals, predominantly at beaches. Most of our patients were neurologically intact after their diving accident, although 42% sustained a spinal cord injury. This study provided a better understanding of this traumatic event and determined its most affected levels, accident sites, and population involved.


Subject(s)
Diving , Spinal Cord Injuries , Male , Humans , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Diving/adverse effects , Diving/injuries , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/etiology , Accidents
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(12): e00222621, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542011

ABSTRACT

The Deepwater Horizon oil rig accident, in 2010, is considered the biggest disaster of the 21st century in the oil and gas industry. A total of 11 workers died, 17 were injured, total loss of the unit, and the largest environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico (United States). The existing literature encompasses its environmental, chemical, biological, and economic effects, focusing on immediate causes, that is, situations close to the event in time and space, especially human errors and technical failures. This approach is taken at the expense of identifying possible underlying causes, which refer to managerial and organizational factors. This essay aims to answer the question: wich factors may have contributed to the disaster that affected the platform, considering the relevance of the collective dimension of work? Our theoretical-methodological contribution is based on the activity ergonomics and the work psychodynamics, also valuing the synergistic conduction of the relationship between the knowledge of the sciences and the experience of the workers, as proposed by the ergological perspective. We identified decision failures from those who are at the tip of the process, operating systems of high complexity, that should not be interpreted as an endpoint, but as a starting point in the analysis of major accidents. Understanding such decisions demands the comprehension of the representations constructed by the workers, including in their collective and shared dimension. The communication (or communication gaps) between workers and organizational factors in the context of the accident are essential aspects to be considered in the analysis of events involving complex systems.


O acidente com a plataforma Deepwater Horizon, em 2010, é considerado o maior desastre do século no setor de óleo e gás. Esse evento teve como consequências 11 trabalhadores mortos, 17 feridos, perda total da unidade e maior desastre ambiental no Golfo do México (Estados Unidos). A literatura existente abarca seus impactos ambientais, químicos, biológicos e econômicos, concentrando-se nas causas imediatas, ou seja, situações próximas no tempo e no espaço do evento, em especial erros humanos e falhas técnicas. Tal abordagem se dá em detrimento da identificação de possíveis causas subjacentes, que remetem a fatores gerenciais e organizacionais. O objetivo deste ensaio é responder à pergunta: que fatores teriam contribuído para a ocorrência do desastre que acometeu a plataforma, considerando-se a relevância da dimensão coletiva do trabalho? Nosso aporte teórico-metodológico se baseia na ergonomia da atividade e na psicodinâmica do trabalho, valorizando também a condução sinérgica da relação entre os saberes das ciências e da experiência dos trabalhadores, como propõe a perspectiva ergológica. Foram identificadas falhas de decisão tomadas por quem se situa à ponta do processo, na operação de sistemas de alta complexidade, mas que não devem ser vistas como ponto de chegada, e sim de partida na análise de grandes acidentes. O entendimento de tais decisões demanda a compreensão das representações construídas pelos trabalhadores, inclusive em sua dimensão coletiva e compartilhada. A comunicação (ou lacunas de comunicação) entre os trabalhadores e fatores organizacionais no contexto do acidente são aspectos essenciais a serem considerados na análise de eventos que envolvem sistemas complexos.


El accidente de Deepwater Horizon en 2010 es considerado el mayor desastre del siglo en el sector del petróleo y gas. Este evento resultó en 11 trabajadores muertos, 17 heridos, pérdida total de la unidad y un gran desastre ambiental en el Golfo de México (EE.UU.). La literatura existente abarca sus impactos ambientales, químicos, biológicos y económicos, enfocándose en las causas inmediatas, es decir, situaciones próximas en el tiempo y espacio del evento, especialmente errores humanos y fallas técnicas. Tal enfoque no identifica las posibles causas subyacentes, que se refieren a factores gerenciales y organizacionales. El objetivo de este ensayo es responder a la pregunta: ¿qué factores habrían contribuido a la ocurrencia del desastre que afectó a la plataforma, considerando la relevancia de la dimensión colectiva del trabajo? Nuestro aporte teórico-metodológico se fundamenta en la ergonomía de la actividad y en la psicodinámica del trabajo, valorando además la conducción sinérgica de la relación entre el saber de las ciencias y la experiencia de los trabajadores, tal como lo propone la perspectiva ergológica. Se identificaron fallos de decisión, tomados por quienes están al final del proceso, en la operación de sistemas de alta complejidad, pero que no deben ser vistos como un punto de llegada, sino un punto de partida en el análisis de accidentes mayores. Comprender tales decisiones requiere comprender las representaciones construidas por los trabajadores, incluso en su dimensión colectiva y compartida. La comunicación (o brechas de comunicación) entre los trabajadores y los factores organizacionales en el contexto del accidente son aspectos esenciales a ser considerados en el análisis de eventos que involucran sistemas complejos.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Petroleum Pollution , Humans , Brazil , Accidents , Industry
11.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(Suppl 1)(4): S979-S982, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550657

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine the frequency of tibial diaphyseal fractures among patients presenting with motorcycle accidents. It was a cross-Sectional Study, conducted at Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi between May to December, 2020. Methods: All patients irrespective of gender, between ages 18-60 years who suffered from a motorcycle injury with a single bone involvement were eligible for the study. All patients who refused to take part in the study, had head injury, or had multiple fractures were excluded from the study. The data included patient's age, sex, associated bones involved and types of injury. The fractures were classified according to whether it was open or closed. Results: A total of 174 patients were included in the study with a mean±SD age of 43.7±12.4. Tibial diaphyseal fracture was found to be in 111 (63.8%) patients as shown. Duration of fracture, gender, side of fracture, type of fracture was done with respect to Tibial diaphyseal fracture among patients. Insignificant difference was noted in age group (p=0.346), duration of fracture (p=0.087), gender (p=0.672), and type of fracture (p=0.063) whereas significant difference was found in side of fracture (p=0.0001). Conclusion: We highlighted the importance of tibial diaphyseal fractures in middle aged men who use motorcycles as a means of transport in Karachi, Sindh which is a frequent finding among these patients. Efforts should be made at both the community and government levels to increase awareness regarding traffic rules and consequences of reckless driving.


Subject(s)
Motorcycles , Tibial Fractures , Middle Aged , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tibial Fractures/epidemiology , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Accidents
12.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 20(2): 412-418, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The females in the reproductive age group are vulnerable to injuries and diseases. There is no reliable evidence of the pattern of deaths in reproductive age group females from Nepal. This study was conducted to explore the patterns of deaths of females of the reproductive age group in Nepal. METHODS: A multicentric quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among the 611 deceased females of age 15 to 49 years who had undergone medico-legal autopsy in major autopsy centers of the capital cities of seven provinces of Nepal in a duration of one year. The demographic, clinical, and causes of death data were retrieved from the records and analyzed. The intentional and unintentional causes were compared with the marital status, age groups, ethnicity, and deceased of rural and urban communities. RESULTS: Female reproductive age group deaths constituted 611 (20·64%) of the total autopsies. Suicide was the most common manner of death (413, 67·59%) followed by accident (121, 19·80%). The most common cause of suicide was hanging (258, 62·47%) followed by poisoning (149, 36·08%) whereas road traffic accident (72, 59·5%) was the commonest cause of accidental death. Intentional deaths were associated with higher risk to the females of younger age groups (p<0·001), ethnicity of the hilly region (p<0·001), and unmarried women (p=0·001). CONCLUSIONS: Suicide was the commonest manner of death among the autopsies of females of the reproductive age group in Nepal. Appropriate preventive strategies need to be developed to uplift the overall health, socioeconomic status, and general wellbeing of the females.


Subject(s)
Accidents , Suicide , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Autopsy , Cities , Nepal/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cause of Death
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554557

ABSTRACT

Despite the continuous progress of tunnel construction technology and safety management technology, road tunnel construction safety still faces many challenges in China, such as how to ensure the effective management and safety control of people and materials, how to ensure the implementation of technology and program implementation, risk assessment of construction site environmental information, etc. Exploring the causes of tunnel construction accidents and understanding the properties of the factors and their interrelationships can effectively control the sources of risk and contribute to the safety control of tunnel construction. Therefore, we have collected 30 formal accident investigation reports from the government safety supervision and management department from 2005 to 2021, including detailed investigation and accident analysis. Based on grounded theory, a qualitative research method to generalize experience through direct observation, abstraction, and analysis of data, we use Nvivo11 software to analyze reports and obtain 6 selective codes, 16 spindle codes, and 43 open codes. In addition, we construct a theoretical model of tunnel construction accident influencing factors, which passed the saturation test. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) model is used to analyze the influencing mechanism and interaction relationships of these factors. The two dimensions of influence degree and centrality are used to determine the critical influencing factors of tunnel construction accidents in mountainous areas. They are security awareness and professionalism. According to the cause degree, the influencing factors are divided into cause and result factors. Finally, the basis and suggestions for reducing construction accidents are presented.


Subject(s)
Accidents , Construction Industry , Humans , Grounded Theory , China , Safety Management/methods , Risk Assessment/methods
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554884

ABSTRACT

This paper summarizes the cause of the debris flow impact train accident by investigating the local geological condition, meteorological data and field investigation that happened in Guizhou, China on 4 June 2022. The result showed that the major reason is the continuous heavy rain in the surrounding area, which led to a small landslide at the upper right of the tunnel entrance. Besides, the construction of the Jianrong Expressway in the upper reaches increased the catchment area, which makes the water content of the upper soil increase while the shear strength decreases. Such large-scale catastrophic accidents significantly threaten the local environment and public safety. Therefore, it is urgent to pay special attention to the changes in geological conditions along the line, especially the adverse effects of construction, to improve the early risk warning and post-accident treatment ability.


Subject(s)
Accidents , Soil , China
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497676

ABSTRACT

To investigate the occurrence and development pattern of large-scale hazardous chemicals emergencies, a statistical analysis of 195 large and above accidents of hazardous chemicals in China during 2000-2020 was conducted. A general description of the characteristics of larger and above accidents based on statistical data was analyzed, and then the system risk of the hazardous chemical industry was calculated and evaluated by the entropy weight method and the TOPSIS method comprehensively. Results show that: (1) The geographical distribution of large and above hazardous chemical accidents (LAHCA) varies significantly; (2) The high-temperature season has high probabilities of having large and above accidents; (3) Human factors and management factors are the main causes of LAHCA; (4) During the period from 2000 to 2020, due to the rapid development of the chemical industry, the overall risk of accidents involving hazardous chemicals were upswing accompanied by volatility, and the risk of serious accidents remains high. The development history of safety regulations in China's hazardous chemical sector and the industry's projected course for future growth were then discussed. Finally, based on the findings of the aforementioned statistics and research, specific recommendations were provided for the safety management of the hazardous chemical sector. This study expects to provide a practical and effective reference for the construction of safety management as well as accident prevention in the hazardous chemical industry.


Subject(s)
Chemical Hazard Release , Hazardous Substances , Humans , Accidents , Accident Prevention , Chemical Industry , China/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498109

ABSTRACT

Unintentional injury is a significant cause of disease burden and death. There are known inequalities in the experience of unintentional injuries; however, to date only a limited body of re-search has explored the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and unintentional injury. Using a cross-sectional sample of the adult general public (n = 4783) in Wales (national) and England (Bolton Local Authority), we identify relationships between ACE exposure and experience of car crashes and burns requiring medical attention across the life course. Individuals who had experienced 4+ ACEs were at significantly increased odds of having ever had each outcome measured. Furthermore, compared to those with no ACEs, those with 4+ were around two times more likely to report having had multiple (i.e., 2+) car crashes and over four times more likely to report having had burns multiple times. Findings expand the evidence base for the association between ACEs and negative health consequences and emphasise the need for effective interventions to prevent ACEs and their impact on life course health and well-being. Such knowledge can also be used to develop a multifaceted approach to injury prevention.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Burns , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Accidents , Life Change Events , Burns/epidemiology
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22362, 2022 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572714

ABSTRACT

The development and manufacture of self-driving cars (SDCs) have triggered unprecedented challenges among car manufacturers and smart road operators to accelerate awareness and implementation of innovative technologies for cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM), especially those with a high level of automation and safety. Safety improvement is a pre-requisite to justify and unleashing a mass deployment of connected and driverless cars to reach the goal of zero-accident in 2050 set by the European Commission. Behind these motivations a well-justified and widely acceptable high-level safety target for SDCs is mandatory. The aim of this article is to contribute to the derivation of an harmonised high-level safety target for SDCs, starting from the safety requirements and the state of the art achieved by train and airplane operations. The novelty of our approach is to leverage the Common Safety Method-Design Targets (CSM-DT) already adopted and widely accepted by the railway community. According to this approach, the derived, justified and harmonised high-level design safety target for SDCs, defined as the average probability of a dangerous failure PFSDC per 1 h, should be 1 × 10-7/h. An example of PFSDC allocation to individual SDC safety functions, including position determination based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), is described using a fault tree. The proposed methodology can speed up the validation and certification process needed to authorise the SDCs, by capitalising the know-how and best practices in use since many years for the train management.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Safety , Autonomous Vehicles , Accidents , Automation
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114274, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356530

ABSTRACT

Inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from indoor solid fuel combustion poses a high health risk, and PAHs bound to particles with smaller sizes (e.g., PM1.0, aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) should be of particular concern since they can penetrate deep into pulmonary alveoli. However, PAHs bound to PM1.0 was less studied compared with PAHs in total suspended particles or PM2.5. In this study, multiple provincial field measurements were conducted to investigate 28 PAHs bound to PM1.0 in rural Chinese homes. Daily averaged PM1.0-PAH28 concentrations ranged from 27 ng/m3 to 3795 ng/m3 (median: 233 ng/m3) and from 10 ng/m3 to 2978 ng/m3 (median: 87 ng/m3) in indoor and outdoor air, respectively. Higher concentrations were found in northern China in winter due to increased solid fuels consumption for space heating. The ambient pollution was lower during the non-heating season in Eastern China, where clean energy was preferred. Highly toxic congeners were more abundant in indoor air compared with outdoor air. The results of source apportionment revealed that solid fuel combustion was the primary contributor to rural household PM1.0-PAHs, but other sources such as vehicles cannot be overlooked. The transition to cleaner energy can reduce the indoor PM1.0-PAH28 and BaPeq-28 concentrations by 87% and 98%, respectively, and more efficient reduction was observed for highly toxic congeners. The estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) based on PM1.0-PAH28 ranged from 4.6 × 10-5 to 3.4 × 10-2, far exceeding the acceptable level of 10-6. Over 60% of the ILCR could be attributed to inhalation exposure during childhood and adolescence.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Adolescent , Humans , Accidents , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , China
19.
Rofo ; 194(12): 1382-1383, 2022 12.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446369
20.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 34(1): 48, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is the primary treatment for advanced-stage heterotopic ossification (HO), with a high incidence of local recurrence reaching up to 50%. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and indomethacin are commonly used prophylactic strategies following surgery. The study aims to assess the safety and effectiveness of PORT in advanced-stage HO patients having motor vehicle accidents (MVA). METHODS: Medical records of patients having HO following MVA between 2006 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-nine patients with advanced disease (35 had hip HO and 4 had elbow HO) were included in the study. RESULTS: Excision of HO with joint preservation was performed for 82% of patients, while 18% had a joint replacement. Seven to 8 Gy radiation was given to all patients within 3 days postoperatively. A ninty seven percent of patients regained partially the movement range. The mean follow-up time was 74 months. Six patients had treatment failure, with only one having a recurrence of HO. The 8-year treatment failure-free rate (8-y TFFR) was 79.3±9%, and the 5-year HO failure-free rate (5y-HOFFR) was 97.2±3%. Acute side effects were experienced in 13% of patients but resolved without any consequences. Despite the relatively long follow-up time, we did not report any absolute infertility or secondary malignancies related to the radiation. The testicular mean calculated dose was 33±44 cGy, and the mean measured dose was 58±40 cGy. Of the 35 patients who received radiation to the pelvis, 26 were married, and all did not experience infertility post-treatment. CONCLUSION: PORT proved an effective and safe treatment for advanced-stage HO disease. The treatment failure is mainly related to surgical difficulties due to advanced disease. Treatment using a 3-dimensional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy is not associated with serious side effects like second malignancy or absolute infertility.


Subject(s)
Ossification, Heterotopic , Postoperative Complications , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Ossification, Heterotopic/etiology , Ossification, Heterotopic/radiotherapy , Ossification, Heterotopic/prevention & control , Motor Vehicles , Accidents
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